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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Article
  • Persian

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    نهادهای مالی و اعتباری از جمله بانک کشاورزی با محدودیت منابع سرمایه ­ای مواجه ‏اند و از این‏رو، برای حفظ توان مالی خود در راستای حمایت پایدار از تولیدات کشاورزی و تخصیص بهینه منابع مالی، باید بر اساس بازده سرمایه، فعالیت ­ها را اولویت­ بندی کنند. در همین راستا، مطالعه حاضر با هدف تحلیل بازده سرمایه در تولید محصولات کشاورزی مختلف استان فارس انجام گرفت. بدین منظور، تابع تولید برای محصولات منتخب زیربخش­های زراعت، باغبانی و دام به­ طور مجزا و مشتمل بر سرمایه فیزیکی و انسانی با استفاده از داده ­های پنل دوره 93-1384 برآورد شد. یافته های مطالعه نشان داد که در مورد تمامی محصولات منتخب، سرمایه فیزیکی دارای بالاترین نقش در تولید است؛ اما از نظر بازده سرمایه، میان محصولات تفاوت وجود دارد. به ‏طور نسبی، بازده سرمایه فیزیکی در تولید محصولات باغی و دامی بالاتر از محصولات زراعی ارزیابی شد. این بازدهی برای محصولات زراعی اغلب در دامنه 8/0-45/0 در نوسان بوده، در حالی که برای محصولات دامی این دامنه 9/0-5/0 و برای اغلب محصولات باغی بالاتر از 7/0 است. افزون بر تفکیک سرمایه فیزیکی و انسانی، استفاده از شاخص اقلیمی دی ‏مارتن به‏ عنوان متغیر کنترل، نوآوری مطالعه حاضر در برآورد معادلات است. بر این اساس، نوعی از تقسیم ­بندی جغرافیایی نیز قابل استنباط است، بدین معنی که به اعتبار ضریب شاخص اقلیمی، مناطق دارای بارندگی بیشتر و به­ طور تلویحی، مناطق شمالی و غربی استان از موقعیت بهتری در تولید برخوردارند، که می­توان در توزیع منابع اعتباری تولید بدان توجه داشت. پیشنهاد می ­شود که بر اساس بازده سرمایه، از میان محصولات دامی به گوشت قرمز و از میان محصولات باغی به مرکبات، گردو، هلو، سیب، پسته و زردآلو اولویت بالاتری داده شود، در حالی که در مورد محصولات زراعی، به‏طور مشخص، اولویت با سرمایه گذاری روی ماشین ­آلات است.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ اقتصاد کشاورزی و توس...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ اقتصاد کشاورزی و توس...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    حمل‏ونقل یک رشتة خدماتی است که از تولید تا مصرف تمامی کالاها و خدمات نقش و سهم به‏سزایی دارد. این مسئله برای کالاهای فسادپذیر همانند گوشت مرغ و همچنین، در شهرهای بزرگ اهمیت دوچندان پیدا می‌کند. در همین راستا، مطالعه حاضر با هدف طراحی الگوی مسیریابی ناوگان حمل‏ ونقل ناهمگن در حالت چندقرارگاهی و با در نظر گرفتن محدودیت پنجره زمانی در قالب الگوهای برنامه‌ریزی خطی عدد صحیح مختلط انجام شد. بدین منظور، با توجه به تقاضای روزانه گوشت مرغ در بازارهای روز سازمان میادین میوه و تره‌بار شهرداری تهران، الگوی بهینه حمل‌ونقل، طراحی و تحلیل شد. در همین راستا، الگوی مسیریابی برای سه روز مختلف مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که مدل طراحی‏شده می‌تواند هزینه‌های حمل ‏ونقل را به میزان قابل توجهی کاهش دهد، به‏گونه‏ای که برای سه روز مورد آزمون، هزینه‌ها به‏ترتیب 5/29، 9/27 و 5/32 درصد (معادل 16698، 14596 و 14116 هزار ریال) نسبت به شرایط حمل‏ونقل موجود کاهش می‌یابد. بر این اساس، پیشنهاد می‌شود که سازمان میادین میوه و تره‌بار شهرداری تهران، با به‏ کارگیری سامانه ثبت تقاضا و توزیع و همچنین، استفاده از مدل طراحی ‏شده برای توزیع گوشت مرغ، به کاهش هزینه‌های حمل‌ونقل بپردازد.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ اقتصاد کشاورزی و توس...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ اقتصاد کشاورزی و توس...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Mohammad Bayranvand; Moslem Akbarinia; Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani; Javad Gharechahi; +1 Authors

    Humus systems are the largest part of organic carbon stock and play an important role in forest ecological processes. Elevation by influencing on the biological and non-biological properties of the forest ecosystem is an important factor for assessing the changes in the trees and distribution of humus systems. In this study, the morphological and chemical characteristics of humus forms in three altitudinal levels (500, 1000, and 1500 m.a.s.l.) and three transects which were 1000 meters apart were investigated. In each transect, 3 plots with 400 m2 area were sampled, and in each plot 5 profiles of humus (in total of 135 profiles) were examined in the central Hyrcanian forest. Humus and samples were taken and transferred to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The results showed that the presence of Iron wood (Scientific name??) and ash (Scientific name??) trees mull humus forms and soil nitrogen stock decreased by elevation increasing. Hornbeam (Scientific name??) and maple (Scientific name??) trees, organic layers' nitrogen, mesomull and leptoamphi humus forms demonstrated strong correlation with the 1000 m elevation. The number of beech trees, carbon in soil and organic layers, organic layers' thickness and humus Amphi forms showed a strong relationship with each other as well as with elevation increasing. The effect of elevation on the composition of the trees coverage is accompanied by the variability in morphology and chemical characteristics of humus forms, so that by identifying tree species in every altitude, we can recognize the quantitative and qualitative properties of humus and soil.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ مجله جنگل ایرانarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ مجله جنگل ایرانarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrii Zavhorodnii; Mykola Ohiienko; Yana Biletska; Svitlana Bondarenko; +2 Authors

    The article is devoted to the research process of digitalization of vegetable development management as an important component of food security of the Black Sea region. Vegetables are necessary for the normal functioning of the human body, provide it with the necessary vitamins and trace elements. one of the conditions of good health. The annual volume of vegetables in food kits for the main social and demographic groups of the population of Ukraine is calculated. The dynamics of vegetable production of vegetable crops in the Black Sea region of Ukraine is studied. In addition, information and communication (digital) technologies in the agar sector are considered. It is proved that the digitization of agribusiness significantly saves the amount of materials and other resources, and execution time and production are optimized. Due to the systematization and grouping of data, the costs of document circulation are reduced, the process of accumulation and use of information is stimulated, the production and economic indicators of agricultural enterprises are improved, which will help increase their competitiveness in the long run.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Informati...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Informati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ali Zaroodi; Mohammad Sadeq Nasrollahi;

    The “Internet of Things” is a technology that can widely transform the culture of society, so its being imported to the country and its further expansion in the near future because of bringing extraordinary economic benefits necessitates the identification of its cultural outcome and impacts. This research has benefited from interview to collect data and thematic analysis method .Through interviews with the experts, a "pattern of the positive (constructive) cultural impacts of the IoT" and a "pattern of the negative (destructive) cultural impacts of the IoT" have been obtained. According to these two patterns, the massive cultural impacts of the IoT are in these domains: “religious beliefs, values and rites”, “systems of cultural beliefs and values”, “systems of conduct and behavioral styles”, “oral expressions”, “behavioral expressions”, “human communication”, “family institution”, “cultural heritage and cultural diversity, art and media”, “social organizational forms and structures ”, “education system”, “decision-making structures”, “structure and forms of political organization and governance”, “resource utilization systems”, and “systems of knowledge, wisdom, native skills and capacities”. The IoT is changing these domain.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Religion & Commu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Religion & Commu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: A.M. Ahmadvand; H. Nasiri; F. NasrollahiNia; A. Mahjoubian;

    Background and Objective:Nowadays, information technology, has affected the production, distribution, and use of knowledge-based processes. Among other things, the Internet of Things as a network of objects connected to each other can bring new capacities in all fields. The aim of the present research is to examine the opportunities and challenges that the Internet of Things can have in relation to the higher education system. The concept of connecting devices and objects to each other is a new development on the Internet; anything anywhere can connect to the Internet and be "smart". Connected devices can communicate with each other and share information, then this information can be processed and lead to making decisions. This concept is called the "Internet of Things (IOT)." The wide range of applications of IOT has enabled educational environments at all levels to benefit from it. In terms of the role of IoT in higher education, this domain includes energy storage, monitoring the health and safety of students, optimizing the physical envriornment of the campus and classrooms, as well as enabling students to attend remotely. The main point that seems to differentiate IOT from other past technologies is that older methods cover a limited range of areas of higher education. With the use of various IOT tools, all these tools and facilities can be made intelligent and use for educational, research and service providing purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role and function of the IOT in the processes of knowledge production, transmission and application in higher education system. Methods: For this purpose, the systematic approach and the Chelkland SSM method were used. By refer to several internal and external scientific information databases, 25 related articles were identified. Then, without any sampling, all of these articles were studied by the researchers and their contents are divided into four categories: the introduction of the internet of things, the role of the internet of things in educational functions, the opportunities of the internet of things for higher education and the challenges of the internet of things in higher education, and they were organized in the dimensions of the input, process and output of the higher education system. Findings: The findings of the research indicate that the internet of things, by providing advanced information services, provides a flexible and measurable system for academic community that can be used to personalize training and reinforcement of learning, better management of educational processes, and more effective logistic management etc. The use of the internet of things will also challenge higher education, which violation of privacy, security issues, and rising costs are some of these challenges. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt was made to introduce IOT and its opportunities and challenges for higher education system by reviewing the related literature. IOT is a technology that covers a wide range of applications in the university, from classrooms to laboratories, colleges and parking lots, and more. Within the system, IOT can be used to support the higher education chain and facilitate communication between input, output, and the process, and facilitate monitoring, control, and management of the university's system. In other words, the IOT operates communication center for the university system. In the dimension of higher education and university process, the IOT can be effective in student interaction and participation, evaluation, mental and physical health, classroom management, satisfaction, attendance, time saving as well as faculty management, energy saving, information searching, improving security in the university environment, providing real learning, personal growth and development for both the university instructors and the students, and so on. Of course, as mentioned, the use of this technology has cetain challenges. These challenges include security and privacy risks, high costs, connection to the Internet, scalability, self-organization and acceptance, etce. But despite this, experts generally see the future of this technology as more practical and important than it is now. ===================================================================================== COPYRIGHTS ©2020 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers. =====================================================================================

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fanāvarī-i āmūzisharrow_drop_down
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    Fanāvarī-i āmūzish
    Article . 2019
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      Fanāvarī-i āmūzish
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nourallah Tazikeh; Abbas Biyabani; Alireza Saberi; Ali Rahemi Karizaki; +1 Authors

    Leaves are one of the most important organs of plants where food (starch and sugar) are produced. These materials are used to maintain plant tissues, growth and production of new leaves. In order to evaluate the commercial fall growing cultivars of sugar beet, their potential to produce new leaves, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at Varsan Agricultural Research Station (Gorgan), during 2018 growing season. The first factor consisted of 6 commercial sugar beet cultivars (5 foreign cultivars and Sharif, domestic) and the second factor of two times at toppings in May (middle stage of growth) and June (final stage of growth). Sugar beet root yield and some important quality characteristics were measured after harvesting. The results showed that the commercial cultivars showed significant differences in terms of yield and percentage of sugar (grade) at the one percent level of probability. Highest root yield was obtained from Jrakavas and lowest from veles cultivar. The highest percentage of sugar was due to veles and lowest to Rosagold cultivars. Topping reduced borb quantity and quality of sugar beet root, while May and June toppings reduced quality and yield of sugar beet root by 8.8% and 10.2% respectively as compared to the control treatment. The interaction effect of cultivar × topping was significant in all studied traits except root dry matter.

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    Authors: A. Gholizadeh; M. Ghaffari; K. Payghamzadeh; Sh. Kia;

    Sunflower is an important crop that its oil has high nutritional and economic value. In this study, genotype-trait biplot method was used to study interrelationships between different traits and new sunflower hybrids. For this study, 24 new sunflower hybrids along with Golsa cultivar were evaluated in a simple lattice design with two replications in Gorgan Agriculture Research Station, Gorgan, north of Iran, during 2020 cropping season. The results showed that thousand seed weight, head diameter, seed number per head, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width and petiole length had a positive correlation with seed yield. Also, a negative correlation was observed between seed yield and phonological traits and plant height. Therefore, it can be concluded that improving seed yield may simultaneously lead to improve in the early maturity and dwarfism. Based on biplot polygon view, the genotypes No. 5 and 19 had superior characteristics in terms of seed yield and its attributes. Also, based on a hypothetical ideal genotype biplot, the genotypes No. 3, 2 and 10 outranked the other genotypes in terms of all examined traits. A majority of the examined traits had high discriminating ability and were able to show differences between genotypes. The stem diameter was the nearest trait to an ideal trait and, therefore, it has the highest discriminating ability and representativeness.

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    Authors: K. Fathi; M Jourgholami; S.A. Hosseini; Sh. Khalighi Sigaroodi;

    Using machinery wood extraction in steep slope in the Hyrcanian forests can increase the soil bulk density and soil compaction, decrease the infiltration water into soil of skid trail, which results in an increase runoff and soil loss and has detrimental effects on soil nutrients loss and sedimentation into the downstream infrastructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal distance of water diversion in skid trails to mitigate sthe ediment and runoff in compartments 315 and 316 of Gorazbon district in Kheyrud forest. In this study, 9 plots with length of 20, 30 and 40 m and slope gradient of 15, 25 and 35% were established along the longitudinal slope of the skid trails. A tank was installed to collect runoff at the outlet of each plot. Also, runoff in each rain event as well as soil bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, and soil texture of the plots were measured. The results revealed that the optimal distance among water diversions in the skid trails to suppress the runoff was 30 m and the most appropriate slope for mitigating runoff on the skid trails was up to 25% slope gradient. Runoff had a significant relationship with plot length. The results showed that the amount of rainfall was significantly correlated with runoff at different lengths and slopes. Therefore, it should be avoided to plan the skid trails on steep slopes for mitigating runoff, and some engineering measures such as the installing water diversion structures (by length of 30 m and slope gradient of 20-25%) to decrease the runoff should be done.

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    در این مقاله موانع صادرات مبلمان از ایران شناسایی شده و با استفاده از متدولوژی ساختاری تفسیری رتبه بندی شده اند. به منظور شناسایی موانع صادرات ابتدا پیشینه پژوهش بررسی و لیستی از موانع استخراج شد. سپس با تعدادی از خبرگان در حوزه تولید و فروش مبلمان مصاحبه هایِ عمیق و نیمه ساخت یافته برگزار شد. از ادغامِ لیست حاصل از مطالعاتِ نظری و بررسیِ میدانی، مهمترین موانع در عرضه مبلمان به کشورهایِ خارجی تعیین شدند. در مرحله بعد، رابطه موانع با یکدیگر دو به دو توسطِ خبرگان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و ماتریسِ مقایسات زوجی تکمیل شد. به پشتوانه مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری و مدل مفهومی توسعه داده شده سطح هر یک از موانع مشخص شدند. نتایجِ مدلسازی نشان دهنده آن است که روابطِ ضعیفِ سیاسی ایران با سایرِ کشورها پیشران اصلی در صادراتِ ضعیف این نوع از محصولات است. در سطحِ دوم نوساناتِ نرخِ ارز، دور بودن از مبادیِ تأمین کننده مواد اولیه و روابط ضعیف با سفارت خانه ها نیز جزوِ موانعِ ریشه ای هستند.

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    نهادهای مالی و اعتباری از جمله بانک کشاورزی با محدودیت منابع سرمایه ­ای مواجه ‏اند و از این‏رو، برای حفظ توان مالی خود در راستای حمایت پایدار از تولیدات کشاورزی و تخصیص بهینه منابع مالی، باید بر اساس بازده سرمایه، فعالیت ­ها را اولویت­ بندی کنند. در همین راستا، مطالعه حاضر با هدف تحلیل بازده سرمایه در تولید محصولات کشاورزی مختلف استان فارس انجام گرفت. بدین منظور، تابع تولید برای محصولات منتخب زیربخش­های زراعت، باغبانی و دام به­ طور مجزا و مشتمل بر سرمایه فیزیکی و انسانی با استفاده از داده ­های پنل دوره 93-1384 برآورد شد. یافته های مطالعه نشان داد که در مورد تمامی محصولات منتخب، سرمایه فیزیکی دارای بالاترین نقش در تولید است؛ اما از نظر بازده سرمایه، میان محصولات تفاوت وجود دارد. به ‏طور نسبی، بازده سرمایه فیزیکی در تولید محصولات باغی و دامی بالاتر از محصولات زراعی ارزیابی شد. این بازدهی برای محصولات زراعی اغلب در دامنه 8/0-45/0 در نوسان بوده، در حالی که برای محصولات دامی این دامنه 9/0-5/0 و برای اغلب محصولات باغی بالاتر از 7/0 است. افزون بر تفکیک سرمایه فیزیکی و انسانی، استفاده از شاخص اقلیمی دی ‏مارتن به‏ عنوان متغیر کنترل، نوآوری مطالعه حاضر در برآورد معادلات است. بر این اساس، نوعی از تقسیم ­بندی جغرافیایی نیز قابل استنباط است، بدین معنی که به اعتبار ضریب شاخص اقلیمی، مناطق دارای بارندگی بیشتر و به­ طور تلویحی، مناطق شمالی و غربی استان از موقعیت بهتری در تولید برخوردارند، که می­توان در توزیع منابع اعتباری تولید بدان توجه داشت. پیشنهاد می ­شود که بر اساس بازده سرمایه، از میان محصولات دامی به گوشت قرمز و از میان محصولات باغی به مرکبات، گردو، هلو، سیب، پسته و زردآلو اولویت بالاتری داده شود، در حالی که در مورد محصولات زراعی، به‏طور مشخص، اولویت با سرمایه گذاری روی ماشین ­آلات است.

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    حمل‏ونقل یک رشتة خدماتی است که از تولید تا مصرف تمامی کالاها و خدمات نقش و سهم به‏سزایی دارد. این مسئله برای کالاهای فسادپذیر همانند گوشت مرغ و همچنین، در شهرهای بزرگ اهمیت دوچندان پیدا می‌کند. در همین راستا، مطالعه حاضر با هدف طراحی الگوی مسیریابی ناوگان حمل‏ ونقل ناهمگن در حالت چندقرارگاهی و با در نظر گرفتن محدودیت پنجره زمانی در قالب الگوهای برنامه‌ریزی خطی عدد صحیح مختلط انجام شد. بدین منظور، با توجه به تقاضای روزانه گوشت مرغ در بازارهای روز سازمان میادین میوه و تره‌بار شهرداری تهران، الگوی بهینه حمل‌ونقل، طراحی و تحلیل شد. در همین راستا، الگوی مسیریابی برای سه روز مختلف مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که مدل طراحی‏شده می‌تواند هزینه‌های حمل ‏ونقل را به میزان قابل توجهی کاهش دهد، به‏گونه‏ای که برای سه روز مورد آزمون، هزینه‌ها به‏ترتیب 5/29، 9/27 و 5/32 درصد (معادل 16698، 14596 و 14116 هزار ریال) نسبت به شرایط حمل‏ونقل موجود کاهش می‌یابد. بر این اساس، پیشنهاد می‌شود که سازمان میادین میوه و تره‌بار شهرداری تهران، با به‏ کارگیری سامانه ثبت تقاضا و توزیع و همچنین، استفاده از مدل طراحی ‏شده برای توزیع گوشت مرغ، به کاهش هزینه‌های حمل‌ونقل بپردازد.

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    Authors: Mohammad Bayranvand; Moslem Akbarinia; Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani; Javad Gharechahi; +1 Authors

    Humus systems are the largest part of organic carbon stock and play an important role in forest ecological processes. Elevation by influencing on the biological and non-biological properties of the forest ecosystem is an important factor for assessing the changes in the trees and distribution of humus systems. In this study, the morphological and chemical characteristics of humus forms in three altitudinal levels (500, 1000, and 1500 m.a.s.l.) and three transects which were 1000 meters apart were investigated. In each transect, 3 plots with 400 m2 area were sampled, and in each plot 5 profiles of humus (in total of 135 profiles) were examined in the central Hyrcanian forest. Humus and samples were taken and transferred to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The results showed that the presence of Iron wood (Scientific name??) and ash (Scientific name??) trees mull humus forms and soil nitrogen stock decreased by elevation increasing. Hornbeam (Scientific name??) and maple (Scientific name??) trees, organic layers' nitrogen, mesomull and leptoamphi humus forms demonstrated strong correlation with the 1000 m elevation. The number of beech trees, carbon in soil and organic layers, organic layers' thickness and humus Amphi forms showed a strong relationship with each other as well as with elevation increasing. The effect of elevation on the composition of the trees coverage is accompanied by the variability in morphology and chemical characteristics of humus forms, so that by identifying tree species in every altitude, we can recognize the quantitative and qualitative properties of humus and soil.

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    Authors: Andrii Zavhorodnii; Mykola Ohiienko; Yana Biletska; Svitlana Bondarenko; +2 Authors

    The article is devoted to the research process of digitalization of vegetable development management as an important component of food security of the Black Sea region. Vegetables are necessary for the normal functioning of the human body, provide it with the necessary vitamins and trace elements. one of the conditions of good health. The annual volume of vegetables in food kits for the main social and demographic groups of the population of Ukraine is calculated. The dynamics of vegetable production of vegetable crops in the Black Sea region of Ukraine is studied. In addition, information and communication (digital) technologies in the agar sector are considered. It is proved that the digitization of agribusiness significantly saves the amount of materials and other resources, and execution time and production are optimized. Due to the systematization and grouping of data, the costs of document circulation are reduced, the process of accumulation and use of information is stimulated, the production and economic indicators of agricultural enterprises are improved, which will help increase their competitiveness in the long run.

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    Authors: Ali Zaroodi; Mohammad Sadeq Nasrollahi;

    The “Internet of Things” is a technology that can widely transform the culture of society, so its being imported to the country and its further expansion in the near future because of bringing extraordinary economic benefits necessitates the identification of its cultural outcome and impacts. This research has benefited from interview to collect data and thematic analysis method .Through interviews with the experts, a "pattern of the positive (constructive) cultural impacts of the IoT" and a "pattern of the negative (destructive) cultural impacts of the IoT" have been obtained. According to these two patterns, the massive cultural impacts of the IoT are in these domains: “religious beliefs, values and rites”, “systems of cultural beliefs and values”, “systems of conduct and behavioral styles”, “oral expressions”, “behavioral expressions”, “human communication”, “family institution”, “cultural heritage and cultural diversity, art and media”, “social organizational forms and structures ”, “education system”, “decision-making structures”, “structure and forms of political organization and governance”, “resource utilization systems”, and “systems of knowledge, wisdom, native skills and capacities”. The IoT is changing these domain.

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    Authors: A.M. Ahmadvand; H. Nasiri; F. NasrollahiNia; A. Mahjoubian;

    Background and Objective:Nowadays, information technology, has affected the production, distribution, and use of knowledge-based processes. Among other things, the Internet of Things as a network of objects connected to each other can bring new capacities in all fields. The aim of the present research is to examine the opportunities and challenges that the Internet of Things can have in relation to the higher education system. The concept of connecting devices and objects to each other is a new development on the Internet; anything anywhere can connect to the Internet and be "smart". Connected devices can communicate with each other and share information, then this information can be processed and lead to making decisions. This concept is called the "Internet of Things (IOT)." The wide range of applications of IOT has enabled educational environments at all levels to benefit from it. In terms of the role of IoT in higher education, this domain includes energy storage, monitoring the health and safety of students, optimizing the physical envriornment of the campus and classrooms, as well as enabling students to attend remotely. The main point that seems to differentiate IOT from other past technologies is that older methods cover a limited range of areas of higher education. With the use of various IOT tools, all these tools and facilities can be made intelligent and use for educational, research and service providing purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role and function of the IOT in the processes of knowledge production, transmission and application in higher education system. Methods: For this purpose, the systematic approach and the Chelkland SSM method were used. By refer to several internal and external scientific information databases, 25 related articles were identified. Then, without any sampling, all of these articles were studied by the researchers and their contents are divided into four categories: the introduction of the internet of things, the role of the internet of things in educational functions, the opportunities of the internet of things for higher education and the challenges of the internet of things in higher education, and they were organized in the dimensions of the input, process and output of the higher education system. Findings: The findings of the research indicate that the internet of things, by providing advanced information services, provides a flexible and measurable system for academic community that can be used to personalize training and reinforcement of learning, better management of educational processes, and more effective logistic management etc. The use of the internet of things will also challenge higher education, which violation of privacy, security issues, and rising costs are some of these challenges. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt was made to introduce IOT and its opportunities and challenges for higher education system by reviewing the related literature. IOT is a technology that covers a wide range of applications in the university, from classrooms to laboratories, colleges and parking lots, and more. Within the system, IOT can be used to support the higher education chain and facilitate communication between input, output, and the process, and facilitate monitoring, control, and management of the university's system. In other words, the IOT operates communication center for the university system. In the dimension of higher education and university process, the IOT can be effective in student interaction and participation, evaluation, mental and physical health, classroom management, satisfaction, attendance, time saving as well as faculty management, energy saving, information searching, improving security in the university environment, providing real learning, personal growth and development for both the university instructors and the students, and so on. Of course, as mentioned, the use of this technology has cetain challenges. These challenges include security and privacy risks, high costs, connection to the Internet, scalability, self-organization and acceptance, etce. But despite this, experts generally see the future of this technology as more practical and important than it is now. ===================================================================================== COPYRIGHTS ©2020 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers. =====================================================================================

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    Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Nourallah Tazikeh; Abbas Biyabani; Alireza Saberi; Ali Rahemi Karizaki; +1 Authors

    Leaves are one of the most important organs of plants where food (starch and sugar) are produced. These materials are used to maintain plant tissues, growth and production of new leaves. In order to evaluate the commercial fall growing cultivars of sugar beet, their potential to produce new leaves, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at Varsan Agricultural Research Station (Gorgan), during 2018 growing season. The first factor consisted of 6 commercial sugar beet cultivars (5 foreign cultivars and Sharif, domestic) and the second factor of two times at toppings in May (middle stage of growth) and June (final stage of growth). Sugar beet root yield and some important quality characteristics were measured after harvesting. The results showed that the commercial cultivars showed significant differences in terms of yield and percentage of sugar (grade) at the one percent level of probability. Highest root yield was obtained from Jrakavas and lowest from veles cultivar. The highest percentage of sugar was due to veles and lowest to Rosagold cultivars. Topping reduced borb quantity and quality of sugar beet root, while May and June toppings reduced quality and yield of sugar beet root by 8.8% and 10.2% respectively as compared to the control treatment. The interaction effect of cultivar × topping was significant in all studied traits except root dry matter.

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    Authors: A. Gholizadeh; M. Ghaffari; K. Payghamzadeh; Sh. Kia;

    Sunflower is an important crop that its oil has high nutritional and economic value. In this study, genotype-trait biplot method was used to study interrelationships between different traits and new sunflower hybrids. For this study, 24 new sunflower hybrids along with Golsa cultivar were evaluated in a simple lattice design with two replications in Gorgan Agriculture Research Station, Gorgan, north of Iran, during 2020 cropping season. The results showed that thousand seed weight, head diameter, seed number per head, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width and petiole length had a positive correlation with seed yield. Also, a negative correlation was observed between seed yield and phonological traits and plant height. Therefore, it can be concluded that improving seed yield may simultaneously lead to improve in the early maturity and dwarfism. Based on biplot polygon view, the genotypes No. 5 and 19 had superior characteristics in terms of seed yield and its attributes. Also, based on a hypothetical ideal genotype biplot, the genotypes No. 3, 2 and 10 outranked the other genotypes in terms of all examined traits. A majority of the examined traits had high discriminating ability and were able to show differences between genotypes. The stem diameter was the nearest trait to an ideal trait and, therefore, it has the highest discriminating ability and representativeness.

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    Authors: K. Fathi; M Jourgholami; S.A. Hosseini; Sh. Khalighi Sigaroodi;

    Using machinery wood extraction in steep slope in the Hyrcanian forests can increase the soil bulk density and soil compaction, decrease the infiltration water into soil of skid trail, which results in an increase runoff and soil loss and has detrimental effects on soil nutrients loss and sedimentation into the downstream infrastructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal distance of water diversion in skid trails to mitigate sthe ediment and runoff in compartments 315 and 316 of Gorazbon district in Kheyrud forest. In this study, 9 plots with length of 20, 30 and 40 m and slope gradient of 15, 25 and 35% were established along the longitudinal slope of the skid trails. A tank was installed to collect runoff at the outlet of each plot. Also, runoff in each rain event as well as soil bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, and soil texture of the plots were measured. The results revealed that the optimal distance among water diversions in the skid trails to suppress the runoff was 30 m and the most appropriate slope for mitigating runoff on the skid trails was up to 25% slope gradient. Runoff had a significant relationship with plot length. The results showed that the amount of rainfall was significantly correlated with runoff at different lengths and slopes. Therefore, it should be avoided to plan the skid trails on steep slopes for mitigating runoff, and some engineering measures such as the installing water diversion structures (by length of 30 m and slope gradient of 20-25%) to decrease the runoff should be done.

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    در این مقاله موانع صادرات مبلمان از ایران شناسایی شده و با استفاده از متدولوژی ساختاری تفسیری رتبه بندی شده اند. به منظور شناسایی موانع صادرات ابتدا پیشینه پژوهش بررسی و لیستی از موانع استخراج شد. سپس با تعدادی از خبرگان در حوزه تولید و فروش مبلمان مصاحبه هایِ عمیق و نیمه ساخت یافته برگزار شد. از ادغامِ لیست حاصل از مطالعاتِ نظری و بررسیِ میدانی، مهمترین موانع در عرضه مبلمان به کشورهایِ خارجی تعیین شدند. در مرحله بعد، رابطه موانع با یکدیگر دو به دو توسطِ خبرگان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و ماتریسِ مقایسات زوجی تکمیل شد. به پشتوانه مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری و مدل مفهومی توسعه داده شده سطح هر یک از موانع مشخص شدند. نتایجِ مدلسازی نشان دهنده آن است که روابطِ ضعیفِ سیاسی ایران با سایرِ کشورها پیشران اصلی در صادراتِ ضعیف این نوع از محصولات است. در سطحِ دوم نوساناتِ نرخِ ارز، دور بودن از مبادیِ تأمین کننده مواد اولیه و روابط ضعیف با سفارت خانه ها نیز جزوِ موانعِ ریشه ای هستند.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/