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887 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Article
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Camille Abadie; Fabienne Maignan; Marine Remaud; Kukka-Maaria Kohonen; +8 Authors

    Gross primary production (GPP) by boreal forests is highly sensitive to environmental changes. However, GPP simulated by land surface models (LSMs) remains highly uncertain due to the lack of direct photosynthesis observations at large scales. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has emerged as a promising proxy to improve the representation of GPP in LSMs. Because COS is absorbed by vegetation following the same diffusion pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis and not emitted back to the atmosphere, incorporating a mechanistic representation of vegetation COS uptake in LSMs allows using COS observations to refine GPP representation. Here, we perform ecosystem COS flux and GPP data assimilations to constrain the COS- and GPP-related parameters in the ORCHIDEE LSM for boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (BorENF). Assimilating ecosystem COS fluxes at Hyytiälä forest increases the simulated net ecosystem COS uptake by 14%. This increase largely results from changes in the internal conductance to COS, highlighting the need to improve the representation of COS internal diffusion and consumption. Moreover, joint assimilation of ecosystem COS flux and GPP at Hyytiälä improves the simulated latent heat flux, contrary to the GPP-only data assimilation, which fails to do so. Finally, we scaled this assimilation framework up to the boreal region and find that the joint assimilation of COS at Hyytiälä and GPP fluxes at 10 BorENF sites increases the modeled vegetation COS uptake up to 18%, but not GPP. Therefore, this study encourages the use of COS flux observations to inform GPP and latent heat flux representations in LSMs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 128 (7) ISSN:2169-8961 ISSN:0148-0227 ISSN:2169-8953

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Research@WUR
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cyriac S. Mvolo; Ahmed Koubaa; Jean Beaulieu; Alain Cloutier;

    So far, few studies have considered the impacts of seed sources transfer on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) wood quality, although wood quality attributes (WQA) in general and the differences between juvenile and mature wood in particular will determine suitability of the produced wood for end-uses. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of selecting superior jack pine provenances based on selected WQA. Twenty-two provenances of jack pine were planted in 1964 in Petawawa Research Forest, ON, Canada, as part of a provenance test. The plantation location offers conditions close to optimum for jack pine growth. Transition ages at breast height, determined with tracheids length, were computed with a piecewise model. Measurements at age 42 from seed were subjected to analyses of variance. Radial variations from pith to bark, as well as trends with seed sources origin of the selected WQA were also considered. A ranking was made based on a selection index built with four WQA. The provenances matured between 8 and 14 years, corresponding to 17%&ndash 48% of juvenile wood proportion. Significant differences among provenances were observed for ring width, ring density, tracheid length, and diameter at breast height but not for tracheid diameter, tree height, transition age, and juvenile wood proportion. None of the provenances ranked the best with all the selected WQA, but it was possible to find provenances exhibiting both high growth rate and good wood quality. A surprising result of this study was that tracheid diameter initially enlarged for 8 years, before declining toward the bark. It is possible to select provenances for a higher growth rate and for good physical (i.e., related to wood density) and anatomical (i.e., related to tracheid dimensions) wood quality attributes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestsarrow_drop_down
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    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Forests
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Forests
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestsarrow_drop_down
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Forests
      Article
      License: CC BY
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      Forests
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Piotr Tompalski; Joanne C. White; Nicholas C. Coops; Michael A. Wulder; +4 Authors

    Abstract Quality information on forest resources is fundamental for sustainable forest management. Manual aerial photointerpretation is used as a cost-effective source of data for forest inventories; however, the process of photointerpretation is inherently subjective and is often undertaken by multiple photointerpreters for a given forest management area. In contrast, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data enable characterization of forest structure in a systematic fashion with quantifiable levels of accuracy and precision that often exceed required targets and standards. However, the gains associated with the use of new technologies for forest inventory are difficult to measure because the quality of existing photointepreted inventories have rarely been quantified. Using ALS data as reference, the objective of this study was to quantify the precision of photointerpreted estimates of forest stand height and canopy cover (CC). We examined forest inventories from three study sites in three different forest regions of Canada. Each of the study sites was located within a different provincial jurisdiction with unique photointerpretation standards and forest ecosystems. Stand-level estimates of forest height and cover were compared to reference estimates generated from the ALS data. Overall, our results indicated that precision was greater for photointerpreted estimates of height, with a relative standard deviation ranging from 22 per cent to 29 per cent among our three sites, compared to estimates for CC, with precision ranging from 28 per cent to 59 per cent. While the relationship between photointerpreted estimates of height and ALS estimates of height were generally linear and consistent for all study sites, relationships for CC were non-linear. We found that precision for both stand height and cover varied by dominant species, inventory stand structure, age, and ALS canopy complexity, and that in the majority of cases, the differences between the photointerpreted estimate and the ALS estimate were statistically significant. It is also noted that the variability in photointerpretation precision as a function of the aforementioned factors was not consistent among our three study sites, indicating that site-specific forest conditions and photointerpretation procedures influence the precision of photointerpreted estimates. The influence of local forest conditions and interpretation procedures are therefore important considerations when seeking to quantify the potential relative gains in precision, which may be afforded by technologies such as ALS for forest inventory programs. Moreover, approaches to improve consistency in photointerpreted estimates of cover would be useful for operational inventory programs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestry An Internat...arrow_drop_down
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    Forestry An International Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestry An Internat...arrow_drop_down
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      Forestry An International Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Auriel M. V. Fournier; Amanda Shave; Jason Fischer; Joe Siegrist; +7 Authors
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    Journal of Field Ornithology
    Article
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    Journal of Field Ornithology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Journal of Field Ornithology
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      Journal of Field Ornithology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lukas R. Jarron; Nicholas C. Coops; William H. MacKenzie; Pamela Dykstra;

    AbstractCoarse woody debris (CWD) is a meaningful contributor to forest carbon cycles, wildlife habitat, and biodiversity and can influence wildfire behavior. Using airborne laser scanning (ALS), we map CWD across a range of natural forest stand types in north-central British Columbia, Canada, providing forest managers with spatially detailed information on the presence and volume of ground-level woody biomass. We describe a novel methodology that isolates CWD returns from large diameter logs (>30cm) using a refined grounding algorithm, a mixture of height and pulse-based filters and linear pattern recognition, to transform ALS returns into measurable, vectorized shapes. We then assess the accuracy of CWD detection at the individual log level and predict CWD volume at the plot level. We detected 64% of CWD logs and 79% of CWD volume within our plots. Increased elevation of CWD significantly aided detection (P = 0.04), whereas advanced stages of decay hindered detection (P = 0.04). ALS-predicted CWD volume totals were compared against field-measured CWD and displayed a strong correlation (R = 0.81), allowing us to expand the methodology to map CWD over a larger region. The expanded CWD volume map compared ALS volume predictions between stands and suggests greater volume in stands with older and more heterogeneous stand structure.

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    Forest Science
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forest Sciencearrow_drop_down
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      Forest Science
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Olivier R. van Lier; Joan E. Luther; Joanne C. White; Richard A. Fournier; +1 Authors

    Abstract In this study, we assessed the effect of airborne laser scanning (ALS) scan angle on point cloud metrics and the estimation of forest attributes in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) dominated forests of western Newfoundland, Canada. We collected calibration data from ground plot locations representing varying scan angles from two flight lines: within 4° of nadir in one flight line, and either 11–20° from nadir (low scan angle plots: L), or 21–30° from nadir (high scan angle plots: H) in an adjacent flight line. We computed three sets of ALS point cloud metrics for each ground plot using ALS data from: individual flight lines (near-nadir and off-nadir) and data from all available flight lines (up to 4) combined (aggregated, as commonly used in an operational inventory context). We generated three sets of models for each of the L and H plots using the ALS metric sets, and applied the models to independent validation data. We analysed the effect of scan angle on both the ALS metrics and performance statistics for area-based models generated using the L and H datasets. Our results demonstrate that off-nadir scan angles significantly affected (P < 0.05) specific metrics from both L (i.e. coefficient of variation (COVAR)) and H (i.e. maximum height, 95th percentile of height, mean height) plots, although the effects were trivial (mean absolute differences were ≤ 0.01 for COVAR and < 0.3 m for the height metrics). Forest attribute predictions using these and other metrics were also significantly affected (P < 0.05), namely gross merchantable volume (GMV), total volume (TVOL) and aboveground tree biomass (AGB) from L; and Lorey’s mean height (HGT), mean diameter at breast height (DBH), and GMV from H. We further demonstrated that combining ALS data from all available flight lines significantly increased errors for the predictions of HGT, GMV, and TVOL using L, and significantly reduced errors of HGT using H when compared to errors resulting from models developed with near-nadir data. While the differences in prediction errors were significant, they were small, with differences in mean absolute prediction errors all <1.3 per cent. Based on our results, we concluded that the effects of large scan angles, up to 30° off-nadir, on area-based forest attribute predictions were minimal in this study, which used ALS metrics calculated from ALS returns with a height above ground >2 m for balsam fir-dominated forests. This result may provide for operational efficiencies in implementing enhanced forest inventories in this particular forest environment.

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    Forestry An International Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Forestry An International Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Naveed, Faizaan; Hu, Baoxin; Wang, Jianguo; Hall, G. Brent;

    In this study, multispectral Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were utilized to improve delineation of individual tree crowns (ITC) as an important step in individual tree analysis. A framework to integrate spectral and height information for ITC delineation was proposed, and the multi-scale algorithm for treetop detection developed in one of our previous studies was improved. In addition, an advanced region-based segmentation method that used detected treetops as seeds was proposed for segmentation of individual crowns based on their spectral, contextual, and height information. The proposed methods were validated with data acquired using Teledyne Optech&rsquo s Titan LiDAR sensor. The sensor was operated at three wavelengths (1550 nm, 1064 nm, and 532 nm) within a study area located in the city of Toronto, ON, Canada. The proposed method achieved 80% accuracy, compared with manual delineation of crowns, considering both matched and partially matched crowns, which was 12% higher than that obtained by the earlier marker-controlled watershed (MCW) segmentation technique. Furthermore, the results showed that the integration of spectral and height information improved ITC delineation using either the proposed framework or MCW segmentation, compared with using either spectral or height information individually.

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    Sensors
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Kalacska, Margaret; Løke, Trond; Schläpfer, Daniel; +3 Authors

    The recent development of small form-factor (<6 kg), full range (400–2500 nm) pushbroom hyperspectral imaging systems (HSI) for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) poses a new range of opportunities for passive remote sensing applications. The flexible deployment of these UAV-HSI systems have the potential to expand the data acquisition window to acceptable (though non-ideal) atmospheric conditions. This is an important consideration for time-sensitive applications (e.g. phenology) in areas with persistent cloud cover. Since the majority of UAV studies have focused on applications with ideal illumination conditions (e.g. minimal or non-cloud cover), little is known to what extent UAV-HSI data are affected by changes in illumination conditions due to variable cloud cover. In this study, we acquired UAV pushbroom HSI (400–2500 nm) over three consecutive days with various illumination conditions (i.e. cloud cover), which were complemented with downwelling irradiance data to characterize illumination conditions and in-situ and laboratory reference panel measurements across a range of reflectivity (i.e. 2%, 10%, 18% and 50%) used to evaluate reflectance products. Using these data we address four fundamental aspects for UAV-HSI acquired under various conditions ranging from high (624.6 ± 16.63 W·m2) to low (2.5 ± 0.9 W·m2) direct irradiance: atmospheric compensation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spectral vegetation indices and endmembers extraction. For instance, two atmospheric compensation methods were applied, a radiative transfer model suitable for high direct irradiance, and an Empirical Line Model (ELM) for diffuse irradiance conditions. SNR results for two distinctive vegetation classes (i.e. tree canopy vs herbaceous vegetation) reveal wavelength dependent attenuation by cloud cover, with higher SNR under high direct irradiance for canopy vegetation. Spectral vegetation index (SVIs) results revealed high variability and index dependent effects. For example, NDVI had significant differences (p < 0.05) across illumination conditions, while NDWI appeared insensitive at the canopy level. Finally, often neglected diffuse illumination conditions may be beneficial for revealing spectral features in vegetation that are obscured by the predominantly non-Lambertian reflectance encountered under high direct illumination. To our knowledge, our study is the first to use a full range pushbroom UAV sensor (400–2500 nm) for assessing illumination effects on the aforementioned variables. Our findings pave the way for understanding the advantages and limitations of ultra-high spatial resolution full range high fidelity UAV-HSI for ecological and other applications.

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    NRC Publications Archive
    Other literature type . 2021
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Other literature type . 2021
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      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Julie E. Hernández-Salmerón; Tanya Irani; Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb;

    Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) is becoming a standard measure for bacterial species delimitation. However, its calculation can take orders of magnitude longer than similarity estimates based on sampling of short nucleotides, compiled into so-called sketches. These estimates are widely used. However, their variable correlation with ANI has suggested that they might not be as accurate. For a where-the-rubber-meets-the-road assessment, we compared two sketching programs, mash and dashing, against ANI, in delimiting species among Esterobacterales genomes. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis found Area Under the Curve (AUC) values of 0.99, almost perfect species discrimination for all three measures. Subsampling to avoid over-represented species reduced these AUC values to 0.92, still highly accurate. Focused tests with ten genera, each represented by more than three species, also showed almost identical results for all methods. Shigella showed the lowest AUC values (0.68), followed by Citrobacter (0.80). All other genera, Dickeya, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pectobacterium, Proteus, Providencia and Yersinia, produced AUC values above 0.90. The species delimitation thresholds varied, with species distance ranges in a few genera overlapping the genus ranges of other genera. Mash was able to separate the E. coli + Shigella complex into 25 apparent phylogroups, four of them corresponding, roughly, to the four Shigella species represented in the data. Our results suggest that fast estimates of genome similarity are as good as ANI for species delimitation. Therefore, these estimates might suffice for covering the role of genomic similarity in bacterial taxonomy, and should increase confidence in their use for efficient bacterial identification and clustering, from epidemiological to genome-based detection of potential contaminants in farming and industry settings.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
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    Authors: Rebecca A. Kozak; Aaron L. Cecala; Brian D. Corneil;

    ABSTRACTTo reach towards a seen object, visual information has to be transformed into motor commands. Visual information such as the object’s colour, shape, and size is processed and integrated within numerous brain areas, then ultimately relayed to the motor periphery. In some instances we must react as fast as possible. These fast visuomotor transformations, and their underlying neurological substrates, are poorly understood in humans as they have lacked a reliable biomarker. Stimulus-locked responses (SLRs) are short latency (<100 ms) bursts of electromyographic (EMG) activity representing the first wave of muscle recruitment influenced by visual stimulus presentation. SLRs provide a quantifiable output of rapid visuomotor transformations, but SLRs have not been consistently observed in all subjects in past studies. Here we describe a new, behavioural paradigm featuring the sudden emergence of a moving target below an obstacle that consistently evokes robust SLRs. Human participants generated visually-guided reaches toward or away from the emerging target using a robotic manipulandum while surface electrodes recorded EMG activity from the pectoralis major muscle. In comparison to previous studies that investigated SLRs using static stimuli, the SLRs evoked with this emerging target paradigm were larger, evolved earlier, and were present in all participants. Reach reaction times (RTs) were also expedited in the emerging target paradigm. This paradigm affords numerous opportunities for modification that could permit systematic study of the impact of various sensory, cognitive, and motor manipulations on fast visuomotor responses. Overall, our results demonstrate that an emerging target paradigm is capable of consistently and robustly evoking activity within a fast visuomotor system.SUMMARYWe present a new behavioual paradigm that elicits robust fast visuomotor responses on human upper limb muscles during visually guided reaches.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Journal of Visualized Experiments
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Visualized Experiments
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      Journal of Visualized Experiments
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Camille Abadie; Fabienne Maignan; Marine Remaud; Kukka-Maaria Kohonen; +8 Authors

    Gross primary production (GPP) by boreal forests is highly sensitive to environmental changes. However, GPP simulated by land surface models (LSMs) remains highly uncertain due to the lack of direct photosynthesis observations at large scales. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has emerged as a promising proxy to improve the representation of GPP in LSMs. Because COS is absorbed by vegetation following the same diffusion pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis and not emitted back to the atmosphere, incorporating a mechanistic representation of vegetation COS uptake in LSMs allows using COS observations to refine GPP representation. Here, we perform ecosystem COS flux and GPP data assimilations to constrain the COS- and GPP-related parameters in the ORCHIDEE LSM for boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (BorENF). Assimilating ecosystem COS fluxes at Hyytiälä forest increases the simulated net ecosystem COS uptake by 14%. This increase largely results from changes in the internal conductance to COS, highlighting the need to improve the representation of COS internal diffusion and consumption. Moreover, joint assimilation of ecosystem COS flux and GPP at Hyytiälä improves the simulated latent heat flux, contrary to the GPP-only data assimilation, which fails to do so. Finally, we scaled this assimilation framework up to the boreal region and find that the joint assimilation of COS at Hyytiälä and GPP fluxes at 10 BorENF sites increases the modeled vegetation COS uptake up to 18%, but not GPP. Therefore, this study encourages the use of COS flux observations to inform GPP and latent heat flux representations in LSMs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 128 (7) ISSN:2169-8961 ISSN:0148-0227 ISSN:2169-8953

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
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      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2023
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Cyriac S. Mvolo; Ahmed Koubaa; Jean Beaulieu; Alain Cloutier;

    So far, few studies have considered the impacts of seed sources transfer on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) wood quality, although wood quality attributes (WQA) in general and the differences between juvenile and mature wood in particular will determine suitability of the produced wood for end-uses. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of selecting superior jack pine provenances based on selected WQA. Twenty-two provenances of jack pine were planted in 1964 in Petawawa Research Forest, ON, Canada, as part of a provenance test. The plantation location offers conditions close to optimum for jack pine growth. Transition ages at breast height, determined with tracheids length, were computed with a piecewise model. Measurements at age 42 from seed were subjected to analyses of variance. Radial variations from pith to bark, as well as trends with seed sources origin of the selected WQA were also considered. A ranking was made based on a selection index built with four WQA. The provenances matured between 8 and 14 years, corresponding to 17%&ndash 48% of juvenile wood proportion. Significant differences among provenances were observed for ring width, ring density, tracheid length, and diameter at breast height but not for tracheid diameter, tree height, transition age, and juvenile wood proportion. None of the provenances ranked the best with all the selected WQA, but it was possible to find provenances exhibiting both high growth rate and good wood quality. A surprising result of this study was that tracheid diameter initially enlarged for 8 years, before declining toward the bark. It is possible to select provenances for a higher growth rate and for good physical (i.e., related to wood density) and anatomical (i.e., related to tracheid dimensions) wood quality attributes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestsarrow_drop_down
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    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Forests
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Forests
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Forests
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Forests
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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