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201,049 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Article

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schweier J.; Magagnotti N.; Labelle E.R.; Athanassiadis D.;

    Purpose of Review One of the challenges of forest operations is to consider the consequences of different management strategies and to estimate the economic, environmental and social performance of different processes, products, or services. From the methods available to quantify the impact of alternative forest management, we selected the method of Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA), an iterative process that includes the analysis of the societal, environmental, and economic sustainability pillars and offers a wider assessment framework, which is useful for stakeholders and policy makers. The purpose of this review is to identify the state of the art and trends of SIA in forest operations. Recent Findings There are few studies including all pillars of sustainability and most of the studies consider different aspects of environmental or economic impacts. It is important to determine the system boundaries and select the appropriate indicators in order to have a comprehensive SIA. Different harvesting technologies and their deployment can influence costs, productivity, environment, and safety risk. Some indicators, such as cost and productivity, can vary between countries and different scenarios. Summary Efficient machines, appropriate technical systems, innovative products, and up-to date training of operators can have a positive impact on sustainability. Economic factors can change at a rapid pace, and new machines can play a positive role in forest operations (e.g., lower fuel consumption, higher level of safety and comfort for operators). The inclusion of indicators measuring the extra value of the forest should be considered. We suggest adopting sensitivity analysis during the assessment of key processes to observe the effect on the hot spots.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MediaTUMarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MediaTUM
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: MediaTUM
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Current Forestry Reports
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Current Forestry Reports
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MediaTUMarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MediaTUM
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: MediaTUM
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Current Forestry Reports
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Current Forestry Reports
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sh. Fareghi; Gh. Saeidi; A. Mirlohi;

    Regarding the insufficient water resources, developing of cultivars with high tolerance to water deficit can be very effective to optimize water consumption. To identify maize hybrids with higher tolerance to water deficit, 52 single cross hybrids were field evaluated according to a randomized complete block design with three replications in each irrigation regime. The hybrids were produced through crossing of 13 inbred lines from CIMMYT germplasms with four testers of A679, K166B, K18 and MO17. Two check hybrid varieties (KSC704 and KSC705) were included for comparison. Two irrigation regimes including a normal and a deficit irrigation based on 65% water requirement of plants were applied during two growing seasons of 2014 and 2015 at the Research Station of the Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah Province. The drought tolerance and sensitive indices were calculated based on grain yield (t/ha) of hybrids at two irrigation regimes. The results of analysis of variance showed significant differences among the hybrids for grain yield and all the indices. The seed yield of hybrids in normal irrigation condition varied from 8.7 to 15.2 t/ha. This range was 4.9 to 10 t/ha in deficit irrigation condition. The cluster analysis classified the hybrids in three distinctive groups. It was recognized that hybrids number 51, 18, 45, 48, 21, 27, 23, 19, 20, 28, 38, 14 and 26 were superior than the others in terms of water deficit tolerance and grain yield. The PCA analysis showed that hybrids number 48, 45, 18 and 51 with high yield potential can be introduced as more promising ones for maize production in normal irrigation condition. However, hybrids 19, 23, 27, 25, 21, and particularly 9 were recognized more suitable for maize production in water deficit condition.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Tulīd va Farāvarī-i ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Tulīd va Farāvarī-i ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Seguini, L.; Bussay, A.; Baruth, B.;

    Each month the JRC issues the MARS Bulletin detailing the agro-meteorological and expert analysis underpinning the assessment of European crops’ status and yield forecasts. In this context a resume is provided to give an overview on the geographical distribution of eventual crop damages. The MARS Bulletin provides such information in a set of synthetic maps (Areas of Concern), produced in each Bulletin, depicting extreme weather events and their impact on crops that have occurred in Europe during the analysis period. The present article describes the mix of quantitative and qualitative datasets and methodologies that drive the delineation of the Areas of Concern (AOC) maps and evaluates their capability to resemble crop production losses. The quantitative analysis is based on the Mars Crop Yield Forecasting System (MCYFS) indicators coming from meteorological models, crop growth models and remote sensing data. Indicators are considered in absolute and relative terms and in their relation with standard statistical metrics. The outcome of the quantitative analysis is a set of potential Areas of Concern. Experts’ judgment is thus necessary to discriminate potential results through a qualitative analysis focused on: past occurred events and climatologic conditions; agro-management practices; regional agricultural systems peculiarity and their historical resilience and resistance to adverse conditions. In this article the experts’ judgment of the team of current MARS analysts, as used in the AOC analysis, is translated into a warning index. Such index condenses the specific contribution to the final production of each development stage and the adverse agrometeorological events occurred, as depicted into the AOC maps. The warning index is computed at country scale for the past five agricultural seasons, from season 2011-2012 to season 2015-2016. Two crops are considered, winter wheat and grain maize as proxy for winter and summer crop groups. The warning indexes calculated are then compared to the national production in a qualitative way. To support the analysis few study cases are presented. The findings of this article highlight that the events depicted in the AOC maps are informative about production losses and specific knowledge is needed to full understand the information carried. Highlights • The comparison of the issued warnings through AOC analysis shows some good agreements with production anomalies. • AOC analysis properly assessed most of the winter wheat production anomalies. • AOC analysis could provide warning relevant at regional scale only. • AOC analysis tends to underestimate unfavorable conditions at harvest. • This paper represents the first attempt to formalize the tacit knowledge within the group of MARS analysts.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agricultural Systemsarrow_drop_down
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    Agricultural Systems
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Agricultural Systems
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Agricultural Systems
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Agricultural Systems
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Andrea, Marcovigi; Luigi, Ciampalini; Piergiuseppe, Perazzini; Patrizio, Caldora; +2 Authors

    Combined anteversion in total hip arthroplasty influences both dislocation risk and range of motion. One of its components, stem version (SV), could be dictated by many factors, from native femoral anatomy to stem geometry and surgeon's choice. In the present multicenter study, robotic technology was used to assess the influence of native femoral version on final SV and combined anteversion using a straight, uncemented stem.Three hundred sixty-two patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty were enrolled from 3 different orthopedic centers from 2012 and 2016. All patients underwent computed tomography planning with measurement of femoral neck version (FNV) and intraoperative measurement of stem version (SV), acetabular component version (AV), and combined version (CV) with robotic instrumentation.Mean FNV was 5.0° ± 9.6°, and SV was 6.4° ± 9.7°. The average difference between FNV and SV was 1.6° ± 9.8°. A moderate correlation was found between FNV and SV (R = 0.48, P.001). SV was between 5° and 20° in 174 patients (48%). Mean CV was 28.2° ± 7.9°. A strong correlation was found between SV and CV (R = 0.89, P.001). A significant difference in SV was found between the 3 centers (P .001). CV was25° in 109 patients (30.1%). Relative risk of CV25° was 8.6 times greater with SV 5° (P.001).With the use of an uncemented, single-wedge, straight stem, SV is highly variable. Despite being moderately correlated with native FNV, SV can be partially influenced by the surgeon. A low SV could be hardly corrected, bringing high risk of low CV.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS UNIMORE - Archi...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Journal of Arthroplasty
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS UNIMORE - Archi...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Journal of Arthroplasty
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Rubén Martínez-Barbáchano;

    Resumen: En las últimas décadas la utilización de imágenes satelitales se ha incrementado al punto de constituir una herramienta fundamental en el monitoreo de procesos ambientales y de cambio global. En tal sentido, la importancia histórica de la familia de satélites Landsat marca un hito en 1985 con la introducción del sensor Tematic Mapper, que ofrecía la posibilidad a los usuarios de adquirir información de una base histórica de más de 25 años de imágenes térmicas a 120 metros de resolución espacial. El presente trabajo se presenta como una metodología de obtención de temperatura superficial a partir de una serie temporal de imágenes Landsat-5 TM adquiridas en el año 2001 sobre el Pacífico norte de Costa Rica. Se presentan los distintos algoritmos que pueden utilizarse para la estimación de temperatura superficial a partir de datos Landsat con el método monocanal por la función inversa de Planck. Aspectos como la transmisividad media de la atmósfera, la radiancia ascendente y descendente, o la emisividad de la superficie terrestre fueron tomados en cuenta, previamente al cálculo de la temperatura de brillo de las imágenes. Abstract: In recent decades, the use of satellite imagery has increased to the point of being a fundamental tool in the monitoring of environmental processes and global change. In this sense, the historical importance of the Landsat family of satellites marks a milestone in 1985 with the introduction of the Tematic Mapper sensor, which offered users the possibility of acquiring information from an over 25-year historical database of thermal imagery at 120 meters of spatial resolution. This paper is presented as a methodology for obtaining surface temperature data from a time series of Landsat-5 TM images acquired in 2001 on the North Pacific Region of Costa Rica. The different algorithms that can be used for the estimation of surface temperature from Landsat data via the single-channel method by way of the inverse Planck function are presented. Prior to the calculation of the brightness temperature of the images, aspects such as average atmospheric transmissivity, ascending and descending radiance or earth´s surface emissivity were taken into account.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Geográfica d...arrow_drop_down
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    Revista Geográfica de América Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Revista Geográfica de América Central
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      Revista Geográfica de América Central
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Revista Geográfica de América Central
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    Authors: Kaitlin M. Gold; Philip A. Townsend; Adam Chlus; Ittai Herrmann; +3 Authors

    In-vivo foliar spectroscopy, also known as contact hyperspectral reflectance, enables rapid and non-destructive characterization of plant physiological status. This can be used to assess pathogen impact on plant condition both prior to and after visual symptoms appear. Challenging this capacity is the fact that dead tissue yields relatively consistent changes in leaf optical properties, negatively impacting our ability to distinguish causal pathogen identity. Here, we used in-situ spectroscopy to detect and differentiate Phytophthora infestans (late blight) and Alternaria solani (early blight) on potato foliage over the course of disease development and explored non-destructive characterization of contrasting disease physiology. Phytophthora infestans, a hemibiotrophic pathogen, undergoes an obligate latent period of two−seven days before disease symptoms appear. In contrast, A. solani, a necrotrophic pathogen, causes symptoms to appear almost immediately when environmental conditions are conducive. We found that respective patterns of spectral change can be related to these differences in underlying disease physiology and their contrasting pathogen lifestyles. Hyperspectral measurements could distinguish both P. infestans-infected and A. solani-infected plants with greater than 80% accuracy two−four days before visible symptoms appeared. Individual disease development stages for each pathogen could be differentiated from respective controls with 89−95% accuracy. Notably, we could distinguish latent P. infestans infection from both latent and symptomatic A. solani infection with greater than 75% accuracy. Spectral features important for late blight detection shifted over the course of infection, whereas spectral features important for early blight detection remained consistent, reflecting their different respective pathogen biologies. Shortwave infrared wavelengths were important for differentiation between healthy and diseased, and between pathogen infections, both pre- and post-symptomatically. This proof-of-concept work supports the use of spectroscopic systems as precision agriculture tools for rapid and early disease detection and differentiation tools, and highlights the importance of careful consideration of underlying pathogen biology and disease physiology for crop disease remote sensing.

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    Remote Sensing
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Remote Sensing
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    Remote Sensing
    Article . 2020
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      Remote Sensing
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Remote Sensing
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      Remote Sensing
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Céspedes, Jonnathan; Sylvester, Janelle M.; Pérez-Marulanda, Lisset; Paz-Garcia, Paula; +4 Authors

    As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded, questions arose as to whether the pandemic would amplify or pacify tropical deforestation. Early reports warned of increased deforestation rates; however, these studies were limited to a few months in 2020 or to selected regions. To better understand how the pandemic influenced tropical deforestation globally, this study used historical deforestation data (2004-2019) from the Terra-i pantropical land cover change monitoring system to project expected deforestation trends for 2020, which were used to determine whether observed deforestation deviated from expected trajectories after the first COVID-19 cases were reported. Time series analyses were conducted at the regional level for the Americas, Africa and Asia and at the country level for Brazil, Colombia, Peru, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Indonesia. Our results suggest that the pandemic did not alter the course of deforestation trends in some countries (e.g., Brazil, Indonesia), while it did in others (e.g., Peru). We posit the importance of monitoring the long-term effects of the pandemic on deforestation trends as countries prioritize economic recovery in the aftermath of the pandemic.The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11676-022-01561-7.

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    Journal of Forestry Research
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Forestry Research
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    Authors: Sholpan Saimova; Gulsim Makenova; Aizhan Skakova; Aitolkyn Moldagaliyeva; +3 Authors

    This paper analyses analysis current and future dependence of agriculture, industry, oil and gas sector on water supply in Kazakhstan under varying socioeconomic and climate change scenarios. To conduct the scenarios analysis, a multiple linear model was used; the model has been widely used to examine complex water systems in the water resource planning sector all around the world. The paper results show that by 2050 total water demand under normal weather conditions could increase from 20188.62 m3 in 2015 to 23010.18 m3 under sustainable use (SU) scenario, to 26794.85 m3 under current trends (CT) baseline scenario, and up to 30220.46 m3 under the more resource intensive (MRI) scenario, however, the future water demand may be affected by environmental changes. The largest change (relative to the CT scenario) in total demand of 32413.18 m3 would result from the combined effect of the temperature increase and decrease in precipitation. More than 55% of this change would be in agriculture sector. Through exploring water scenarios, this paper could assist Kazakhstani resource managers and policymakers in designing more effective eco-environment management plans and strategies in the face of climate change.Keywords: resources use; sustainable development; economic growth, KazakhstanJEL Classifications: Q43, O47DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.9604

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    International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Chu He; Shenglin Li; Dehui Xiong; Peizhang Fang; +1 Authors

    Semantic segmentation is an important field for automatic processing of remote sensing image data. Existing algorithms based on Convolution Neural Network (CNN) have made rapid progress, especially the Fully Convolution Network (FCN). However, problems still exist when directly inputting remote sensing images to FCN because the segmentation result of FCN is not fine enough, and it lacks guidance for prior knowledge. To obtain more accurate segmentation results, this paper introduces edge information as prior knowledge into FCN to revise the segmentation results. Specifically, the Edge-FCN network is proposed in this paper, which uses the edge information detected by Holistically Nested Edge Detection (HED) network to correct the FCN segmentation results. The experiment results on ESAR dataset and GID dataset demonstrate the validity of Edge-FCN.

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    Remote Sensing
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Schweier J.; Magagnotti N.; Labelle E.R.; Athanassiadis D.;

    Purpose of Review One of the challenges of forest operations is to consider the consequences of different management strategies and to estimate the economic, environmental and social performance of different processes, products, or services. From the methods available to quantify the impact of alternative forest management, we selected the method of Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA), an iterative process that includes the analysis of the societal, environmental, and economic sustainability pillars and offers a wider assessment framework, which is useful for stakeholders and policy makers. The purpose of this review is to identify the state of the art and trends of SIA in forest operations. Recent Findings There are few studies including all pillars of sustainability and most of the studies consider different aspects of environmental or economic impacts. It is important to determine the system boundaries and select the appropriate indicators in order to have a comprehensive SIA. Different harvesting technologies and their deployment can influence costs, productivity, environment, and safety risk. Some indicators, such as cost and productivity, can vary between countries and different scenarios. Summary Efficient machines, appropriate technical systems, innovative products, and up-to date training of operators can have a positive impact on sustainability. Economic factors can change at a rapid pace, and new machines can play a positive role in forest operations (e.g., lower fuel consumption, higher level of safety and comfort for operators). The inclusion of indicators measuring the extra value of the forest should be considered. We suggest adopting sensitivity analysis during the assessment of key processes to observe the effect on the hot spots.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MediaTUMarrow_drop_down
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    MediaTUM
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: MediaTUM
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    Current Forestry Reports
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Current Forestry Reports
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MediaTUMarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MediaTUM
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: MediaTUM
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Current Forestry Reports
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Current Forestry Reports
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sh. Fareghi; Gh. Saeidi; A. Mirlohi;

    Regarding the insufficient water resources, developing of cultivars with high tolerance to water deficit can be very effective to optimize water consumption. To identify maize hybrids with higher tolerance to water deficit, 52 single cross hybrids were field evaluated according to a randomized complete block design with three replications in each irrigation regime. The hybrids were produced through crossing of 13 inbred lines from CIMMYT germplasms with four testers of A679, K166B, K18 and MO17. Two check hybrid varieties (KSC704 and KSC705) were included for comparison. Two irrigation regimes including a normal and a deficit irrigation based on 65% water requirement of plants were applied during two growing seasons of 2014 and 2015 at the Research Station of the Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah Province. The drought tolerance and sensitive indices were calculated based on grain yield (t/ha) of hybrids at two irrigation regimes. The results of analysis of variance showed significant differences among the hybrids for grain yield and all the indices. The seed yield of hybrids in normal irrigation condition varied from 8.7 to 15.2 t/ha. This range was 4.9 to 10 t/ha in deficit irrigation condition. The cluster analysis classified the hybrids in three distinctive groups. It was recognized that hybrids number 51, 18, 45, 48, 21, 27, 23, 19, 20, 28, 38, 14 and 26 were superior than the others in terms of water deficit tolerance and grain yield. The PCA analysis showed that hybrids number 48, 45, 18 and 51 with high yield potential can be introduced as more promising ones for maize production in normal irrigation condition. However, hybrids 19, 23, 27, 25, 21, and particularly 9 were recognized more suitable for maize production in water deficit condition.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Tulīd va Farāvarī-i ...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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