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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Bélanger; Nicolas Bélanger; Alexandre Collin; Alexandre Collin; +4 Authors

    Conifers and deciduous trees greatly differ in regard to their phylogenetics and physiology as well as their influence on soil microclimate and chemical properties. Soil respiration (Rs) in forests can therefore differ depending on tree species composition, and assessments of the variation in Rs in various forest types will lead to a more thorough understanding of the carbon cycle and more robust long-term simulations of soil carbon. We measured Rs in 2019 and 2020 in stands of various species composition in a sugar maple forest near the northern range limit of temperate deciduous forests in Quebec, Canada. Seasonal variations in soil temperature had the largest influence on Rs, but conditions created by the stands also exerted a significant effect. Relative to the typical sugar maple-yellow birch forest (hardwoods), Rs in stands with >20% of basal area from balsam fir (mixedwoods) was increased by 21%. Whilst, when American beech contributed >20% of litterfall mass (hardwood-beech stands), Rs was decreased by 11 and 36% relative to hardwoods and mixedwoods, respectively. As a whole, Rs was significantly higher in mixedwoods than in other forest types, and Rs was significantly higher in hardwoods than in hardwood-beech stands. Sugar maple and American beech at the study site are near their northern range limit, whereas balsam fir is near its southern limit. Rs in mixedwoods was therefore higher than in hardwoods and hardwood-beech stands due to high root activity in the presence of fir, despite colder and drier soils. We estimated that root respiration in mixedwoods was more than threefold that in hardwoods and hardwood-beech stands. The lower Rs in hardwood-beech stands compared to hardwoods points to the lower soil temperature as well as the poor quality of beech litter (low decomposability) as indicated by a generally lower heterotrophic respiration. Other than soil temperature, regression models identified mixedwoods, soil water potential and Mg2+ activity in the soil solution as important predictor variables of Rs with about 90% of its variation explained. Our study shows the benefits of combining forest-specific properties to climatic data for more robust predictions of Rs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJ-Articlesarrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
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    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
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    Authors: Côté, Isabelle M.; Darling, Emily S.; Malpica-Cruz, Luis; Smith, Nicola S.; +3 Authors

    As a result of being hunted, animals often alter their behaviour in ways that make future encounters with predators less likely. When hunting is carried out for conservation, for example to control invasive species, these behavioural changes can inadvertently impede the success of future efforts. We examined the effects of repeated culling by spearing on the behaviour of invasive predatory lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Bahamian coral reef patches. We compared the extent of concealment and activity levels of lionfish at dawn and midday on 16 coral reef patches off Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Eight of the patches had been subjected to regular daytime removals of lionfish by spearing for two years. We also estimated the distance at which lionfish became alert to slowly approaching divers on culled and unculled reef patches. Lionfish on culled reefs were less active and hid deeper within the reef during the day than lionfish on patches where no culling had occurred. There were no differences at dawn when removals do not take place. Lionfish on culled reefs also adopted an alert posture at a greater distance from divers than lionfish on unculled reefs. More crepuscular activity likely leads to greater encounter rates by lionfish with more native fish species because the abundance of reef fish outside of shelters typically peaks at dawn and dusk. Hiding deeper within the reef could also make remaining lionfish less likely to be encountered and more difficult to catch by spearfishers during culling efforts. Shifts in the behaviour of hunted invasive animals might be common and they have implications both for the impact of invasive species and for the design and success of invasive control programs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    PLoS ONE
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Bélanger; Nicolas Bélanger; Alexandre Collin; Alexandre Collin; +4 Authors

    Conifers and deciduous trees greatly differ in regard to their phylogenetics and physiology as well as their influence on soil microclimate and chemical properties. Soil respiration (Rs) in forests can therefore differ depending on tree species composition, and assessments of the variation in Rs in various forest types will lead to a more thorough understanding of the carbon cycle and more robust long-term simulations of soil carbon. We measured Rs in 2019 and 2020 in stands of various species composition in a sugar maple forest near the northern range limit of temperate deciduous forests in Quebec, Canada. Seasonal variations in soil temperature had the largest influence on Rs, but conditions created by the stands also exerted a significant effect. Relative to the typical sugar maple-yellow birch forest (hardwoods), Rs in stands with >20% of basal area from balsam fir (mixedwoods) was increased by 21%. Whilst, when American beech contributed >20% of litterfall mass (hardwood-beech stands), Rs was decreased by 11 and 36% relative to hardwoods and mixedwoods, respectively. As a whole, Rs was significantly higher in mixedwoods than in other forest types, and Rs was significantly higher in hardwoods than in hardwood-beech stands. Sugar maple and American beech at the study site are near their northern range limit, whereas balsam fir is near its southern limit. Rs in mixedwoods was therefore higher than in hardwoods and hardwood-beech stands due to high root activity in the presence of fir, despite colder and drier soils. We estimated that root respiration in mixedwoods was more than threefold that in hardwoods and hardwood-beech stands. The lower Rs in hardwood-beech stands compared to hardwoods points to the lower soil temperature as well as the poor quality of beech litter (low decomposability) as indicated by a generally lower heterotrophic respiration. Other than soil temperature, regression models identified mixedwoods, soil water potential and Mg2+ activity in the soil solution as important predictor variables of Rs with about 90% of its variation explained. Our study shows the benefits of combining forest-specific properties to climatic data for more robust predictions of Rs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJ-Articlesarrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
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    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
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    Authors: Côté, Isabelle M.; Darling, Emily S.; Malpica-Cruz, Luis; Smith, Nicola S.; +3 Authors

    As a result of being hunted, animals often alter their behaviour in ways that make future encounters with predators less likely. When hunting is carried out for conservation, for example to control invasive species, these behavioural changes can inadvertently impede the success of future efforts. We examined the effects of repeated culling by spearing on the behaviour of invasive predatory lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Bahamian coral reef patches. We compared the extent of concealment and activity levels of lionfish at dawn and midday on 16 coral reef patches off Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Eight of the patches had been subjected to regular daytime removals of lionfish by spearing for two years. We also estimated the distance at which lionfish became alert to slowly approaching divers on culled and unculled reef patches. Lionfish on culled reefs were less active and hid deeper within the reef during the day than lionfish on patches where no culling had occurred. There were no differences at dawn when removals do not take place. Lionfish on culled reefs also adopted an alert posture at a greater distance from divers than lionfish on unculled reefs. More crepuscular activity likely leads to greater encounter rates by lionfish with more native fish species because the abundance of reef fish outside of shelters typically peaks at dawn and dusk. Hiding deeper within the reef could also make remaining lionfish less likely to be encountered and more difficult to catch by spearfishers during culling efforts. Shifts in the behaviour of hunted invasive animals might be common and they have implications both for the impact of invasive species and for the design and success of invasive control programs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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