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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Academy of Finland
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maria-Viola Martikainen; H. Kääriö; Anne M. Karvonen; P. C. Schröder; +8 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundEarly life farm exposures have been shown to decrease the risk of allergic diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) may mediate asthma‐protective effect of farm exposures as they play an important role in the development of immunity and tolerance. Our aim was to investigate whether the numbers and phenotypes of circulating DCs at age 6 are associated with farming, asthma, and atopy in a selected sample of French and Finnish children from the PASTURE study.MethodsWe studied 82 farm and 86 nonfarm children with and without asthma. Using flow cytometry, BDCA1+ CD11c+ myeloid DC1s (mDC1), BDCA3+high mDC2s and BDCA2+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were identified and expressions of CD86, immunoglobulin‐like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 were analyzed. Questionnaires were used to assess prenatal and lifetime patterns of farm exposures and to define asthma. Atopic sensitization was defined by specific IgE measurements.ResultsThe percentage of mDC2 cells was lower in farm children (0.033 ± 0.001) than in nonfarm children (0.042 ± 0.001; P = 0.008). Similar associations were found between mDC2 percentage and prenatal (P = 0.02) and lifetime exposure to farm milk (P = 0.03) and stables (P = 0.003), but these associations were not independent from farming. Asthma was positively associated with ILT4 + mDCs (P = 0.04) and negatively with CD86 + pDCs (P = 0.048) but only in nonfarm children.ConclusionsInverse association between farm exposure and mDC2 percentage suggest that this DC subset may play a role in farm‐related immunoregulation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Allergyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Allergy
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Allergy
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Allergyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Allergy
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Allergy
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Normunds Stivrins; Tuomas Aakala; Liisa Ilvonen; Leena Pasanen; +7 Authors

    Fire is a major disturbance agent in the boreal forest, influencing many current and future ecosystem conditions and services. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to improve the accuracy of fire-event reconstructions even though the estimates of the occurrence of past fires may be biased, influencing the reliability of the models employing those data (e.g. C stock, cycle). This study aimed to demonstrate how three types of fire proxies – fire scars from tree rings, sedimentary charcoal and, for the first time in this context, fungal spores of Neurospora – can be integrated to achieve a better understanding of past fire dynamics. By studying charcoal and Neurospora from sediment cores from forest hollows, and the fire scars from tree rings in their surroundings in the southern Fennoscandian and western Russian boreal forest, we produced composite fire-event data sets and fire-event frequencies, and estimated fire return intervals. Our estimates show that the fire return interval varied between 126 and 237 years during the last 11,000 years. The highest fire frequency during the 18th–19th century can be associated with the anthropogenic influence. Importantly, statistical tests revealed a positive relationship between other fire event indicators and Neurospora occurrence allowing us to pinpoint past fire events at times when the sedimentary charcoal was absent, but Neurospora were abundant. We demonstrated how fire proxies with different temporal resolution can be linked, providing potential improvements in the reliability of fire history reconstructions from multiple proxies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Holocenearrow_drop_down
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    The Holocene
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Holocene
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Holocenearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Holocene
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Holocene
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: H. Kääriö; Janne K. Nieminen; Anne M. Karvonen; Kati Huttunen; +8 Authors

    AbstractFarm environment has been shown to protect from childhood asthma. Underlying immunological mechanisms are not clear yet, including the role of dendritic cells (DCs). The aim was to explore whether asthma and farm exposures are associated with the proportions and functional properties of DCs from 4.5‐year‐old children in a subgroup of the Finnish PASTURE birth cohort study. Myeloid DCs (mDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD86 expression on mDCs ex vivo (n = 100) identified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analysed using flow cytometry. MDCs and production of interleukin (IL)‐6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) by mDCs were analysed after 5 h in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 88). Prenatal and current farm exposures (farming, stables, hay barn and farm milk) were assessed from questionnaires. Asthma at age 6 years was defined as a doctor′s diagnosis and symptoms; atopic sensitization was defined by antigen‐specific IgE measurements. Asthma was positively associated with CD86 expression on mDCs ex vivo [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51–15.4] and inversely with IL‐6 production in mDCs after in vitro stimulation with LPS (aOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04–0.82). In vitro stimulation with LPS resulted in lower percentage of mDCs in the farm PBMC cultures as compared to non‐farm PBMC cultures. Our results suggest an association between childhood asthma and functional properties of DCs. Farm exposure may have immunomodulatory effects by decreasing mDC proportions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scandinavian Journal...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scandinavian Journal...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Petteri Vihervaara; Dalia D'amato; Martin Forsius; Per Angelstam; +14 Authors

    The International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network can coordinate ecological research to provide observations of the ecosystem changes, and their socio-economic impacts on human societies at different scales. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of the ILTER network in the study and monitoring of environmental changes at a global level. We give examples of how biodiversity and ecosystem service data can be used to study impacts and adaptation options in response to climate change. Analysis of the 107 recent publications from LTER networks representing 21 countries show that LTER studies are often local and heterogeneous. There are some ecosystem types, such as agricultural or coastal ecosystems that are not covered with current ILTER network. Standardized monitoring schemes and techniques should be considered for future steering of ILTER collaboration. Integrating and synthesizing the collected data should be prioritized for future cooperation, and integrated in decision-making.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Current Opinion in E...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Current Opinion in E...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: H. Kääriö; Kati Huttunen; Anne M. Karvonen; Bianca Schaub; +4 Authors

    SummaryBackgroundFarm exposure has been shown to protect from childhood asthma and allergic diseases, but underlying immunological mechanisms are not clear yet.ObjectiveTo explore whether farming lifestyle determines cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 4.5‐year‐old children (n = 88) from the Finnish PASTURE birth cohort study.MethodsWe analysed regulatory (IL‐10, IL‐2), T helper 1 (Th1)‐associated (IL‐12, IFN‐γ), inflammatory (IL‐1β, TNF, CXCL8) and Th2‐associated (IL‐13) cytokines in unstimulated PBMCs and after a short‐term (5 h) stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Specific farm exposures (stables, hay barn, farm milk) at age 4 years were assessed from questionnaires.ResultsThe unstimulated PBMCs of farm children produced more IL‐10 (GMR 1.22, P = 0.032), IL‐12 (GMR 1.24, P = 0.012) and IFN‐γ (GMR 1.24, P = 0.024) than those of non‐farm children. Also, specific farm exposures were associated with higher spontaneous production of cytokines. The number of specific farm exposures tended to be dose dependently associated with higher spontaneous production of IFN‐γ (test for trends, P = 0.013) and lower LPS‐induced production of TNF (test for trends, P = 0.025).Conclusion and Clinical RelevanceFarming lifestyle seemed to be associated with increased spontaneous production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines. Decreased TNF responses to short‐term LPS stimulation in farm‐exposed children may imply tolerogenic immune mechanisms. These novel findings might contribute to the asthma and allergy protection in farm environment.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Clinical & Experimen...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Clinical & Experimen...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Clinical & Experimental Allergy
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maria-Viola Martikainen; H. Kääriö; Anne M. Karvonen; P. C. Schröder; +8 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundEarly life farm exposures have been shown to decrease the risk of allergic diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) may mediate asthma‐protective effect of farm exposures as they play an important role in the development of immunity and tolerance. Our aim was to investigate whether the numbers and phenotypes of circulating DCs at age 6 are associated with farming, asthma, and atopy in a selected sample of French and Finnish children from the PASTURE study.MethodsWe studied 82 farm and 86 nonfarm children with and without asthma. Using flow cytometry, BDCA1+ CD11c+ myeloid DC1s (mDC1), BDCA3+high mDC2s and BDCA2+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were identified and expressions of CD86, immunoglobulin‐like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 were analyzed. Questionnaires were used to assess prenatal and lifetime patterns of farm exposures and to define asthma. Atopic sensitization was defined by specific IgE measurements.ResultsThe percentage of mDC2 cells was lower in farm children (0.033 ± 0.001) than in nonfarm children (0.042 ± 0.001; P = 0.008). Similar associations were found between mDC2 percentage and prenatal (P = 0.02) and lifetime exposure to farm milk (P = 0.03) and stables (P = 0.003), but these associations were not independent from farming. Asthma was positively associated with ILT4 + mDCs (P = 0.04) and negatively with CD86 + pDCs (P = 0.048) but only in nonfarm children.ConclusionsInverse association between farm exposure and mDC2 percentage suggest that this DC subset may play a role in farm‐related immunoregulation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Allergyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Allergy
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Allergy
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Allergyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Allergy
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Allergy
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Normunds Stivrins; Tuomas Aakala; Liisa Ilvonen; Leena Pasanen; +7 Authors

    Fire is a major disturbance agent in the boreal forest, influencing many current and future ecosystem conditions and services. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to improve the accuracy of fire-event reconstructions even though the estimates of the occurrence of past fires may be biased, influencing the reliability of the models employing those data (e.g. C stock, cycle). This study aimed to demonstrate how three types of fire proxies – fire scars from tree rings, sedimentary charcoal and, for the first time in this context, fungal spores of Neurospora – can be integrated to achieve a better understanding of past fire dynamics. By studying charcoal and Neurospora from sediment cores from forest hollows, and the fire scars from tree rings in their surroundings in the southern Fennoscandian and western Russian boreal forest, we produced composite fire-event data sets and fire-event frequencies, and estimated fire return intervals. Our estimates show that the fire return interval varied between 126 and 237 years during the last 11,000 years. The highest fire frequency during the 18th–19th century can be associated with the anthropogenic influence. Importantly, statistical tests revealed a positive relationship between other fire event indicators and Neurospora occurrence allowing us to pinpoint past fire events at times when the sedimentary charcoal was absent, but Neurospora were abundant. We demonstrated how fire proxies with different temporal resolution can be linked, providing potential improvements in the reliability of fire history reconstructions from multiple proxies.

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    The Holocene
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    The Holocene
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Holocene
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      The Holocene
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: H. Kääriö; Janne K. Nieminen; Anne M. Karvonen; Kati Huttunen; +8 Authors

    AbstractFarm environment has been shown to protect from childhood asthma. Underlying immunological mechanisms are not clear yet, including the role of dendritic cells (DCs). The aim was to explore whether asthma and farm exposures are associated with the proportions and functional properties of DCs from 4.5‐year‐old children in a subgroup of the Finnish PASTURE birth cohort study. Myeloid DCs (mDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD86 expression on mDCs ex vivo (n = 100) identified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analysed using flow cytometry. MDCs and production of interleukin (IL)‐6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) by mDCs were analysed after 5 h in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 88). Prenatal and current farm exposures (farming, stables, hay barn and farm milk) were assessed from questionnaires. Asthma at age 6 years was defined as a doctor′s diagnosis and symptoms; atopic sensitization was defined by antigen‐specific IgE measurements. Asthma was positively associated with CD86 expression on mDCs ex vivo [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51–15.4] and inversely with IL‐6 production in mDCs after in vitro stimulation with LPS (aOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04–0.82). In vitro stimulation with LPS resulted in lower percentage of mDCs in the farm PBMC cultures as compared to non‐farm PBMC cultures. Our results suggest an association between childhood asthma and functional properties of DCs. Farm exposure may have immunomodulatory effects by decreasing mDC proportions.

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    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Petteri Vihervaara; Dalia D'amato; Martin Forsius; Per Angelstam; +14 Authors

    The International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network can coordinate ecological research to provide observations of the ecosystem changes, and their socio-economic impacts on human societies at different scales. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of the ILTER network in the study and monitoring of environmental changes at a global level. We give examples of how biodiversity and ecosystem service data can be used to study impacts and adaptation options in response to climate change. Analysis of the 107 recent publications from LTER networks representing 21 countries show that LTER studies are often local and heterogeneous. There are some ecosystem types, such as agricultural or coastal ecosystems that are not covered with current ILTER network. Standardized monitoring schemes and techniques should be considered for future steering of ILTER collaboration. Integrating and synthesizing the collected data should be prioritized for future cooperation, and integrated in decision-making.

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    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: H. Kääriö; Kati Huttunen; Anne M. Karvonen; Bianca Schaub; +4 Authors

    SummaryBackgroundFarm exposure has been shown to protect from childhood asthma and allergic diseases, but underlying immunological mechanisms are not clear yet.ObjectiveTo explore whether farming lifestyle determines cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 4.5‐year‐old children (n = 88) from the Finnish PASTURE birth cohort study.MethodsWe analysed regulatory (IL‐10, IL‐2), T helper 1 (Th1)‐associated (IL‐12, IFN‐γ), inflammatory (IL‐1β, TNF, CXCL8) and Th2‐associated (IL‐13) cytokines in unstimulated PBMCs and after a short‐term (5 h) stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Specific farm exposures (stables, hay barn, farm milk) at age 4 years were assessed from questionnaires.ResultsThe unstimulated PBMCs of farm children produced more IL‐10 (GMR 1.22, P = 0.032), IL‐12 (GMR 1.24, P = 0.012) and IFN‐γ (GMR 1.24, P = 0.024) than those of non‐farm children. Also, specific farm exposures were associated with higher spontaneous production of cytokines. The number of specific farm exposures tended to be dose dependently associated with higher spontaneous production of IFN‐γ (test for trends, P = 0.013) and lower LPS‐induced production of TNF (test for trends, P = 0.025).Conclusion and Clinical RelevanceFarming lifestyle seemed to be associated with increased spontaneous production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines. Decreased TNF responses to short‐term LPS stimulation in farm‐exposed children may imply tolerogenic immune mechanisms. These novel findings might contribute to the asthma and allergy protection in farm environment.

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    Clinical & Experimental Allergy
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Clinical & Experimental Allergy
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