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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Master thesis
  • Doctoral thesis

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kal, Ünal;

    Türkiye'de taze tüketime uygun domates çeşitlerinin ıslahında son dönemlerde çok önemli başarılar elde edilmiş olmakla birlikte sanayi tipi domateste benzer çalışmalar oldukça yetersizdir. Bu çalışma sonunda ithal sanayi tipi domates çeşitleri ile rekabet edebilecek yerli F1 hibrit sanayi tipi domates çeşit adaylarının geliştirilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Çalışmada 94 adet domates genotipi ile gen havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Bu genotiplerin morfolojik karakterleri ve meyve özellikleri UPOV parametreleri göz önüne alınarak incelenmiştir. Belirlenen parametreler doğrultusunda bitkilerde;gövdede antosiyanin içeriği, bitkilerde büyüme türü, büyüme gücü, boğum arası uzunluğu, yaprak durumu, yaprak uzunluğu, yaprak genişliği, ana eksene göre yaprak sapının durumu, salkımlarda ortalama çiçek sayısı, çiçek tüylenmesi ve çiçeklenme zamanına bakılmıştır. Domateslerde ortalama meyve eni, ortalama meyve boyu, ortalama karpel sayısı, ortalama perikarp kalınlığı, ortalama çekirdek evi eni, ortalama çekirdek evi boyu, ortalama suda çözünür kuru madde miktarı ve renk parametrelerine bakılmıştır. Ayrıca ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) tekniği uygulanarak ebeveynlerin akrabalık dereceleri belirlenmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler sonucunda ST62, ST89, ST83, ST72, ST70, ST94, ST75, ST60, ST76, ST78, ST82, ST50, ST51, ST36, ST10 isimli hatlar ebeveyn hat olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu ebeveynlere ek olarak proje önerisinde belirtildiği üzere Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü'nden 14 adet hat baba olarak kullanılmıştır. Yapılan melezlemeler sonucunda 212 adet melez elde edilmiş, bu melezler Antalya'da sera koşullarında ve Konya'da açık arazi koşullarında verim denemelerine tabi tutulmuştur. Bununla birlikte, verim unsurları bakımından üstün bulunan 25 adet meleze tüm Avrupa üretim alanında geçerli olan tescil işlemleri için ıslah sürecinde yurtdışında kabul edilen ve literatürde var olan moleküler testlemeler (DUS testlemeleri) geliştirme süresince destekleyici unsur olarak uygulanmıştır. Bu testlerde Meloidogyne incognita, Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV), Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) hastalık etmenlerine karşı testleme yapılmıştır. Tüm bu çalışmaların ardından patent alınmak üzere ST62X1, ST82x1, ST70xET7, ST82x11/56, ST78xET10, ST62xET1, ST94x8, ST82xET10, ST82X110, ST78x7, ST75x2 isimli melezler seçilmiş ve tescil aşamasına getirilmiştir. Belirlenen bu melezler içerisinden ST62x1 nolu melez için TÜRKMEN F1 ismi ile üretim izni almıştır. Çalışma sonucunda proje ortağı firma portföyüne ülkenin acilen ihtiyacı olan, piyasadaki yabancı menşeyli hibrit çeşitlerle rekabet edebilecek özelliklere sahip sanayi tipi F1 hibrit domates çeşit adayları çıktı olarak kazandırılmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra çalışma sonucunda ilerleyen dönemlerde ülke ekonomisine katkı sağlayacağı düşünülen nitelikli ve geniş bir gen havuzu da oluşturulmuştur. Although there is a great success in improvement studies about the freshtomato, similar studies are very few in processing tomato varieties. In study, local F1 hybrid processing tomato cultivars challenging import processing tomato were improved. In study, genetic bank was made by 94 tomato genotypes. The morphological and fruit characteristics of those genotypes were examined by using UPOV parameters. In that regards following parameters were researched: anthocyanin content in plant body, growing type in plant, growing power, distance between shots, leaf status, leaf length, leaf width, leaf hold status in accordance of main axis, average number of flowers in tomato group, hairiness of flower and flowering time. Following parameters were examined In tomato fruits: average fruit width, average fruit length, average carpel number, average pericarp thickness, average shell bed width, average shell bed length, average soluble dry matter content in water and fruit color.In addition, generation degree of family was determined by using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) technique. In results, ST62, ST89, ST83, ST72, ST70, ST94, ST75, ST60, ST76, ST78, ST82, ST50, ST51, ST36, ST10 were used as family lines. In addition, 14 lines obtained from Aegean Agricultural Research Institute were used as father as stated in project proposal. In result of the crossing application, 212 crossings were obtained and those were researched for determination of their yield performances in both Antalya at greenhouse conditions and in Konya at open field conditions. In addition, 25 crossings having superior in accordance of yield were applied by DUS test that is very acceptable in foreign countries or in the literatures. This test was applied to protect the tomato from diseases of Meloidogyne incognita, Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV), Verticilliumdahliae, Fusariumoxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). After completing the study, crossings namely ST62X1, ST82x1, ST70xET7, ST82x11/56, ST78xET10, ST62xET1, ST94x8, ST82xET10, ST82X110, ST78x7, ST75x2 were selected for patent application or for getting the registration. In among the determined crossings, ST62x1 crossing got the production permission with name of TÜRKMEN F1. In result, F1 hybrid tomato, having the great competition with the foreign hybrid cultivars, will met the urgent processing tomato of Turkey and that is also very important contribution for the project partner company. In addition, it will be very important role to play by contribution of national economy and genetic bank of Turkey. 108

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Silva, Daurimar Mendes da;

    Made available in DSpace on 2017-07-21T14:19:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Daurimar Mendes da Silva.pdf: 4676770 bytes, checksum: 205397680d88c57f767ce2df43f7b077 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-08-26 Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior In the future it will be essential to robotics in the agricultural environment, with great opportunity at this time to development new work and research, with the generation of patents, transforming knowledge into commercial products. The current technological advances allow the use of extremely minor processing architectures in relation to personal computers, giving us the ability to build new agricultural equipment using sensors (GPS, ultrasound, multispectral visible, infrared, images); changing paradigms and promoting the work at smaller scales can reach the leaf level through intelligent autonomous robots acting in the desired place, at the appropriate time, and navigating the appropriate path. Thus, the present study aimed to develop an autonomous agricultural robot (Field Robot) called NAVIGO, whose function is to traverse farmland collecting soil samples. To that end, we developed a mobile platform with a robotic arm using embedded computing system based on the Android mobile phone (Smartphone) and IOIO for Android controller. The system as a whole is intended to navigation in the role of information gatherer (soil amples). Results showed stable performance of the prototype allowing its use as a handy tool in performing the sampling of soils for agricultural areas for small and medium businesses. No futuro será indispensável a robótica no ambiente agrícola, sendo grande oportunidade neste momento o desenvolvimento de novos trabalhos e pesquisas, com a geração de patentes, transformando os conhecimentos em produtos comerciais. Os avanços tecnológicos atuais permitem utilizar arquiteturas de processamento extremamente menores em relação aos computadores pessoais, que nos dão condições de construir novos equipamentos agrícolas utilizando sensores (GPS, ultrassom, multiespectral visível, infrared, imagens); modificando paradigmas e promovendo o trabalho em escalas menores podendo chegar ao nível foliar, através de robôs inteligentes autônomos atuando no lugar desejado, no momento apropriado, e navegando no trajeto adequado. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de um robô agrícola autônomo (Field Robot), denominado NAVIGO, que tem por função percorrer talhões agricultáveis coletando amostras de solos. Para tanto, foi desenvolvido uma plataforma móvel com um braço robótico utilizando sistema computacional embarcado baseado no telefone móvel Android (Smartphone) e controlador IOIO para Android. O sistema como um todo tem por finalidade a navegação desempenhando a função de coletor de informações (amostras de solos). Os resultados obtidos demonstraram atuação estável do protótipo permitindo o seu uso como ferramenta útil na execução de coletas de amostras de solos para áreas agrícolas de pequeno e médio porte.

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    Authors: Krishnan, Parvathy;

    Pathogenic fungi impose a great threat to the global food production. They are globally distributed and display a huge amount of phenotypic diversity. They demonstrate high adaptability to diverse environments and to fluctuating conditions within their hosts. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying these processes of adaptation. Deciphering the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity may help us to get a deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate complex adaptive traits. Furthermore, these findings may help in improving strategies for an effective and sustainable management of pathogens. In my PhD study, I aimed to understand the genetic basis of adaptation to variable environments using Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici causes septoria leaf blotch of wheat and is considered to be the most devastating fungal wheat pathogen in Europe. In the first chapter of my thesis, I studied the role of melanin in adaptation of Z. tritici. I, demonstrated that melanin is essential for protection against harmful chemical fungicides such as bixafen. Remarkably, I observed high phenotypic variability in melanin accumulation levels in different Zymoseptoria tritici strains, most probably reflecting its role in adaptation to variable environments. Using genetic mapping, I was able to demonstrate that variability in melanization levels between two Swiss strains of Z. tritici was mediated by differential expression of the transcription factor Zmr1 (Zymoseptoria melanin regulation 1). I identified nucleotide mutations in the promoter region and an insertion of transposable elements (TEs) upstream of the promoter region as two mechanisms responsible for this observed differential expression of Zmr1. My findings clearly demonstrated the significance of gene expression regulation, mediated by the insertion of TEs and SNPs, in optimizing the growth and adaptation of the fungus under variable environments. Furthermore, these adaptive changes are responsible for the phenotypic diversity that we observe in Z. tritici strains from all over the world. In the second part of my thesis, I analyzed the expression of several secreted peptidases of Z. tritici at distinct stages during the infection process of wheat plants. Using computational genetic methods, I also analyzed nucleotide data sets of the peptidase genes for evolutionary signatures of genetic adaptation. By combining both approaches, I aimed at obtaining a more detailed picture of the relevance and the role of each enzyme during the infection process. I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. In the third part of my thesis, I evaluated the role of a cellulase-encoding gene (JGI Prot. ID: 76589) using molecular biology techniques. This cellulase was only expressed during the final necrotrophic phase of Z. tritici infection and the nucleotide sequences of the gene showed signatures of diversifying selection. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of evasion from host recognition during the first phases of infection and subsequent induction of host-cell death by the secretion of an array of different cellulase isoforms by the fungus. To test this hypothesis, I constitutively expressed the cellulase-encoding gene in Z. tritici during all infection stages by inserting a constitutive promoter (originally from the Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Aspergillus nidulans) upstream of the start codon of the cellulase gene. I was able to show that the progress of infection in this mutant was delayed compared to the non-modified Z. tritici isolates. This suggests that the cellulase acts as an elicitor molecule that is detected by the plant and triggers the defense machinery that will hinder the growth of the pathogen. In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant pathogenic fungi to facilitate adaptation to different environmental conditions and host colonization. Remarkably, I was able to show that gene expression fine-tuning resulted in large amounts of phenotypic diversity in adaptive traits.

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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
    Data sources: Datacite
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Doctoral thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Sales, Marli;

    Orientador: Emilia Pietrafesa de Godoi Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas Resumo: Este trabalho trata das transformações materiais e simbólicas verificadas em Angueretá, distrito de Curvelo, MG, no período posterior a 1970. O processo de incorporação das áreas de cerrado à moderna agricultura, que tem início a partir de então, tem como agente o Estado brasileiro, articulado ao capital privado. O município de Curvelo , bem como toda a área em que se inscreve - o sertão mineiro - sofre uma verdadeira transfiguração: novos atores, novas ordens, novas territorialidades, que dialogam e se antagonizam com as ordens, atores e territorialidades pré-existentes. A implantação de uma poderosa malha viária e a retirada do cerrado com sua substituição pela monocultura de eucalipto são os primeiros impactos. A alteração da paisagem a extinção e/ou interdição dos recursos do cerrado obriga os habitantes de Angueretá, locus empírico da investigação, a re-elaborarem suas práticas tradicionais. Discute-se em que medida foram alterados o ambiente, as práticas, as representações simbólicas e as territorialidades, desses habitantes. Abstract: This work deals with the material and symbolic transformations seen at Angueretá,Curvelo district, M.G.,verified in the period after 1970. The incorporation process of natural cerrado areas to the modern agriculture which starts since then has its agent as the Brasilian state joined to the private capital. The municipal district of Curvelo as the whole area in which it inserts itself-the Minas Gerais's sertão-suffers a real transfiguration: new actors,new orders, new territorialities which dialogue and act in opposition to the orders, actors and territorialities which already exists. The implantation of a powerful transport system and the withdraw of the backwards with its substitution by the eucalyptus monoculture are the first impacts. The landscape alteration and thye extintion and/or the interdiction of resources of the woodsy pasture, obligue the Angueretá's inhabitants, locus empiricous of the ivestigation, to reelaborate their traditional practices. One can discuss in which measure the environment was changed, the practices, the symbolic representation and these inhabitants's territorialities. Doutorado Doutor em Ciências Sociais

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
      Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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  • Authors: Kounades-Bastian, Dionyssos;

    In this thesis we address the problem of multichannel audio source separa- tion (MASS) for underdetermined convolutive mixtures through probabilistic modeling. We focus on three aspects of the problem and make three contri- butions. Firstly, inspired from the empirically well validated representation of an audio signal, that is know as local Gaussian signal model (LGM) with non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), we propose a Bayesian extension to this, that overcomes some of the limitations of the NMF. We incorporate this representation in a MASS framework and compare it with the state of the art in MASS, yielding promising results. Secondly, we study how to separate mix- tures of moving sources and/or of moving microphones. Movements make the acoustic path between sources and microphones become time-varying. Ad- dressing time-varying audio mixtures appears is not so popular in the MASS literature. Thus, we begin from a state of the art LGM-with-NMF method designed for separating time-invariant audio mixtures and propose an exten- sion that uses a Kalman smoother to track the acoustic path across time. The proposed method is benchmarked against a block-wise adaptation of that state of the art (ran on time segments), and delivers competitive results on both simulated and real-world mixtures. Lastly, we investigate the link between MASS and the task of audio diarisation. Audio diarisation is the detection of the time intervals where each speaker/source is active or silent. Most state of the art MASS methods consider the sources to emit continuously; A hypothe- sis that can result in spurious signal estimates for a source, in intervals where that source was silent. Our aim is that diarisation can aid MASS by indicat- ing the emitting sources at each time frame. To that extent we design a joint framework for simultaneous diarisation and MASS, that incorporates a hidden Markov model (HMM) to track the temporal activity of the sources, within a state of the art LGM-with-NMF MASS framework. We compare the proposed method with the state of the art in MASS and audio diarisation tasks. We ob- tain performances comparable, with the state of the art, in terms of separation while winning in terms of diarisation.; Dans cette thèse nous abordons le problème de la séparation de sources audio dans des mélanges convolutifs multicanaux et sous-déterminés, en utilisant une modélisation probabiliste. Nous nous concentrons sur trois aspects, et nous apportons trois contributions. D’abord, nous nous inspirons du modèle Gaussien local par factorisation en matrices non-négatives (LGM-with-NMF), qui est un modèle empiriquement validé pour représenter un signal audio. Nous proposons une extension Bayésienne de ce modèle, qui permet de sur- passer certaines limitations du modèle NMF. Nous incorporons cette représentation dans un cadre de separation audio multicanaux, et le comparons avec l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation. Nous obtenons des résultats prometteurs. Deuxièment, nous étudions comment séparer des mélanges audio de sources et/ou des capteurs en mouvement. Ces déplacements rendent le chemin acoustique entre les sources et les microphones variant en cours du temps. L’adressage des mélanges convolutifs variant au cours du temps est peu exploré dans la littérature. Ainsi, nous partons d’une méthode de l’état de l’art développée pour la séparation de mélanges invariant (sources et microphones statiques) et utilisant LGM-with-NMF. Nous proposons à ceci une extension qui utilise un filtre de Kalman pour suivre le chemin acoustique au cours du temps. La technique proposée est comparée à une adaptation block-par-block d’une technique de l’état de l’art appliquée sur des intervalles de temps, et a donné des résultats exceptionels sur les mélanges simulés et les mélanges du monde réel. Enfin, nous investiguons les similitudes entre la séparation et la journalisation audio. La journalisation est le problème de détection des intervalles auxquels chaque locuteur/source est émettant. La plupart des méthodes de séparation supposent toutes les sources émettent continuellement. Cette hypothèe peut donner lieu à de fausses estimations durant les intervalles au cours desquels cette source n’a pas émis. Notre objectif est que la journalisation puisse aider à résoudre la séparation, en indiquant les sources qui émettent à chaque intervalle de temps. Dans cette mesure, nous concevons une cadre commun pour traiter simultanément la journalisation et la séparation du mélange audio. Ce cadre incorpore un modèle de Markov caché pour suivre les activités des sources au sein d’une technique de séparation LGM-with-NMF. Nous comparons l’algorithme proposé à l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation et de journalisation. Nous obtenons des performances comparables avec l’état de l’art pour la séparation, et supériures pour la journalisation.

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    Authors: Yaşli, Şevder;

    Bu çalışma, Diyarbakır koşullarında ana ürün yerfıstığı yetiştiriciliğinde tek ve çift sıralı ekim yöntemlerinin verim ve bazı tarımsal özelliklerine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla, 2014 yılında, Dicle Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü araştırma ve deneme alanında yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, Halisbey isimli Virginia tipi, yarı yatık gelişme gösteren yerfıstığı çeşidi materyal olarak kullanılmıştır. Tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre 3 tekrarlamalı olarak kurulup yürütülen bu çalışma, sıra üzeri 20 cm sabit olmak üzere, 60 cm, 70 cm, 80 cm ve 90 cm tek sıralı ekim ve 60x25x60 cm, 70x25x70 cm, 80x25x80 cm ve 90x25x90 cm çift sıralı ekim yöntemleri uygulanmıştır.Çalışmada; hasatta bitki sayısı (adet/da), meyve verimi (kg/da), hasat indeksi, biyolojik verim (kg/da), bitki başına meyve sayısı (adet/bitki), 100 tohum ağırlığı (g), 100 meyve ağırlığı (g), iç oranı (%), I. kalite meyve sayısı oranı (%), II. kalite meyve sayısı oranı (%), ıskarta meyve sayısı oranı (%), yağ oranı (%) gibi özellikler incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda elde edilen verilere göre, dekara en yüksek meyve verimi, 60x25x60 cm çift sıralı ekim yönteminden (601.83 kg/da), en yüksek bitki başına meyve sayısı ise 80 cm tek sıra ekim yönteminden (48.68 adet/bitki) elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, bitki yoğunluğu azaldıkça bitki başına meyve sayısında bir artış görülürken, bitki sayısı ve yoğunluğu arttıkça dekara meyve veriminde artış sağlandığı belirlenmiştir. This study was conducted to determine the effects of single and twin planting patterns on yield and important agronomic characteristics of main cropped peanut at the experimental area of Field Crops Department, Agricultural Faculty of Dicle University, Diyarbakir-Turkey in 2014. Peanut cultivar Halisbey (Virginia market type and semi-spreading growth type) was used. The study was established in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four single row spacing (60 cm, 70 cm, 80cm and 90 cm) and four twin row spacing (60x25x60 cm, 70x25x70 cm, 80x25x80 cm and 90x25x90 cm) were applied with an intra row spacing of 20 cm.In this study, number of plants in harvest (no da-1), pod yield (kg da-1), harvest index, biological yield (kg da-1), number of pod (no plant-1), 100 seed weight (g), shelling percentage (%), I. quality fruit rate (%), II. Quality fruit rate (%), waste fruit rate (%) and oil content (%) were analyzed. According to analysis of variance, the effects of planting patterns (single row and twin row) on pod yield, pod number plant-1, 100 seed weight, 100 pod weight and biological yield were statistically significant. The highest pod yield were obtained from 60x25x60 cm, 70x25x70 cm and 80x25x80 cm (601.83 kg da-1, 527.38 kg da-1 and 518.23 kg da-1, respectively) twin planting application. According to research results, pod yield gradually increased with increasing in plant densities. This increasing was continued to 9523 plant da-1 and then pod yield decreased in 8956 plant da-1. 67

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    Authors: Romero, Adriana;

    [eng] Deep learning has recently been enjoying an increasing popularity due to its success in solving challenging tasks. In particular, deep learning has proven to be effective in a large variety of computer vision tasks, such as image classification, object recognition and image parsing. Contrary to previous research, which required engineered feature representations, designed by experts, in order to succeed, deep learning attempts to learn representation hierarchies automatically from data. More recently, the trend has been to go deeper with representation hierarchies. Learning (very) deep representation hierarchies is a challenging task, which involves the optimization of highly non- convex functions. Therefore, the search for algorithms to ease the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies from data is extensive and ongoing. In this thesis, we tackle the challenging problem of easing the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies. We present a hyper-parameter free, off-the-shelf, simple and fast unsupervised algorithm to discover hidden structure from the input data by enforcing a very strong form of sparsity. We study the applicability and potential of the algorithm to learn representations of varying depth in a handful of applications and domains, highlighting the ability of the algorithm to provide discriminative feature representations that are able to achieve top performance. Yet, while emphasizing the great value of unsupervised learning methods when labeled data is scarce, the recent industrial success of deep learning has revolved around supervised learning. Supervised learning is currently the focus of many recent research advances, which have shown to excel at many computer vision tasks. Top performing systems often involve very large and deep models, which are not well suited for applications with time or memory limitations. More in line with the current trends, we engage in making top performing models more efficient, by designing very deep and thin models. Since training such very deep models still appears to be a challenging task, we introduce a novel algorithm that guides the training of very thin and deep models by hinting their intermediate representations. Very deep and thin models trained by the proposed algorithm end up extracting feature representations that are comparable or even better performing than the ones extracted by large state-of-the-art models, while compellingly reducing the time and memory consumption of the model.

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    Authors: Aysabar, Seda;

    Bu araştırmada kültür elmaların anaç olma potansiyeli taşıyan seçilmiş bazı Tahar elması klonlarının tohum, çelik ve daldırma yoluyla çoğaltılması ve köklü anaçlara aşılanan bir kültür elmasının fidan gelişimine olan etkisinin saptanması amaçlanmıştır. Denemede yer alan Tahar elmalarının tohumları 60 gün süreyle nemli kumda katlandıktan sonra çimlendirilmiştir. Çelikle çoğaltılma için adi çelik, ökçeli çelik ve dipçikli çelik olmak üzere 3 farklı çelik tipi kullanılmıştır. Çelikler 0-1000-2000-4000 ppm dozlarında hazırlanmış olan IBA çözeltisiyle muamele edilerek köklendirme tezgahlarına yerleştirilmişlerdir. Daldırma yoluyla çoğaltım için Tepe daldırması yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Aşılama denemesi için 50TE01, 50TE02 ve 50TE12 klonlarına yonga göz aşısıyla Galaxy Gala elma çeşidi aşılanmış ve aşılı fidanların gelişmesi ve dallanma özellikleri saptanmıştır. Elma çekirdeklerin çimlenme oranı % 78.06 olmuştur. Araziye dikilen çöğürlerin gelişimi çok yavaş olmuştur. Tahar elmasında çelikle çoğaltma başarılı olmamıştır. Buna karşılık, Tahar elmalarında hendek daldırması başarılı bulunmuştur. Anaçlık olarak kullanılan 50TE01 klonuna ait bitkilerden alınan köklü sürgün sayısı bitki başına ortalama 20 adet olmuştur. Köklü sürgün boyları ortalama 57 cm olmuş ve çapları ise ortalama 1.08 cm olmuştur. Anaçların aşı tutma oranı % 77 olmuştur. Aşılı fidanların dal sayısı anaç genotiplerine göre 11 ile 20 adet arasında değişmiştir. Yine her 3 anaç genotipine aşılı Galaxy Gala çeşidinin dal açıları 55 ile 85 derece arasında bulunmuş ve 50TE01 klonu basitonik dallanma eğilimi gösterirken 50TE02 klonu ise sutun şeklinde dallanma eğimine sahip olmuştur. İki farklı dallanma şekline sahip olan anaçlar ile farklı dikim sıklığı ve terbiye sistemleri altında verimlilik ve meyve kalitesi denemeleri yapılmasının yararlı olacağı kanısına varılmıştır.Anahtar kelime: Malus communis, tohum, çelik, daldırma, fidan, dallanma. The objectives of this study were to investigate the propagation characteristics of selected Tahar apple clones by seed, cutting and layering as well as rootstock effect on the growth behaviour of a single apple cultivar budded on them.Tahar apple seeds were stratified in damp sand for 60 days and then germinated. Three different cutting methods (straight, heel and mallet) were used for propagation by cuttings. The cuttings were treated with 0-1000-2000-4000 ppm IBA and rooted under mist propagation technique. The layering experiment was done with mound layering method. For budding, the clones of 50TE01, 50TE02 ve 50TE12 were chip budded with Galaxy Gala apple cultivar. The growth and branching characteristics of the scion cultivar were investigated. The germination rate of the apple seeds was 78.06 %. The seedlings were succesfully transferred to open field. But the seedling growth was exteremely slow over the season. The layering was succesful and mean rooted plantlets number was 20 per mother plant. The mean height and diameter of the rooted plantlets were 57 cm and 1.08 cm, respectively. The bud take rate was 77 %. The branch numbers of the scion cultivar ranged from 11 to 20 according to genotypes. The branch angle of Galaxy Gala apples was between 550 and 850. The clone of 50TE01 showed a basitony tendency for branching, however 50TE01 clones had branching on a columnar stem. It was concluded that the yield and fruit quality from different branching habit of the scion on two rootstock genotytpes should be tested with several planting intensity and training systems. Key words: Malus communis, seed, layering, nursery tree, branching. 49

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    Authors: van Iersel, W.K.;

    Natural lowland rivers are dynamic environments with a high ecological value. However, 90% of the European and North-American river floodplains are in a degraded state. The functions of floodplains are strongly determined by land cover and they often compete for space in narrowed floodplains. Integrated river management (IRM) tries to take care of floodplains in such way that land cover is optimized for multiple functions. For IRM, monitoring is essential to capture the dynamics, to evaluate changes, and to document the state of floodplains over time. The main objective of this thesis was to establish remote-sensing methods for the monitoring of floodplain land cover over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Several remote-sensing based solutions have been developed for the monitoring of land-cover dynamics in river floodplains and tested in floodplains of the lower Rhine. The phenological change of floodplain vegetation over the course of one year was studied using temporal profiles of its height and greenness. Using multitemporal UAV images, vegetation height was determined with an accuracy similar to much more expensive airborne LiDAR data. Multitemporal elevation models yielded meaningful profiles of greenness and vegetation height over time, which enabled discriminating the different land-cover types. The same dataset combined with a powerful machine learning model (Random Forest) yielded unprecedented high classification accuracies for floodplain vegetation (> 90%), even for similar vegetation types such as grassland and herbaceous vegetation. This method is a practical and highly accurate solution for monitoring areas of a few square kilometres. For large-scale monitoring of floodplains, the same method is recommended, but with data from airborne platforms covering larger extents. Land-cover change over the course of five years was studied for a 100-km river section using satellite images. Using an object-based approach, a sequential deviation of a land-cover object from its class mean was used to detect land-cover change. For most classes the method was unsuccessful (accuracy 75%. The developed method has important advantages, such as high observation frequency, independence of repeated land-cover classification, and fast processing. At sub-daily frequency, it was assessed how accurate water temperature in a floodplain side channel can be documented from thermal UAV maps. The associated habitat suitability for native and alien fish assemblages was estimated based on the produced temperature maps. Water surface temperatures were mapped four times during a hot summer day with an overall RMSE of 0.53 oC. During the day, temperatures in the side channel increased rapidly to values detrimental for many fish species. The study showed that thermal imagery from UAVs is an efficient and accurate information source to monitor spatiotemporal patterns of thermal habitat suitability. The presently available range of spaceborne and airborne platforms and sensors offers great opportunities to collect information on land-cover change across a range of spatial and temporal scales. This may advance our management of floodplains and help us recovering and protecting these rich ecosystems and the benefits they provide us.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kal, Ünal;

    Türkiye'de taze tüketime uygun domates çeşitlerinin ıslahında son dönemlerde çok önemli başarılar elde edilmiş olmakla birlikte sanayi tipi domateste benzer çalışmalar oldukça yetersizdir. Bu çalışma sonunda ithal sanayi tipi domates çeşitleri ile rekabet edebilecek yerli F1 hibrit sanayi tipi domates çeşit adaylarının geliştirilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Çalışmada 94 adet domates genotipi ile gen havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Bu genotiplerin morfolojik karakterleri ve meyve özellikleri UPOV parametreleri göz önüne alınarak incelenmiştir. Belirlenen parametreler doğrultusunda bitkilerde;gövdede antosiyanin içeriği, bitkilerde büyüme türü, büyüme gücü, boğum arası uzunluğu, yaprak durumu, yaprak uzunluğu, yaprak genişliği, ana eksene göre yaprak sapının durumu, salkımlarda ortalama çiçek sayısı, çiçek tüylenmesi ve çiçeklenme zamanına bakılmıştır. Domateslerde ortalama meyve eni, ortalama meyve boyu, ortalama karpel sayısı, ortalama perikarp kalınlığı, ortalama çekirdek evi eni, ortalama çekirdek evi boyu, ortalama suda çözünür kuru madde miktarı ve renk parametrelerine bakılmıştır. Ayrıca ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) tekniği uygulanarak ebeveynlerin akrabalık dereceleri belirlenmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler sonucunda ST62, ST89, ST83, ST72, ST70, ST94, ST75, ST60, ST76, ST78, ST82, ST50, ST51, ST36, ST10 isimli hatlar ebeveyn hat olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu ebeveynlere ek olarak proje önerisinde belirtildiği üzere Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü'nden 14 adet hat baba olarak kullanılmıştır. Yapılan melezlemeler sonucunda 212 adet melez elde edilmiş, bu melezler Antalya'da sera koşullarında ve Konya'da açık arazi koşullarında verim denemelerine tabi tutulmuştur. Bununla birlikte, verim unsurları bakımından üstün bulunan 25 adet meleze tüm Avrupa üretim alanında geçerli olan tescil işlemleri için ıslah sürecinde yurtdışında kabul edilen ve literatürde var olan moleküler testlemeler (DUS testlemeleri) geliştirme süresince destekleyici unsur olarak uygulanmıştır. Bu testlerde Meloidogyne incognita, Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV), Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) hastalık etmenlerine karşı testleme yapılmıştır. Tüm bu çalışmaların ardından patent alınmak üzere ST62X1, ST82x1, ST70xET7, ST82x11/56, ST78xET10, ST62xET1, ST94x8, ST82xET10, ST82X110, ST78x7, ST75x2 isimli melezler seçilmiş ve tescil aşamasına getirilmiştir. Belirlenen bu melezler içerisinden ST62x1 nolu melez için TÜRKMEN F1 ismi ile üretim izni almıştır. Çalışma sonucunda proje ortağı firma portföyüne ülkenin acilen ihtiyacı olan, piyasadaki yabancı menşeyli hibrit çeşitlerle rekabet edebilecek özelliklere sahip sanayi tipi F1 hibrit domates çeşit adayları çıktı olarak kazandırılmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra çalışma sonucunda ilerleyen dönemlerde ülke ekonomisine katkı sağlayacağı düşünülen nitelikli ve geniş bir gen havuzu da oluşturulmuştur. Although there is a great success in improvement studies about the freshtomato, similar studies are very few in processing tomato varieties. In study, local F1 hybrid processing tomato cultivars challenging import processing tomato were improved. In study, genetic bank was made by 94 tomato genotypes. The morphological and fruit characteristics of those genotypes were examined by using UPOV parameters. In that regards following parameters were researched: anthocyanin content in plant body, growing type in plant, growing power, distance between shots, leaf status, leaf length, leaf width, leaf hold status in accordance of main axis, average number of flowers in tomato group, hairiness of flower and flowering time. Following parameters were examined In tomato fruits: average fruit width, average fruit length, average carpel number, average pericarp thickness, average shell bed width, average shell bed length, average soluble dry matter content in water and fruit color.In addition, generation degree of family was determined by using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) technique. In results, ST62, ST89, ST83, ST72, ST70, ST94, ST75, ST60, ST76, ST78, ST82, ST50, ST51, ST36, ST10 were used as family lines. In addition, 14 lines obtained from Aegean Agricultural Research Institute were used as father as stated in project proposal. In result of the crossing application, 212 crossings were obtained and those were researched for determination of their yield performances in both Antalya at greenhouse conditions and in Konya at open field conditions. In addition, 25 crossings having superior in accordance of yield were applied by DUS test that is very acceptable in foreign countries or in the literatures. This test was applied to protect the tomato from diseases of Meloidogyne incognita, Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV), Verticilliumdahliae, Fusariumoxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). After completing the study, crossings namely ST62X1, ST82x1, ST70xET7, ST82x11/56, ST78xET10, ST62xET1, ST94x8, ST82xET10, ST82X110, ST78x7, ST75x2 were selected for patent application or for getting the registration. In among the determined crossings, ST62x1 crossing got the production permission with name of TÜRKMEN F1. In result, F1 hybrid tomato, having the great competition with the foreign hybrid cultivars, will met the urgent processing tomato of Turkey and that is also very important contribution for the project partner company. In addition, it will be very important role to play by contribution of national economy and genetic bank of Turkey. 108

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    Authors: Silva, Daurimar Mendes da;

    Made available in DSpace on 2017-07-21T14:19:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Daurimar Mendes da Silva.pdf: 4676770 bytes, checksum: 205397680d88c57f767ce2df43f7b077 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-08-26 Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior In the future it will be essential to robotics in the agricultural environment, with great opportunity at this time to development new work and research, with the generation of patents, transforming knowledge into commercial products. The current technological advances allow the use of extremely minor processing architectures in relation to personal computers, giving us the ability to build new agricultural equipment using sensors (GPS, ultrasound, multispectral visible, infrared, images); changing paradigms and promoting the work at smaller scales can reach the leaf level through intelligent autonomous robots acting in the desired place, at the appropriate time, and navigating the appropriate path. Thus, the present study aimed to develop an autonomous agricultural robot (Field Robot) called NAVIGO, whose function is to traverse farmland collecting soil samples. To that end, we developed a mobile platform with a robotic arm using embedded computing system based on the Android mobile phone (Smartphone) and IOIO for Android controller. The system as a whole is intended to navigation in the role of information gatherer (soil amples). Results showed stable performance of the prototype allowing its use as a handy tool in performing the sampling of soils for agricultural areas for small and medium businesses. No futuro será indispensável a robótica no ambiente agrícola, sendo grande oportunidade neste momento o desenvolvimento de novos trabalhos e pesquisas, com a geração de patentes, transformando os conhecimentos em produtos comerciais. Os avanços tecnológicos atuais permitem utilizar arquiteturas de processamento extremamente menores em relação aos computadores pessoais, que nos dão condições de construir novos equipamentos agrícolas utilizando sensores (GPS, ultrassom, multiespectral visível, infrared, imagens); modificando paradigmas e promovendo o trabalho em escalas menores podendo chegar ao nível foliar, através de robôs inteligentes autônomos atuando no lugar desejado, no momento apropriado, e navegando no trajeto adequado. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de um robô agrícola autônomo (Field Robot), denominado NAVIGO, que tem por função percorrer talhões agricultáveis coletando amostras de solos. Para tanto, foi desenvolvido uma plataforma móvel com um braço robótico utilizando sistema computacional embarcado baseado no telefone móvel Android (Smartphone) e controlador IOIO para Android. O sistema como um todo tem por finalidade a navegação desempenhando a função de coletor de informações (amostras de solos). Os resultados obtidos demonstraram atuação estável do protótipo permitindo o seu uso como ferramenta útil na execução de coletas de amostras de solos para áreas agrícolas de pequeno e médio porte.

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    Authors: Krishnan, Parvathy;

    Pathogenic fungi impose a great threat to the global food production. They are globally distributed and display a huge amount of phenotypic diversity. They demonstrate high adaptability to diverse environments and to fluctuating conditions within their hosts. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying these processes of adaptation. Deciphering the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity may help us to get a deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate complex adaptive traits. Furthermore, these findings may help in improving strategies for an effective and sustainable management of pathogens. In my PhD study, I aimed to understand the genetic basis of adaptation to variable environments using Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici causes septoria leaf blotch of wheat and is considered to be the most devastating fungal wheat pathogen in Europe. In the first chapter of my thesis, I studied the role of melanin in adaptation of Z. tritici. I, demonstrated that melanin is essential for protection against harmful chemical fungicides such as bixafen. Remarkably, I observed high phenotypic variability in melanin accumulation levels in different Zymoseptoria tritici strains, most probably reflecting its role in adaptation to variable environments. Using genetic mapping, I was able to demonstrate that variability in melanization levels between two Swiss strains of Z. tritici was mediated by differential expression of the transcription factor Zmr1 (Zymoseptoria melanin regulation 1). I identified nucleotide mutations in the promoter region and an insertion of transposable elements (TEs) upstream of the promoter region as two mechanisms responsible for this observed differential expression of Zmr1. My findings clearly demonstrated the significance of gene expression regulation, mediated by the insertion of TEs and SNPs, in optimizing the growth and adaptation of the fungus under variable environments. Furthermore, these adaptive changes are responsible for the phenotypic diversity that we observe in Z. tritici strains from all over the world. In the second part of my thesis, I analyzed the expression of several secreted peptidases of Z. tritici at distinct stages during the infection process of wheat plants. Using computational genetic methods, I also analyzed nucleotide data sets of the peptidase genes for evolutionary signatures of genetic adaptation. By combining both approaches, I aimed at obtaining a more detailed picture of the relevance and the role of each enzyme during the infection process. I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. In the third part of my thesis, I evaluated the role of a cellulase-encoding gene (JGI Prot. ID: 76589) using molecular biology techniques. This cellulase was only expressed during the final necrotrophic phase of Z. tritici infection and the nucleotide sequences of the gene showed signatures of diversifying selection. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of evasion from host recognition during the first phases of infection and subsequent induction of host-cell death by the secretion of an array of different cellulase isoforms by the fungus. To test this hypothesis, I constitutively expressed the cellulase-encoding gene in Z. tritici during all infection stages by inserting a constitutive promoter (originally from the Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Aspergillus nidulans) upstream of the start codon of the cellulase gene. I was able to show that the progress of infection in this mutant was delayed compared to the non-modified Z. tritici isolates. This suggests that the cellulase acts as an elicitor molecule that is detected by the plant and triggers the defense machinery that will hinder the growth of the pathogen. In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant pathogenic fungi to facilitate adaptation to different environmental conditions and host colonization. Remarkably, I was able to show that gene expression fine-tuning resulted in large amounts of phenotypic diversity in adaptive traits.

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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
    Data sources: Datacite
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Doctoral thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Sales, Marli;

    Orientador: Emilia Pietrafesa de Godoi Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas Resumo: Este trabalho trata das transformações materiais e simbólicas verificadas em Angueretá, distrito de Curvelo, MG, no período posterior a 1970. O processo de incorporação das áreas de cerrado à moderna agricultura, que tem início a partir de então, tem como agente o Estado brasileiro, articulado ao capital privado. O município de Curvelo , bem como toda a área em que se inscreve - o sertão mineiro - sofre uma verdadeira transfiguração: novos atores, novas ordens, novas territorialidades, que dialogam e se antagonizam com as ordens, atores e territorialidades pré-existentes. A implantação de uma poderosa malha viária e a retirada do cerrado com sua substituição pela monocultura de eucalipto são os primeiros impactos. A alteração da paisagem a extinção e/ou interdição dos recursos do cerrado obriga os habitantes de Angueretá, locus empírico da investigação, a re-elaborarem suas práticas tradicionais. Discute-se em que medida foram alterados o ambiente, as práticas, as representações simbólicas e as territorialidades, desses habitantes. Abstract: This work deals with the material and symbolic transformations seen at Angueretá,Curvelo district, M.G.,verified in the period after 1970. The incorporation process of natural cerrado areas to the modern agriculture which starts since then has its agent as the Brasilian state joined to the private capital. The municipal district of Curvelo as the whole area in which it inserts itself-the Minas Gerais's sertão-suffers a real transfiguration: new actors,new orders, new territorialities which dialogue and act in opposition to the orders, actors and territorialities which already exists. The implantation of a powerful transport system and the withdraw of the backwards with its substitution by the eucalyptus monoculture are the first impacts. The landscape alteration and thye extintion and/or the interdiction of resources of the woodsy pasture, obligue the Angueretá's inhabitants, locus empiricous of the ivestigation, to reelaborate their traditional practices. One can discuss in which measure the environment was changed, the practices, the symbolic representation and these inhabitants's territorialities. Doutorado Doutor em Ciências Sociais

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
      Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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  • Authors: Kounades-Bastian, Dionyssos;

    In this thesis we address the problem of multichannel audio source separa- tion (MASS) for underdetermined convolutive mixtures through probabilistic modeling. We focus on three aspects of the problem and make three contri- butions. Firstly, inspired from the empirically well validated representation of an audio signal, that is know as local Gaussian signal model (LGM) with non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), we propose a Bayesian extension to this, that overcomes some of the limitations of the NMF. We incorporate this representation in a MASS framework and compare it with the state of the art in MASS, yielding promising results. Secondly, we study how to separate mix- tures of moving sources and/or of moving microphones. Movements make the acoustic path between sources and microphones become time-varying. Ad- dressing time-varying audio mixtures appears is not so popular in the MASS literature. Thus, we begin from a state of the art LGM-with-NMF method designed for separating time-invariant audio mixtures and propose an exten- sion that uses a Kalman smoother to track the acoustic path across time. The proposed method is benchmarked against a block-wise adaptation of that state of the art (ran on time segments), and delivers competitive results on both simulated and real-world mixtures. Lastly, we investigate the link between MASS and the task of audio diarisation. Audio diarisation is the detection of the time intervals where each speaker/source is active or silent. Most state of the art MASS methods consider the sources to emit continuously; A hypothe- sis that can result in spurious signal estimates for a source, in intervals where that source was silent. Our aim is that diarisation can aid MASS by indicat- ing the emitting sources at each time frame. To that extent we design a joint framework for simultaneous diarisation and MASS, that incorporates a hidden Markov model (HMM) to track the temporal activity of the sources, within a state of the art LGM-with-NMF MASS framework. We compare the proposed method with the state of the art in MASS and audio diarisation tasks. We ob- tain performances comparable, with the state of the art, in terms of separation while winning in terms of diarisation.; Dans cette thèse nous abordons le problème de la séparation de sources audio dans des mélanges convolutifs multicanaux et sous-déterminés, en utilisant une modélisation probabiliste. Nous nous concentrons sur trois aspects, et nous apportons trois contributions. D’abord, nous nous inspirons du modèle Gaussien local par factorisation en matrices non-négatives (LGM-with-NMF), qui est un modèle empiriquement validé pour représenter un signal audio. Nous proposons une extension Bayésienne de ce modèle, qui permet de sur- passer certaines limitations du modèle NMF. Nous incorporons cette représentation dans un cadre de separation audio multicanaux, et le comparons avec l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation. Nous obtenons des résultats prometteurs. Deuxièment, nous étudions comment séparer des mélanges audio de sources et/ou des capteurs en mouvement. Ces déplacements rendent le chemin acoustique entre les sources et les microphones variant en cours du temps. L’adressage des mélanges convolutifs variant au cours du temps est peu exploré dans la littérature. Ainsi, nous partons d’une méthode de l’état de l’art développée pour la séparation de mélanges invariant (sources et microphones statiques) et utilisant LGM-with-NMF. Nous proposons à ceci une extension qui utilise un filtre de Kalman pour suivre le chemin acoustique au cours du temps. La technique proposée est comparée à une adaptation block-par-block d’une technique de l’état de l’art appliquée sur des intervalles de temps, et a donné des résultats exceptionels sur les mélanges simulés et les mélanges du monde réel. Enfin, nous investiguons les similitudes entre la séparation et la journalisation audio. La journalisation est le problème de détection des intervalles auxquels chaque locuteur/source est émettant. La plupart des méthodes de séparation supposent toutes les sources émettent continuellement. Cette hypothèe peut donner lieu à de fausses estimations durant les intervalles au cours desquels cette source n’a pas émis. Notre objectif est que la journalisation puisse aider à résoudre la séparation, en indiquant les sources qui émettent à chaque intervalle de temps. Dans cette mesure, nous concevons une cadre commun pour traiter simultanément la journalisation et la séparation du mélange audio. Ce cadre incorpore un modèle de Markov caché pour suivre les activités des sources au sein d’une technique de séparation LGM-with-NMF. Nous comparons l’algorithme proposé à l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation et de journalisation. Nous obtenons des performances comparables avec l’état de l’art pour la séparation, et supériures pour la journalisation.

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    Authors: Yaşli, Şevder;

    Bu çalışma, Diyarbakır koşullarında ana ürün yerfıstığı yetiştiriciliğinde tek ve çift sıralı ekim yöntemlerinin verim ve bazı tarımsal özelliklerine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla, 2014 yılında, Dicle Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü araştırma ve deneme alanında yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, Halisbey isimli Virginia tipi, yarı yatık gelişme gösteren yerfıstığı çeşidi materyal olarak kullanılmıştır. Tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre 3 tekrarlamalı olarak kurulup yürütülen bu çalışma, sıra üzeri 20 cm sabit olmak üzere, 60 cm, 70 cm, 80 cm ve 90 cm tek sıralı ekim ve 60x25x60 cm, 70x25x70 cm, 80x25x80 cm ve 90x25x90 cm çift sıralı ekim yöntemleri uygulanmıştır.Çalışmada; hasatta bitki sayısı (adet/da), meyve verimi (kg/da), hasat indeksi, biyolojik verim (kg/da), bitki başına meyve sayısı (adet/bitki), 100 tohum ağırlığı (g), 100 meyve ağırlığı (g), iç oranı (%), I. kalite meyve sayısı oranı (%), II. kalite meyve sayısı oranı (%), ıskarta meyve sayısı oranı (%), yağ oranı (%) gibi özellikler incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda elde edilen verilere göre, dekara en yüksek meyve verimi, 60x25x60 cm çift sıralı ekim yönteminden (601.83 kg/da), en yüksek bitki başına meyve sayısı ise 80 cm tek sıra ekim yönteminden (48.68 adet/bitki) elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, bitki yoğunluğu azaldıkça bitki başına meyve sayısında bir artış görülürken, bitki sayısı ve yoğunluğu arttıkça dekara meyve veriminde artış sağlandığı belirlenmiştir. This study was conducted to determine the effects of single and twin planting patterns on yield and important agronomic characteristics of main cropped peanut at the experimental area of Field Crops Department, Agricultural Faculty of Dicle University, Diyarbakir-Turkey in 2014. Peanut cultivar Halisbey (Virginia market type and semi-spreading growth type) was used. The study was established in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four single row spacing (60 cm, 70 cm, 80cm and 90 cm) and four twin row spacing (60x25x60 cm, 70x25x70 cm, 80x25x80 cm and 90x25x90 cm) were applied with an intra row spacing of 20 cm.In this study, number of plants in harvest (no da-1), pod yield (kg da-1), harvest index, biological yield (kg da-1), number of pod (no plant-1), 100 seed weight (g), shelling percentage (%), I. quality fruit rate (%), II. Quality fruit rate (%), waste fruit rate (%) and oil content (%) were analyzed. According to analysis of variance, the effects of planting patterns (single row and twin row) on pod yield, pod number plant-1, 100 seed weight, 100 pod weight and biological yield were statistically significant. The highest pod yield were obtained from 60x25x60 cm, 70x25x70 cm and 80x25x80 cm (601.83 kg da-1, 527.38 kg da-1 and 518.23 kg da-1, respectively) twin planting application. According to research results, pod yield gradually increased with increasing in plant densities. This increasing was continued to 9523 plant da-1 and then pod yield decreased in 8956 plant da-1. 67

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