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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Doctoral thesis

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sales, Marli;

    Orientador: Emilia Pietrafesa de Godoi Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas Resumo: Este trabalho trata das transformações materiais e simbólicas verificadas em Angueretá, distrito de Curvelo, MG, no período posterior a 1970. O processo de incorporação das áreas de cerrado à moderna agricultura, que tem início a partir de então, tem como agente o Estado brasileiro, articulado ao capital privado. O município de Curvelo , bem como toda a área em que se inscreve - o sertão mineiro - sofre uma verdadeira transfiguração: novos atores, novas ordens, novas territorialidades, que dialogam e se antagonizam com as ordens, atores e territorialidades pré-existentes. A implantação de uma poderosa malha viária e a retirada do cerrado com sua substituição pela monocultura de eucalipto são os primeiros impactos. A alteração da paisagem a extinção e/ou interdição dos recursos do cerrado obriga os habitantes de Angueretá, locus empírico da investigação, a re-elaborarem suas práticas tradicionais. Discute-se em que medida foram alterados o ambiente, as práticas, as representações simbólicas e as territorialidades, desses habitantes. Abstract: This work deals with the material and symbolic transformations seen at Angueretá,Curvelo district, M.G.,verified in the period after 1970. The incorporation process of natural cerrado areas to the modern agriculture which starts since then has its agent as the Brasilian state joined to the private capital. The municipal district of Curvelo as the whole area in which it inserts itself-the Minas Gerais's sertão-suffers a real transfiguration: new actors,new orders, new territorialities which dialogue and act in opposition to the orders, actors and territorialities which already exists. The implantation of a powerful transport system and the withdraw of the backwards with its substitution by the eucalyptus monoculture are the first impacts. The landscape alteration and thye extintion and/or the interdiction of resources of the woodsy pasture, obligue the Angueretá's inhabitants, locus empiricous of the ivestigation, to reelaborate their traditional practices. One can discuss in which measure the environment was changed, the practices, the symbolic representation and these inhabitants's territorialities. Doutorado Doutor em Ciências Sociais

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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    Authors: van Iersel, W.K.;

    Natural lowland rivers are dynamic environments with a high ecological value. However, 90% of the European and North-American river floodplains are in a degraded state. The functions of floodplains are strongly determined by land cover and they often compete for space in narrowed floodplains. Integrated river management (IRM) tries to take care of floodplains in such way that land cover is optimized for multiple functions. For IRM, monitoring is essential to capture the dynamics, to evaluate changes, and to document the state of floodplains over time. The main objective of this thesis was to establish remote-sensing methods for the monitoring of floodplain land cover over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Several remote-sensing based solutions have been developed for the monitoring of land-cover dynamics in river floodplains and tested in floodplains of the lower Rhine. The phenological change of floodplain vegetation over the course of one year was studied using temporal profiles of its height and greenness. Using multitemporal UAV images, vegetation height was determined with an accuracy similar to much more expensive airborne LiDAR data. Multitemporal elevation models yielded meaningful profiles of greenness and vegetation height over time, which enabled discriminating the different land-cover types. The same dataset combined with a powerful machine learning model (Random Forest) yielded unprecedented high classification accuracies for floodplain vegetation (> 90%), even for similar vegetation types such as grassland and herbaceous vegetation. This method is a practical and highly accurate solution for monitoring areas of a few square kilometres. For large-scale monitoring of floodplains, the same method is recommended, but with data from airborne platforms covering larger extents. Land-cover change over the course of five years was studied for a 100-km river section using satellite images. Using an object-based approach, a sequential deviation of a land-cover object from its class mean was used to detect land-cover change. For most classes the method was unsuccessful (accuracy 75%. The developed method has important advantages, such as high observation frequency, independence of repeated land-cover classification, and fast processing. At sub-daily frequency, it was assessed how accurate water temperature in a floodplain side channel can be documented from thermal UAV maps. The associated habitat suitability for native and alien fish assemblages was estimated based on the produced temperature maps. Water surface temperatures were mapped four times during a hot summer day with an overall RMSE of 0.53 oC. During the day, temperatures in the side channel increased rapidly to values detrimental for many fish species. The study showed that thermal imagery from UAVs is an efficient and accurate information source to monitor spatiotemporal patterns of thermal habitat suitability. The presently available range of spaceborne and airborne platforms and sensors offers great opportunities to collect information on land-cover change across a range of spatial and temporal scales. This may advance our management of floodplains and help us recovering and protecting these rich ecosystems and the benefits they provide us.

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    Authors: Almeida, Carlos Alberto Soares de;

    Orientador: Hilton Silveira Pinto Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola Resumo: Foram utilizadas séries de imagens diurnas e noturnas captadas pelos sensores AVHRR a bordo do satélite NOAA-14 para a obtenção dos valores finais de temperatura de superfície do dossel vegetativo. O processamento das imagens incluiu o geo-referenciamento e as correções quanto aos efeitos atmosféricos e de emissividade, para as quais se utilizou o método de correção split window. A equação de split window usada considerou o parâmetro de emissividade da superfície cultivada estimada diretamente no campo pelo método da caixa. Este método foi comparado a um método alternativo de estimativa de emissividade no campo baseado na proporção de cobertura vegetal e solo descoberto. Os dois métodos apresentaram resultados equivalentes quanto à estimativa de emissividade da superfície. A alta correlação entre a temperatura de superfície medida no campo e a obtida a partir das imagens indicou que as equações de split window usadas corrigiram satisfatoriamente as imagens quanto aos efeitos atmosféricos e de emissividade Abstract: Diurnal and nocturnal image series have been used in this work. These images were processed on suitable software to the treatment of NOAA-AVHRR products, for Surface temperature final value obtaining. The processing work includes both the images geo-referencing and their atmospheric correction applying the "split window method". The split window equation used takes into account the crop surface emissivity parameter, estimated directly on the field by the "box method". This one was compared to an alternative emissivity estimate on the field method, which is based on the crop covering/bared soil relation. Both methods when compared presented similar results. A terrestrial radiometer was used to the surface temperature measurements carried out in situ, during the satellite passes. The correct surface temperature satellite data were submitted to a regression analysis against the terrestrial data about the same parameter. High association level between surface temperature measured at the field and the near air temperature was observed. The high correlation between surface temperature measured at the field and that one from the images shown that the split window equation corrected satisfactorily the atmosphere effects over the images Doutorado Água e Solo Doutor em Engenharia Agrícola

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Loghin, Ana-Maria;

    Hochauflosende Satellitensensoren mit ihrem effizienten weltweiten Aufnahmemöglichkeiten sind eine wertvolle Quelle für Geodatenanwendungen, die eine großflächige Abdeckung und hohe zeitliche Auflösungen erfordern, wie zum Beispiel: die Überwachung von Umweltkatastrophen, Stadtplanung, Veränderungsdetektion, Navigationsunterstützung, Umwelt- und hydrologische Modellierung.Allerdings reicht die alleinige zweidimensionalen Bildinformationen zur Beurteilung unterschiedlicher spezifischer Situationen oft nicht aus. Daher ist eine dreidimensionale Rekonstruktion der abgebildeten Szene erforderlich. Durch die Kombination des 2D-Bildinhalts mit der rekonstruierten 3D-Geometrie kann eine verbesserte Basis für verschiedene Anwendungen erreicht werden. Das führt zu einem besseren Verständnis der beobachteten Szene. Dies ist mit den heutigen hochflexiblen Sensoren möglich, die Satellitenbilder aus mehreren Ansichten über denselben Interessenbereich während eines einzigen Durchgangs aufnehmen können.Während sich viele Forschungsarbeiten mit dem spektralen 2D-Inhalt optischer Satellitenbilder befassen, ist das Thema der 3D-Untersuchungen erheblich kleiner. Angesichts des geringen Forschungstätigkeiten in dieser Richtung zielt diese Arbeit darauf ab, das Wissen über das 3D-Potenzial von hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern zu erhöhen und zu erweitern. Das Ziel dieser Dissertation ist die automatische 3D-Informationsextraktion und Klassifizierung von natürlichen und bebauten Gebieten aus Stereo/Tri-Stereo-Szenen von Pléiades und WorldView-3 Satellitenbildern, um das Potenzial und die Grenzen hervorzuheben und einen tiefen Einblick von hochauflosenden-Sensoren zu erhalten.Die Arbeit der Dissertation fokussiert sowohl auf methodische Entwicklungen als auch auf beschreibende Aspekte zur Verbesserung und zu einem besseren Verständnis des aktuellen Zustands der erreichbaren 3D-Informationen aus hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern. Diese sind insbesondere mit den folgenden wissenschaftlichen Zielen verbunden: (a) 3D-satellitenbasierte Punktwolkenrekonstruktion und Genauigkeitsanalyse von Höhenmodellen; (b) Satellitenbild-Geometriekorrektur basierend auf hochauflosenden Höhenmodellen; (c) Verbesserung der Orthofotoqualität; (d) Analyse der Klassifikationsleistung; und (e) Potenzial für die 3D-Rekonstruktion kleiner, isolierter Objekte. Ein Nebenfokus liegt auf der Beschreibung eines photogrammetrischen Arbeitsablaufs für die 3D-Informationsextraktion aus hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern und auf der Objektsichtbarkeitsanalyse basierend auf den Geometrieerfassungsparametern.Praktische Beispiele für die Extraktion von 3D-Informationen werden in vier unterschiedlichen Gebieten mit unterschiedlichen topografischen Eigenschaften und Landbedeckung analysiert: ländliche, städtische, offene landwirtschaftliche Felder, Grasland, Wälder, und Berggebiete. Die durchgeführten Experimente zeigen vermutliche Vibrationen des Satellitensensors (Jitter-Effekt), die durch die schnelle Drehung von einer Blickrichtung in die andere verursacht werden und von den mitgelieferten rationalen Polynomkoeffizienten (RPC) nicht erfasst werden konnten. Es wird eine neue Methode eingeführt, die die Geometrie von Satellitenbildern basierend auf der Rückprojektion von reale und Referenzhöhen unter Verwendung von Bias-korrigierten RPCs optimiert. Neben Methoden zur Verbesserung der geometrischen Genauigkeit und Qualität von satellitengestützten Höhenmodellen und Orthofotos wurde besonderes Augenmerk auf feinste Details gelegt, die in den photogrammetrisch abgeleiteten Höhenmodellen abgebildet werden können.Indem sie die erreichbare 3D-Informationsextraktion aus Pléiades- und WordView-3 Stereo/Tri-Stereo-Bildern ansprechen, bringen diese Beiträge neue Einblicke in das Forschungsthema und tragen dazu bei, das 3D-Wissenspotenzial von hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern zu erhöhen und zu erweitern. Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite sensors with their efficient worldwide acquisition capabilities are a valuable source for geospatial applications requiring large-scale coverage and high temporal resolutions, such as: disaster monitoring, urban management, change detection, navigation support, environmental and hydrological modelling. However, the purely two-dimensional image information is often not sufficient for assessing different specific situations and therefore a three-dimensional reconstruction of the depicted scene is necessary. By combining the 2D image content with the 3D reconstructed geometry, improved baselines for various applications can be achieved, leading to a better understanding of the observed scene. This is possible with the today’s high agile sensors able to acquire multi-view satellite image collections over the same area of interest during a single pass. While many research papers address the spectral 2D content of optical satellite images, the 3D capability exploration topic is significantly reduced. Given the low amount of research in this direction, the aim of this dissertation is to increase and expand the knowledge regarding the 3D potential of VHR satellite imagery. The focus falls on the automatic 3D information extraction and classification of natural and developed areas from stereo/tri-stereo scenes of VHR satellite images from Pléiades and WorldView-3 in order to highlight and to get a deep insight into the potential and limitations of VHR sensors.The research in this dissertation focuses on both methodology developments and descriptive aspects for improving and better understanding the actual state of the achievable 3D information from VHR satellite imagery, specifically associated with following scientific objectives: (a) 3D satellite-based point cloud reconstruction and accuracy analysis of elevation models; (b) satellite image geometry correction based on high resolution elevation models; (c) orthophoto quality improvement; (d) classification performance analysis; and (e) potential for 3D reconstruction of small, isolated objects. A side focus is also paid on the description of an end-to-end photogrammetric workflow for 3D information extraction from VHR satellite imagery and on object visibility analysis based on satellite image acquisition geometry parameters.Practical examples for 3D information extraction are analysed in four distinct areas with various topographic characteristics and land coverage: rural, urban, open agricultural fields, grasslands, forests, and mountainous areas. Conducted experiments reveal possible vibrations of the satellite sensor (jitter effect), caused by the fast rotation from one viewing direction to another, which could not be captured by the provided Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). A new method is introduced that optimizes the geometry of satellite images based on the back-projection of actual and reference elevations, by means of bias-corrected RPCs. Besides methods for improving the geometric accuracy and quality of satellite-based elevation models and orthophotos, special attention was accorded to the finest details that can be mapped in the photogrammetrically derived elevation models.By addressing the 3D achievable information extraction from Pléiades and WordView-3 stereo/tri-stereo imagery, these contributions bring new insights to the research topic and can help to increase and expand the knowledge regarding the 3D potential of VHR satellite imagery.

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    Authors: Nasrallah, Ali;

    Avec une production mondiale dépassant 750 millions de tonnes en 2017, le blé est considéré comme un aliment de base pour la population mondiale. Sa cartographie et sa surveillance pourraient alors se révéler être un outil très efficace pour atteindre les objectifs de développement durable (ODD2-Faim zéro). Au Liban, en vue d’assurer la sécurité alimentaire nationale, le blé reçoit un soutien financier et technique du gouvernement. Cependant, de nombreuses erreurs dans l'estimation de la superficie en blé à travers le pays sont dues principalement aux déclarations peu fiables des agriculteurs. De plus, le choix du système de culture basé sur le blé (en termes de type de rotation et de pratiques agricoles) peut avoir un impact considérable sur la productivité du système (protéines et rentabilité), l'efficacité d'utilisation des ressources (efficacité d'utilisation de l'eau et utilisation de l’azote), ainsi que sur le risque économique pour les agriculteurs. La présente étude menée dans la plaine de la Bekaa au Liban a pour objectif d'utiliser la télédétection et la modélisation de la croissance des cultures pour fournir aux décideurs politiques et aux utilisateurs finaux les informations dont ils ont besoin sur le blé d’hiver.La première partie évalue le potentiel des images optiques pour la cartographie du blé d'hiver précoce en permettant le transfert de connaissances d'une année à l'autre (2016 et 2017) Les résultats montrent que, lorsque l'approche développée est appliquée à la série chronologique Sentinel-2 de 2017, en utilisant les données de vérité au sol 2016, la précision globale atteint 87,0%, tandis que, lorsqu'elle est mise en œuvre avec les données de vérité au sol 2017, elle est de 82,6% en 2016. Les classifications pour distinguer le blé d'hiver de céréales similaires (orge et triticale) sont réalisées jusqu'à six semaines avant la récolte.La deuxième partie examine la capacité des images radar en bande C du nouveau satellite Sentinel-1 à surveiller la culture de blé d'hiver en identifiant les stades phénologiques économiquement importants qui ne peuvent pas être détectés en utilisant uniquement les indices issus de l’optique (Sentinel-2). Les résultats montrent que la polarisation VV (incidence de 32°-34°) et VH (incidence de 43°-45°) sont respectivement préférables pour estimer les stades de l'épiaison et de pâteux mou. De plus, le rapport VV/VH (incidence de 32°-34°) est préférable pour détecter la germination et la récolte.La troisième partie a pour objectif de vérifier si la rotation blé-féverole, nécessitant des intrants agricoles extensifs (eau et azote), a une performance nettement meilleure que la rotation intensive blé-blé en termes de productivité, d’utilisation rationnelle des ressources, et de minimisation du risque économique à l’échelle parcellaire. Le modèle de croissance des cultures «CropSyst» a été adopté après avoir été calibré et validé sur notre zone d'étude. Les résultats montrent qu’il n’existe pas un scénario de système de culture optimal permettant d’assurer une productivité élevée, de réduire le risque économique et d’obtenir une efficacité élevée de l’utilisation de l’eau et de l’azote. Cependant, le scenario de rotation blé-féverole sans fertilisation du blé semble être un meilleur substitut à la rotation blé-blé en termes de production de protéines. Pour un sol avec une faible capacité de rétention, la production de protéines est de 0,93 t/ha et de 0,8 t/ha respectivement pour les rotations blé-féverole et blé-blé. Pour un sol avec capacité de rétention élevée, la production de protéines est de 1,34 t/ha pour blé-féverole contre 1,17 t/ha pour blé-blé. De plus, ce système de culture blé-féverole pourrait générer un bénéfice net plus élevé que celui du blé-blé. Enfin, la rotation blé-pomme de terre peut générer des bénéfices nets très élevés (8640 US DOLL./ha et 12170 US DOLL./ha) mais avec une faible efficacité des intrants et un risque économique élevé With global production exceeding 750 million tons in 2017, wheat is considered a staple food for the world's population. Wheat mapping and monitoring could then be a very effective tool for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG2-Zero Hunger). In Lebanon, wheat receives technical and financial support, yet many errors occur in estimating the wheat acreage due to absence of reliable agricultural census and lack of wheat mapping using satellite images. In addition, identifying the best rotation type and agricultural practices leads to identify the most efficient wheat-based cropping system in terms of productivity (protein production and net profit), efficiency (water and nitrogen use), as well as the economic risk on the farmer. Thus, The aim of the current study, which is conducted in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon, is to utilize remote sensing technology and crop modelling for supporting policy makers and end-users in making strategic decisions regarding one of the most food security-driving crop in the Mediterranean (i.e. winter wheat).The first part of the thesis evaluates the potential of optical data for early winter wheat mapping by allowing the transfer of knowledge from one year to another (2016 and 2017 in this study). For its high spatial and temporal resolutions, Sentinel-2 data are employed. Results show that when the developed approach was applied on Sentinel-2 time series of 2017 in using 2016 ground truth data, the overall accuracy reaches 87.0%, whereas, when implemented using 2017 ground truth data, the overall accuracy is 82.6% on 2016 data. The outputs are executed up to six weeks before harvest, as well as distinguishing winter wheat from similar cereals (barley and triticale).The second part of the thesis examines the ability of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) C-band data of the new radar satellite (Sentinel-1) regarding its ability to monitor winter wheat crop by identifying the economically important phenological phases that cannot be detected relying solely on NDVI derived from optical satellite Sentinel-2. Results show that VV polarization at incidence angle of 32°-34° is best for predicting heading, VH polarization at incidence angle of 43°-45° for predicting soft dough, and the ratio VV/VH at incidence angle of 32°-34° for predicting germination and harvesting.The third part of the thesis is dedicated to test, in contrasted biophysical and management conditions, the hypothesis that promoting wheat-fava bean rotation leads to a significantly better productivity and resources use efficiency, as well as, reducing economic risk than the promoted intensive wheat-wheat and wheat-potato rotations. The cropping simulation model “CropSyst” is used after being calibrated and validated by using experimental data for different wheat-based rotations combining different soil, climate and management options. The results show that there is no particular optimal scenario that can simultaneously ensure high productivity, reduce economic risk, and achieve high wheat- water- and nitrogen-use efficiency. However, the wheat-fava bean rotation cultivated with no wheat fertilization appears to be a better substitute to the wheat-wheat rotation in terms of protein production in both (low and high) Water Holding Capacity (WHC) soils (0.93 t/ha versus 0.8 t/ha in low WHC and 1.34 t/ha versus 1.17 t/ha in high WHC). This cropping system could achieve a higher net profit, showing high resource-use efficiency and good economic sustainability. Moreover, a very high profit could only be attained with the wheat-potato rotation (8640 US DOLL./ha and 12170 US DOLL./ha), yet with low input-efficiency and high economic risk.

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    Authors: Mackay, Heather;

    This research contributes to countering a large city research bias by focusing on the food, farming and health experiences of two secondary cities of Uganda: Mbale and Mbarara. It is not an apocalyptic story. Like anywhere in the world, for some residents things were going well; for others, less well. My research explores the varied geometries of advantage and disadvantage in diets, food security, and livelihood circumstances to shed light on why things were more secure for some than for others. I used multiple methods including a household survey, focus groups with local healthcare professionals, and in-depth interviews with varied city residents. A geographic perspective explored intersections of food, farming and health with aspects of identity (such as gender, class, tribe), and with place (the city itself, but also with rural areas, or other urban areas). The starting point was the theorised food system, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions predicted to occur with urban development, often called nutrition transition theory. My research suggests caution with dominant models of how urban life shifts food and farming systems towards a food system and diet pattern focused around large retailer supermarkets, processed foods, fast foods, more meat, less agriculture, less movement. Nutrition transition theory postulates these changes causing a shift in epidemiology from infectious to non-infectious diseases in urban areas. Instead of the suggestion from nutrition transition theory, my work presents evidence of non-communicable disease (obesity, diabetes, hypertension) experience in Mbale and Mbarara’s residents, but without evidence of advanced change in food and farming systems. Findings revealed relatively low dietary diversities and common food insecurity. Diets remained predominantly traditional, as did the main food sources (traditional markets and neighbourhood shops), across diverse residents. The more food secure had regular salaried employment and strong relational links with rural farms and family, supporting work on multi-spatial livelihoods. This contrasts with earlier ideas of who farms the African city, or retains farming livelihoods. Most vulnerable to food insecurity and low diet diversity were those who were most dependent on purchasing all their food. In conclusion, this research suggests that food system, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions in Mbale and Mbarara may be less linked than previously thought, or linked in more complex ways. Other drivers of epidemiologic change are likely. Findings highlight the importance of local data and specific city investigations.

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  • Authors: Rosendo, Juan Luis;

    This work seeks to mitigate the effects of constraints on mobile robotic systems. To this end, auxiliary control loops and robust tuning techniques are proposed. The former are proposed to mitigate the effects of constraints on the input and output of the systems through the modification of the motion parameter in path following applications.Then, PID controllers are considered as a structural constraint, given its wide use in robotics particularly at low control level. A robust tuning methodology considering this constraint is proposed which achieves good performancelevels even when facing disturbances. Finally, to deal with robustness in presence of robots nonlinearity constraints, an analysis and tuning tool for sliding mode controllers is proposed. The particularity of this tuning method, based on global optimization and interval techniques,is that it allows generating tuning maps of the parameter regions where the desired performance criterion is fulfilled. All the proposed strategies are put into practice, through real experimentation or invalidated simulators, over the AUV Ciscrea available at ENSTA Bretagne.; Ce travail vise à atténuer les effets des contraintes sur les systèmes robotiques mobiles. À cette fin, des structures de commande auxiliaire et des techniques de réglage robuste sont proposées. Les structures sont proposées dans le cadre du suivi de chemin pour atténuer les effets des contraintes sur les entrées et les sorties des systèmes. Ensuite, étant donnée leur utilisation répandue en robotique, les contrôleurs de type PID sont considérés comme une contrainte structurelle. Une méthode de réglage robuste, tenant compte de cette contrainte, est proposée permettant d’atteindre de bons niveaux de performance même en présence de perturbations. Enfin, pour faire face à la robustesse en présence des contraintes de non-linéarité sur robots, un outil d’analyse et de réglage pour les contrôleurs de mode glissant est proposé. La particularité de cette méthode de réglage, basée sur des techniques d’optimisation globale et de calculs par intervalles, est qu’elle permet de générer des cartographies de réglage des paramètres pour lesquels le critère de performance souhaité est rempli.Toutes les stratégies proposées sont mises en pratique par des expérimentations réelles ou sur des simulateurs validés (AUV Ciscrea disponible à l’ENSTA Bretagne).

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    Authors: Ghaffarian, S.;
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    Authors: Jiménez López, Andrés Fernando;

    ilustraciones, fotografías, gráficas, mapas, tablas El uso eficiente del agua es fundamental para la sostenibilidad de la agricultura y la seguridad alimentaria, al reducir la vulnerabilidad en la producción de cultivos, causada por la escasez o el desperdicio del recurso. El objetivo principal de esta tesis fue desarrollar un modelo basado en agentes inteligentes como soporte a la gestión del riego en cultivos agrícolas. Se buscó avanzar más allá de la simulación de un sistema multi-agente a su implementación en un escenario real. El modelo se implementó en el Distrito de Riego de Usochicamocha, ubicado en Boyacá, Colombia. Se desarrolló un agente ciber-físico de riego que permite determinar y aplicar las cantidades de agua en los cultivos de acuerdo con criterios técnicos y un modelo basado en agentes (MBA) para la distribución del agua utilizando funciones de utilidad basadas en el estado de los cultivos y aspectos sociales entre los agentes de la vecindad. En los resultados, el sistema permitió mantener la humedad del suelo dentro de los valores del déficit máximo permitido para varios cultivos. En conclusión, el modelo propuesto es promisorio en el diseño de sistemas distribuidos para el manejo del riego agrícola, ya que integra múltiples tecnologías y permite el manejo del riego a nivel de finca y de distrito de riego. Además, se ha demostrado, que se puede mejorar la eficiencia en el uso del agua, incorporando inteligencia artificial, sistemas multi-agente e internet de las cosas en el riego de precisión, de acuerdo con las variaciones espacio-temporales del sistema suelo-planta-atmósfera. (Texto tomado de la fuente) The efficient use of water is essential for the sustainability of agriculture and food security, by reducing vulnerability in crop production, caused by scarcity or waste of the resource. The main objective of this thesis was to develop a model based on intelligent agents to support irrigation management in agricultural crops. It was sought to advance beyond the simulation of a multi-agent system to its implementation in a real scenario. The model was implemented in the Usochicamocha Irrigation District, located in Boyacá, Colombia. A cyber-physical irrigation agent was developed that allows determining and applying the amounts of water in crops according to technical criteria and an agent-based model (MBA) for the distribution of water was established using utility functions based on the state of the crops and social aspects among the agents of the neighborhood. In the results, the system allowed to maintain soil moisture within the values of the maximum deficit allowed for various crops. In conclusion, the proposed model is promising in the design of distributed systems for agricultural irrigation management since it integrates multiple technologies and allows irrigation management at the farm and irrigation district level. In addition, it was proved that efficiency in the use of water can be improved, by incorporating artificial intelligence, multi-agent systems and the internet of things in precision irrigation, according to the spatio-temporal variations of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. (Text taken from source) Doctorado Doctor en Ingeniería - Ingeniería Mecánica y Mecatrónica Automatización - Agricultura de Precisión Ingeniería de Automatización, Control y Mecatrónica

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sales, Marli;

    Orientador: Emilia Pietrafesa de Godoi Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas Resumo: Este trabalho trata das transformações materiais e simbólicas verificadas em Angueretá, distrito de Curvelo, MG, no período posterior a 1970. O processo de incorporação das áreas de cerrado à moderna agricultura, que tem início a partir de então, tem como agente o Estado brasileiro, articulado ao capital privado. O município de Curvelo , bem como toda a área em que se inscreve - o sertão mineiro - sofre uma verdadeira transfiguração: novos atores, novas ordens, novas territorialidades, que dialogam e se antagonizam com as ordens, atores e territorialidades pré-existentes. A implantação de uma poderosa malha viária e a retirada do cerrado com sua substituição pela monocultura de eucalipto são os primeiros impactos. A alteração da paisagem a extinção e/ou interdição dos recursos do cerrado obriga os habitantes de Angueretá, locus empírico da investigação, a re-elaborarem suas práticas tradicionais. Discute-se em que medida foram alterados o ambiente, as práticas, as representações simbólicas e as territorialidades, desses habitantes. Abstract: This work deals with the material and symbolic transformations seen at Angueretá,Curvelo district, M.G.,verified in the period after 1970. The incorporation process of natural cerrado areas to the modern agriculture which starts since then has its agent as the Brasilian state joined to the private capital. The municipal district of Curvelo as the whole area in which it inserts itself-the Minas Gerais's sertão-suffers a real transfiguration: new actors,new orders, new territorialities which dialogue and act in opposition to the orders, actors and territorialities which already exists. The implantation of a powerful transport system and the withdraw of the backwards with its substitution by the eucalyptus monoculture are the first impacts. The landscape alteration and thye extintion and/or the interdiction of resources of the woodsy pasture, obligue the Angueretá's inhabitants, locus empiricous of the ivestigation, to reelaborate their traditional practices. One can discuss in which measure the environment was changed, the practices, the symbolic representation and these inhabitants's territorialities. Doutorado Doutor em Ciências Sociais

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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    Authors: van Iersel, W.K.;

    Natural lowland rivers are dynamic environments with a high ecological value. However, 90% of the European and North-American river floodplains are in a degraded state. The functions of floodplains are strongly determined by land cover and they often compete for space in narrowed floodplains. Integrated river management (IRM) tries to take care of floodplains in such way that land cover is optimized for multiple functions. For IRM, monitoring is essential to capture the dynamics, to evaluate changes, and to document the state of floodplains over time. The main objective of this thesis was to establish remote-sensing methods for the monitoring of floodplain land cover over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Several remote-sensing based solutions have been developed for the monitoring of land-cover dynamics in river floodplains and tested in floodplains of the lower Rhine. The phenological change of floodplain vegetation over the course of one year was studied using temporal profiles of its height and greenness. Using multitemporal UAV images, vegetation height was determined with an accuracy similar to much more expensive airborne LiDAR data. Multitemporal elevation models yielded meaningful profiles of greenness and vegetation height over time, which enabled discriminating the different land-cover types. The same dataset combined with a powerful machine learning model (Random Forest) yielded unprecedented high classification accuracies for floodplain vegetation (> 90%), even for similar vegetation types such as grassland and herbaceous vegetation. This method is a practical and highly accurate solution for monitoring areas of a few square kilometres. For large-scale monitoring of floodplains, the same method is recommended, but with data from airborne platforms covering larger extents. Land-cover change over the course of five years was studied for a 100-km river section using satellite images. Using an object-based approach, a sequential deviation of a land-cover object from its class mean was used to detect land-cover change. For most classes the method was unsuccessful (accuracy 75%. The developed method has important advantages, such as high observation frequency, independence of repeated land-cover classification, and fast processing. At sub-daily frequency, it was assessed how accurate water temperature in a floodplain side channel can be documented from thermal UAV maps. The associated habitat suitability for native and alien fish assemblages was estimated based on the produced temperature maps. Water surface temperatures were mapped four times during a hot summer day with an overall RMSE of 0.53 oC. During the day, temperatures in the side channel increased rapidly to values detrimental for many fish species. The study showed that thermal imagery from UAVs is an efficient and accurate information source to monitor spatiotemporal patterns of thermal habitat suitability. The presently available range of spaceborne and airborne platforms and sensors offers great opportunities to collect information on land-cover change across a range of spatial and temporal scales. This may advance our management of floodplains and help us recovering and protecting these rich ecosystems and the benefits they provide us.

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    Authors: Almeida, Carlos Alberto Soares de;

    Orientador: Hilton Silveira Pinto Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola Resumo: Foram utilizadas séries de imagens diurnas e noturnas captadas pelos sensores AVHRR a bordo do satélite NOAA-14 para a obtenção dos valores finais de temperatura de superfície do dossel vegetativo. O processamento das imagens incluiu o geo-referenciamento e as correções quanto aos efeitos atmosféricos e de emissividade, para as quais se utilizou o método de correção split window. A equação de split window usada considerou o parâmetro de emissividade da superfície cultivada estimada diretamente no campo pelo método da caixa. Este método foi comparado a um método alternativo de estimativa de emissividade no campo baseado na proporção de cobertura vegetal e solo descoberto. Os dois métodos apresentaram resultados equivalentes quanto à estimativa de emissividade da superfície. A alta correlação entre a temperatura de superfície medida no campo e a obtida a partir das imagens indicou que as equações de split window usadas corrigiram satisfatoriamente as imagens quanto aos efeitos atmosféricos e de emissividade Abstract: Diurnal and nocturnal image series have been used in this work. These images were processed on suitable software to the treatment of NOAA-AVHRR products, for Surface temperature final value obtaining. The processing work includes both the images geo-referencing and their atmospheric correction applying the "split window method". The split window equation used takes into account the crop surface emissivity parameter, estimated directly on the field by the "box method". This one was compared to an alternative emissivity estimate on the field method, which is based on the crop covering/bared soil relation. Both methods when compared presented similar results. A terrestrial radiometer was used to the surface temperature measurements carried out in situ, during the satellite passes. The correct surface temperature satellite data were submitted to a regression analysis against the terrestrial data about the same parameter. High association level between surface temperature measured at the field and the near air temperature was observed. The high correlation between surface temperature measured at the field and that one from the images shown that the split window equation corrected satisfactorily the atmosphere effects over the images Doutorado Água e Solo Doutor em Engenharia Agrícola

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Loghin, Ana-Maria;

    Hochauflosende Satellitensensoren mit ihrem effizienten weltweiten Aufnahmemöglichkeiten sind eine wertvolle Quelle für Geodatenanwendungen, die eine großflächige Abdeckung und hohe zeitliche Auflösungen erfordern, wie zum Beispiel: die Überwachung von Umweltkatastrophen, Stadtplanung, Veränderungsdetektion, Navigationsunterstützung, Umwelt- und hydrologische Modellierung.Allerdings reicht die alleinige zweidimensionalen Bildinformationen zur Beurteilung unterschiedlicher spezifischer Situationen oft nicht aus. Daher ist eine dreidimensionale Rekonstruktion der abgebildeten Szene erforderlich. Durch die Kombination des 2D-Bildinhalts mit der rekonstruierten 3D-Geometrie kann eine verbesserte Basis für verschiedene Anwendungen erreicht werden. Das führt zu einem besseren Verständnis der beobachteten Szene. Dies ist mit den heutigen hochflexiblen Sensoren möglich, die Satellitenbilder aus mehreren Ansichten über denselben Interessenbereich während eines einzigen Durchgangs aufnehmen können.Während sich viele Forschungsarbeiten mit dem spektralen 2D-Inhalt optischer Satellitenbilder befassen, ist das Thema der 3D-Untersuchungen erheblich kleiner. Angesichts des geringen Forschungstätigkeiten in dieser Richtung zielt diese Arbeit darauf ab, das Wissen über das 3D-Potenzial von hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern zu erhöhen und zu erweitern. Das Ziel dieser Dissertation ist die automatische 3D-Informationsextraktion und Klassifizierung von natürlichen und bebauten Gebieten aus Stereo/Tri-Stereo-Szenen von Pléiades und WorldView-3 Satellitenbildern, um das Potenzial und die Grenzen hervorzuheben und einen tiefen Einblick von hochauflosenden-Sensoren zu erhalten.Die Arbeit der Dissertation fokussiert sowohl auf methodische Entwicklungen als auch auf beschreibende Aspekte zur Verbesserung und zu einem besseren Verständnis des aktuellen Zustands der erreichbaren 3D-Informationen aus hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern. Diese sind insbesondere mit den folgenden wissenschaftlichen Zielen verbunden: (a) 3D-satellitenbasierte Punktwolkenrekonstruktion und Genauigkeitsanalyse von Höhenmodellen; (b) Satellitenbild-Geometriekorrektur basierend auf hochauflosenden Höhenmodellen; (c) Verbesserung der Orthofotoqualität; (d) Analyse der Klassifikationsleistung; und (e) Potenzial für die 3D-Rekonstruktion kleiner, isolierter Objekte. Ein Nebenfokus liegt auf der Beschreibung eines photogrammetrischen Arbeitsablaufs für die 3D-Informationsextraktion aus hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern und auf der Objektsichtbarkeitsanalyse basierend auf den Geometrieerfassungsparametern.Praktische Beispiele für die Extraktion von 3D-Informationen werden in vier unterschiedlichen Gebieten mit unterschiedlichen topografischen Eigenschaften und Landbedeckung analysiert: ländliche, städtische, offene landwirtschaftliche Felder, Grasland, Wälder, und Berggebiete. Die durchgeführten Experimente zeigen vermutliche Vibrationen des Satellitensensors (Jitter-Effekt), die durch die schnelle Drehung von einer Blickrichtung in die andere verursacht werden und von den mitgelieferten rationalen Polynomkoeffizienten (RPC) nicht erfasst werden konnten. Es wird eine neue Methode eingeführt, die die Geometrie von Satellitenbildern basierend auf der Rückprojektion von reale und Referenzhöhen unter Verwendung von Bias-korrigierten RPCs optimiert. Neben Methoden zur Verbesserung der geometrischen Genauigkeit und Qualität von satellitengestützten Höhenmodellen und Orthofotos wurde besonderes Augenmerk auf feinste Details gelegt, die in den photogrammetrisch abgeleiteten Höhenmodellen abgebildet werden können.Indem sie die erreichbare 3D-Informationsextraktion aus Pléiades- und WordView-3 Stereo/Tri-Stereo-Bildern ansprechen, bringen diese Beiträge neue Einblicke in das Forschungsthema und tragen dazu bei, das 3D-Wissenspotenzial von hochauflosenden Satellitenbildern zu erhöhen und zu erweitern. Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite sensors with their efficient worldwide acquisition capabilities are a valuable source for geospatial applications requiring large-scale coverage and high temporal resolutions, such as: disaster monitoring, urban management, change detection, navigation support, environmental and hydrological modelling. However, the purely two-dimensional image information is often not sufficient for assessing different specific situations and therefore a three-dimensional reconstruction of the depicted scene is necessary. By combining the 2D image content with the 3D reconstructed geometry, improved baselines for various applications can be achieved, leading to a better understanding of the observed scene. This is possible with the today’s high agile sensors able to acquire multi-view satellite image collections over the same area of interest during a single pass. While many research papers address the spectral 2D content of optical satellite images, the 3D capability exploration topic is significantly reduced. Given the low amount of research in this direction, the aim of this dissertation is to increase and expand the knowledge regarding the 3D potential of VHR satellite imagery. The focus falls on the automatic 3D information extraction and classification of natural and developed areas from stereo/tri-stereo scenes of VHR satellite images from Pléiades and WorldView-3 in order to highlight and to get a deep insight into the potential and limitations of VHR sensors.The research in this dissertation focuses on both methodology developments and descriptive aspects for improving and better understanding the actual state of the achievable 3D information from VHR satellite imagery, specifically associated with following scientific objectives: (a) 3D satellite-based point cloud reconstruction and accuracy analysis of elevation models; (b) satellite image geometry correction based on high resolution elevation models; (c) orthophoto quality improvement; (d) classification performance analysis; and (e) potential for 3D reconstruction of small, isolated objects. A side focus is also paid on the description of an end-to-end photogrammetric workflow for 3D information extraction from VHR satellite imagery and on object visibility analysis based on satellite image acquisition geometry parameters.Practical examples for 3D information extraction are analysed in four distinct areas with various topographic characteristics and land coverage: rural, urban, open agricultural fields, grasslands, forests, and mountainous areas. Conducted experiments reveal possible vibrations of the satellite sensor (jitter effect), caused by the fast rotation from one viewing direction to another, which could not be captured by the provided Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). A new method is introduced that optimizes the geometry of satellite images based on the back-projection of actual and reference elevations, by means of bias-corrected RPCs. Besides methods for improving the geometric accuracy and quality of satellite-based elevation models and orthophotos, special attention was accorded to the finest details that can be mapped in the photogrammetrically derived elevation models.By addressing the 3D achievable information extraction from Pléiades and WordView-3 stereo/tri-stereo imagery, these contributions bring new insights to the research topic and can help to increase and expand the knowledge regarding the 3D potential of VHR satellite imagery.

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    Authors: Nasrallah, Ali;

    Avec une production mondiale dépassant 750 millions de tonnes en 2017, le blé est considéré comme un aliment de base pour la population mondiale. Sa cartographie et sa surveillance pourraient alors se révéler être un outil très efficace pour atteindre les objectifs de développement durable (ODD2-Faim zéro). Au Liban, en vue d’assurer la sécurité alimentaire nationale, le blé reçoit un soutien financier et technique du gouvernement. Cependant, de nombreuses erreurs dans l'estimation de la superficie en blé à travers le pays sont dues principalement aux déclarations peu fiables des agriculteurs. De plus, le choix du système de culture basé sur le blé (en termes de type de rotation et de pratiques agricoles) peut avoir un impact considérable sur la productivité du système (protéines et rentabilité), l'efficacité d'utilisation des ressources (efficacité d'utilisation de l'eau et utilisation de l’azote), ainsi que sur le risque économique pour les agriculteurs. La présente étude menée dans la plaine de la Bekaa au Liban a pour objectif d'utiliser la télédétection et la modélisation de la croissance des cultures pour fournir aux décideurs politiques et aux utilisateurs finaux les informations dont ils ont besoin sur le blé d’hiver.La première partie évalue le potentiel des images optiques pour la cartographie du blé d'hiver précoce en permettant le transfert de connaissances d'une année à l'autre (2016 et 2017) Les résultats montrent que, lorsque l'approche développée est appliquée à la série chronologique Sentinel-2 de 2017, en utilisant les données de vérité au sol 2016, la précision globale atteint 87,0%, tandis que, lorsqu'elle est mise en œuvre avec les données de vérité au sol 2017, elle est de 82,6% en 2016. Les classifications pour distinguer le blé d'hiver de céréales similaires (orge et triticale) sont réalisées jusqu'à six semaines avant la récolte.La deuxième partie examine la capacité des images radar en bande C du nouveau satellite Sentinel-1 à surveiller la culture de blé d'hiver en identifiant les stades phénologiques économiquement importants qui ne peuvent pas être détectés en utilisant uniquement les indices issus de l’optique (Sentinel-2). Les résultats montrent que la polarisation VV (incidence de 32°-34°) et VH (incidence de 43°-45°) sont respectivement préférables pour estimer les stades de l'épiaison et de pâteux mou. De plus, le rapport VV/VH (incidence de 32°-34°) est préférable pour détecter la germination et la récolte.La troisième partie a pour objectif de vérifier si la rotation blé-féverole, nécessitant des intrants agricoles extensifs (eau et azote), a une performance nettement meilleure que la rotation intensive blé-blé en termes de productivité, d’utilisation rationnelle des ressources, et de minimisation du risque économique à l’échelle parcellaire. Le modèle de croissance des cultures «CropSyst» a été adopté après avoir été calibré et validé sur notre zone d'étude. Les résultats montrent qu’il n’existe pas un scénario de système de culture optimal permettant d’assurer une productivité élevée, de réduire le risque économique et d’obtenir une efficacité élevée de l’utilisation de l’eau et de l’azote. Cependant, le scenario de rotation blé-féverole sans fertilisation du blé semble être un meilleur substitut à la rotation blé-blé en termes de production de protéines. Pour un sol avec une faible capacité de rétention, la production de protéines est de 0,93 t/ha et de 0,8 t/ha respectivement pour les rotations blé-féverole et blé-blé. Pour un sol avec capacité de rétention élevée, la production de protéines est de 1,34 t/ha pour blé-féverole contre 1,17 t/ha pour blé-blé. De plus, ce système de culture blé-féverole pourrait générer un bénéfice net plus élevé que celui du blé-blé. Enfin, la rotation blé-pomme de terre peut générer des bénéfices nets très élevés (8640 US DOLL./ha et 12170 US DOLL./ha) mais avec une faible efficacité des intrants et un risque économique élevé With global production exceeding 750 million tons in 2017, wheat is considered a staple food for the world's population. Wheat mapping and monitoring could then be a very effective tool for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG2-Zero Hunger). In Lebanon, wheat receives technical and financial support, yet many errors occur in estimating the wheat acreage due to absence of reliable agricultural census and lack of wheat mapping using satellite images. In addition, identifying the best rotation type and agricultural practices leads to identify the most efficient wheat-based cropping system in terms of productivity (protein production and net profit), efficiency (water and nitrogen use), as well as the economic risk on the farmer. Thus, The aim of the current study, which is conducted in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon, is to utilize remote sensing technology and crop modelling for supporting policy makers and end-users in making strategic decisions regarding one of the most food security-driving crop in the Mediterranean (i.e. winter wheat).The first part of the thesis evaluates the potential of optical data for early winter wheat mapping by allowing the transfer of knowledge from one year to another (2016 and 2017 in this study). For its high spatial and temporal resolutions, Sentinel-2 data are employed. Results show that when the developed approach was applied on Sentinel-2 time series of 2017 in using 2016 ground truth data, the overall accuracy reaches 87.0%, whereas, when implemented using 2017 ground truth data, the overall accuracy is 82.6% on 2016 data. The outputs are executed up to six weeks before harvest, as well as distinguishing winter wheat from similar cereals (barley and triticale).The second part of the thesis examines the ability of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) C-band data of the new radar satellite (Sentinel-1) regarding its ability to monitor winter wheat crop by identifying the economically important phenological phases that cannot be detected relying solely on NDVI derived from optical satellite Sentinel-2. Results show that VV polarization at incidence angle of 32°-34° is best for predicting heading, VH polarization at incidence angle of 43°-45° for predicting soft dough, and the ratio VV/VH at incidence angle of 32°-34° for predicting germination and harvesting.The third part of the thesis is dedicated to test, in contrasted biophysical and management conditions, the hypothesis that promoting wheat-fava bean rotation leads to a significantly better productivity and resources use efficiency, as well as, reducing economic risk than the promoted intensive wheat-wheat and wheat-potato rotations. The cropping simulation model “CropSyst” is used after being calibrated and validated by using experimental data for different wheat-based rotations combining different soil, climate and management options. The results show that there is no particular optimal scenario that can simultaneously ensure high productivity, reduce economic risk, and achieve high wheat- water- and nitrogen-use efficiency. However, the wheat-fava bean rotation cultivated with no wheat fertilization appears to be a better substitute to the wheat-wheat rotation in terms of protein production in both (low and high) Water Holding Capacity (WHC) soils (0.93 t/ha versus 0.8 t/ha in low WHC and 1.34 t/ha versus 1.17 t/ha in high WHC). This cropping system could achieve a higher net profit, showing high resource-use efficiency and good economic sustainability. Moreover, a very high profit could only be attained with the wheat-potato rotation (8640 US DOLL./ha and 12170 US DOLL./ha), yet with low input-efficiency and high economic risk.

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