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4 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis
  • Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

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  • Authors: Wærsted, Eivind;

    Fog causes hazards to human activity due to the reduction of visibility, especially through the risk of traffic accidents. Improving the forecasts of fog formation and dissipation is therefore an objective for research. This thesis analyses the life cycle of continental fog events occurring in the Paris area, using several ground-based remote sensing instruments deployed at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory. We focus on understanding the dissipation after sunrise and the local processes involved, assuming the fog layer is adiabatic (well-mixed). Over a 4-year period, more than 100 fog events are documented by observing cloud base (ceilometer), cloud top and clouds appearing above the fog (cloud radar), and the liquid water path (LWP) (microwave radiometer (MWR)). Most fog events dissipate by lifting of the base without a complete evaporation of the cloud, and often even without a reduction in LWP. This indicates that not only a reduction in LWP is important for fog dissipation, but also the evolution of the fog top, which together with the LWP determines whether the cloud extends down to the ground. Using the LES model DALES, we find a strong sensitivity of the vertical development of the fog top to the stratification above. By enhancing entrainment, a weak stratification at fog top can lead to earlier fog dissipation by (1) more depletion of LWP by entraining unsaturated air, especially if the air is dry, and (2) vertical development of the fog top leading to lifting of the fog base. The variability of this stratification can be observed reasonably well with the MWR temperature profile. In several cases of dissipation by lifting, the vertical profile of radar reflectivity in the fog has a max value near fog top prior to dissipation, which suggests a lack of bigger droplets in the lower levels of the fog. By observing the cloud top development, the stratification, the LWP and the profile of reflectivity, the radar and MWR provide information that has potential for anticipating fog dissipation by lifting.Radiative processes are studied using the comprehensive radiative transfer code ARTDECO. The radiative cooling at fog top can produce 40–70 g m-2 h-1 of LWP when the fog is opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (production is lower for thin fog) and there are no clouds above. This cooling thus is the main process of LWP production and can renew the fog LWP in 0.5–2 h. Its variability is mainly explained by the fog temperature and the humidity profile above. Clouds above the fog will strongly reduce this production, especially low clouds: a cloud with optical depth 4 can reduce it by 30 (100) % at 10 (2) km. Loss of LWP by absorption of solar radiation by the fog is 5–15 g m-2 h-1 around midday in winter, depending on cloud thickness, but it can be enhanced by 100 % in case of important amounts of absorbing aerosols (dry AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Heating due to solar radiation absorbed at the surface is found to be the dominating process of LWP loss after sunrise (according to LES model simulations), but its magnitude is sensitive to the Bowen ratio. However, observations of the turbulent heat fluxes during fog are not precise enough to quantify the Bowen ratio. The importance of the Bowen ratio means that improvements of its measurement during fog should be a priority.A conceptual model which calculates the LWP budget of fog directly from observations is developed. Using 12 observed parameters and 2 from reanalysis data, it calculates the impact on LWP of terrestrial and solar radiation, surface heat fluxes, entrainment, subsidence and deposition. It is applied to 45 observed fog events dissipating after sunrise. An important variability in radiation, entrainment and subsidence between the cases is found, which can partly explain the different dissipation times. While the terms of radiation are rather robust, several other terms suffer from significant uncertainties, leaving room for improvements in the future.; Le brouillard cause des dangers pour le trafic par la réduction de visibilité. L’amélioration des prévisions du brouillard est donc un objectif scientifique. Cette thèse analyse le cycle de vie des brouillards continentaux autour de Paris, observés par télédétection au sol à l’observatoire atmosphérique SIRTA. La thèse se focalise sur la compréhension des processus en jeu dans la dissipation après le lever du soleil, sous l’hypothèse d’une couche de brouillard adiabatique. Pendant 4 ans, plus de 100 événement de brouillard sont documentés par l’observation de la base du nuage (par télémètre), son sommet et la présence de nuages au-dessus (radar nuage), et le contenu intégré d’eau liquide (LWP) (radiomètre micro-onde (MWR)). La plupart des brouillards se dissipe suite à un soulèvement de la base, sans que tout le nuage s’évapore, et souvent sans une réduction du LWP. Donc, non seulement est la réduction du LWP importante pour la dissipation du brouillard, mais aussi l’évolution de son sommet, qui avec le LWP détermine l’altitude de la base. Des simulations par le modèle LES DALES montrent une sensibilité importante à la stratification au-dessus : en augmentant l’entrainement, une stratification faible au sommet peut accélérer la dissipation par (1) plus de perte d’eau liquide par l’entrainement de l’air non-saturé, et (2) par un développement vertical menant au lever de la base. La variabilité de cette stratification peut être raisonnablement bien observée par le profil de température du MWR. Avant la dissipation du brouillard par lever de la base, le radar observe souvent un max de réflectivité près du sommet, ce qui peut être lié à l’absence de grandes gouttelettes dans les basses couches. Donc, par leur observation du développement du sommet, le LWP, la stratification, et le profil de réflectivité, le radar et le MWR donnent des informations qui peuvent potentiellement anticiper la dissipation du brouillard.Les processus radiatifs sont étudiés avec le code de transfert radiatif ARTDECO. Le refroidissement radiatif au sommet du brouillard peut produire 40–70 g m-2 h-1 d’LWP quand le brouillard est opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (c’est moins pour les brouillards minces) et il n’y a pas de nuage au-dessus. C’est la source principale d’LWP et il peut renouveler le LWP du brouillard en 0.5–2 h. Sa variabilité s’explique principalement par la température du brouillard et le profil d’humidité au-dessus. Les nuages au-dessus du brouillard réduisent fortement la production, en particulier les nuages bas. La perte d’LWP par absorption de rayonnement solaire par le brouillard est 5–15 g m-2 h-1 autour de midi en hiver, dépendant de l’épaisseur du brouillard, mais ça peut augmenter par 100 % quand une quantité importante d’aérosols absorbants est présente (AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Nos résultats par simulation LES indiquent que le réchauffement par absorption de rayonnement solaire à la surface est le premier processus de perte d’LWP après le lever du soleil, mais sa magnitude est sensible au rapport de Bowen. Vu son importance, une amélioration de l’observation du rapport de Bowen dans le brouillard devrait être une priorité, car les observations actuelles des flux turbulents ne sont pas suffisamment précises pour quantifier le rapport de Bowen.Un modèle conceptuel pour calculer le bilan du LWP directement à partir des observations est développé. En utilisant 12 paramètres observés et 2 qui viennent d’une réanalyse, il calcule les impacts au LWP par rayonnement, flux de chaleur à la surface, entrainement, subsidence et dépôt. Ce modèle est appliqué à 45 brouillards observés qui se dissipent après le lever du soleil. Une variabilité importante dans le rayonnement, l’entrainement et la subsidence entre les cas est trouvée, qui peut en partie expliquer les différences en heure de dissipation. Tandis que les termes de rayonnement sont plutôt précis, des autres ont des incertitudes importantes et pourront être améliorés dans le futur.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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      Doctoral thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan;

    All physical systems interact by exchanging power, or energy. This energy can be explicitly taken into account when designing robotic systems, in dynamic models of systems and controllers, leading to more insight in energy-related effects. In this thesis, a biomimetic cheetah robot is developed, by first identifying core dynamic (energy-based) principles of the real cheetah and then translating them into a mechanical design. Theoretical aspects required for this analysis and design are amongst others synchronisation of limit cycles, energy-efficiency of hopping robots, passivity and energy-aware controllers, morphological computation. Finally, we introduce a biomimetic robotic bird on which we aim to apply the methods and tools used and developed for the cheetah.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2017
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      Doctoral thesis . 2017
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    Authors: Wærsted, Eivind;

    Le brouillard cause des dangers pour le trafic par la réduction de visibilité. L’amélioration des prévisions du brouillard est donc un objectif scientifique. Cette thèse analyse le cycle de vie des brouillards continentaux autour de Paris, observés par télédétection au sol à l’observatoire atmosphérique SIRTA. La thèse se focalise sur la compréhension des processus en jeu dans la dissipation après le lever du soleil, sous l’hypothèse d’une couche de brouillard adiabatique. Pendant 4 ans, plus de 100 événement de brouillard sont documentés par l’observation de la base du nuage (par télémètre), son sommet et la présence de nuages au-dessus (radar nuage), et le contenu intégré d’eau liquide (LWP) (radiomètre micro-onde (MWR)). La plupart des brouillards se dissipe suite à un soulèvement de la base, sans que tout le nuage s’évapore, et souvent sans une réduction du LWP. Donc, non seulement est la réduction du LWP importante pour la dissipation du brouillard, mais aussi l’évolution de son sommet, qui avec le LWP détermine l’altitude de la base. Des simulations par le modèle LES DALES montrent une sensibilité importante à la stratification au-dessus : en augmentant l’entrainement, une stratification faible au sommet peut accélérer la dissipation par (1) plus de perte d’eau liquide par l’entrainement de l’air non-saturé, et (2) par un développement vertical menant au lever de la base. La variabilité de cette stratification peut être raisonnablement bien observée par le profil de température du MWR. Avant la dissipation du brouillard par lever de la base, le radar observe souvent un max de réflectivité près du sommet, ce qui peut être lié à l’absence de grandes gouttelettes dans les basses couches. Donc, par leur observation du développement du sommet, le LWP, la stratification, et le profil de réflectivité, le radar et le MWR donnent des informations qui peuvent potentiellement anticiper la dissipation du brouillard.Les processus radiatifs sont étudiés avec le code de transfert radiatif ARTDECO. Le refroidissement radiatif au sommet du brouillard peut produire 40–70 g m-2 h-1 d’LWP quand le brouillard est opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (c’est moins pour les brouillards minces) et il n’y a pas de nuage au-dessus. C’est la source principale d’LWP et il peut renouveler le LWP du brouillard en 0.5–2 h. Sa variabilité s’explique principalement par la température du brouillard et le profil d’humidité au-dessus. Les nuages au-dessus du brouillard réduisent fortement la production, en particulier les nuages bas. La perte d’LWP par absorption de rayonnement solaire par le brouillard est 5–15 g m-2 h-1 autour de midi en hiver, dépendant de l’épaisseur du brouillard, mais ça peut augmenter par 100 % quand une quantité importante d’aérosols absorbants est présente (AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Nos résultats par simulation LES indiquent que le réchauffement par absorption de rayonnement solaire à la surface est le premier processus de perte d’LWP après le lever du soleil, mais sa magnitude est sensible au rapport de Bowen. Vu son importance, une amélioration de l’observation du rapport de Bowen dans le brouillard devrait être une priorité, car les observations actuelles des flux turbulents ne sont pas suffisamment précises pour quantifier le rapport de Bowen.Un modèle conceptuel pour calculer le bilan du LWP directement à partir des observations est développé. En utilisant 12 paramètres observés et 2 qui viennent d’une réanalyse, il calcule les impacts au LWP par rayonnement, flux de chaleur à la surface, entrainement, subsidence et dépôt. Ce modèle est appliqué à 45 brouillards observés qui se dissipent après le lever du soleil. Une variabilité importante dans le rayonnement, l’entrainement et la subsidence entre les cas est trouvée, qui peut en partie expliquer les différences en heure de dissipation. Tandis que les termes de rayonnement sont plutôt précis, des autres ont des incertitudes importantes et pourront être améliorés dans le futur. Fog causes hazards to human activity due to the reduction of visibility, especially through the risk of traffic accidents. Improving the forecasts of fog formation and dissipation is therefore an objective for research. This thesis analyses the life cycle of continental fog events occurring in the Paris area, using several ground-based remote sensing instruments deployed at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory. We focus on understanding the dissipation after sunrise and the local processes involved, assuming the fog layer is adiabatic (well-mixed). Over a 4-year period, more than 100 fog events are documented by observing cloud base (ceilometer), cloud top and clouds appearing above the fog (cloud radar), and the liquid water path (LWP) (microwave radiometer (MWR)). Most fog events dissipate by lifting of the base without a complete evaporation of the cloud, and often even without a reduction in LWP. This indicates that not only a reduction in LWP is important for fog dissipation, but also the evolution of the fog top, which together with the LWP determines whether the cloud extends down to the ground. Using the LES model DALES, we find a strong sensitivity of the vertical development of the fog top to the stratification above. By enhancing entrainment, a weak stratification at fog top can lead to earlier fog dissipation by (1) more depletion of LWP by entraining unsaturated air, especially if the air is dry, and (2) vertical development of the fog top leading to lifting of the fog base. The variability of this stratification can be observed reasonably well with the MWR temperature profile. In several cases of dissipation by lifting, the vertical profile of radar reflectivity in the fog has a max value near fog top prior to dissipation, which suggests a lack of bigger droplets in the lower levels of the fog. By observing the cloud top development, the stratification, the LWP and the profile of reflectivity, the radar and MWR provide information that has potential for anticipating fog dissipation by lifting.Radiative processes are studied using the comprehensive radiative transfer code ARTDECO. The radiative cooling at fog top can produce 40–70 g m-2 h-1 of LWP when the fog is opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (production is lower for thin fog) and there are no clouds above. This cooling thus is the main process of LWP production and can renew the fog LWP in 0.5–2 h. Its variability is mainly explained by the fog temperature and the humidity profile above. Clouds above the fog will strongly reduce this production, especially low clouds: a cloud with optical depth 4 can reduce it by 30 (100) % at 10 (2) km. Loss of LWP by absorption of solar radiation by the fog is 5–15 g m-2 h-1 around midday in winter, depending on cloud thickness, but it can be enhanced by 100 % in case of important amounts of absorbing aerosols (dry AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Heating due to solar radiation absorbed at the surface is found to be the dominating process of LWP loss after sunrise (according to LES model simulations), but its magnitude is sensitive to the Bowen ratio. However, observations of the turbulent heat fluxes during fog are not precise enough to quantify the Bowen ratio. The importance of the Bowen ratio means that improvements of its measurement during fog should be a priority.A conceptual model which calculates the LWP budget of fog directly from observations is developed. Using 12 observed parameters and 2 from reanalysis data, it calculates the impact on LWP of terrestrial and solar radiation, surface heat fluxes, entrainment, subsidence and deposition. It is applied to 45 observed fog events dissipating after sunrise. An important variability in radiation, entrainment and subsidence between the cases is found, which can partly explain the different dissipation times. While the terms of radiation are rather robust, several other terms suffer from significant uncertainties, leaving room for improvements in the future.

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    Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Budianu, Alexandru;

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project is aimed at developing a low-frequency radio telescope to observe the cosmic radiation in the 0.3–30-MHz domain. This frequency band is one of the last unexplored regions of radio astronomy, and studying it will reveal details about the so-called Dark Ages of the Universe, exoplanets, and other celestial bodies and phenomena. Building a telescope to capture these ultra-long electromagnetic (EM) waves requires overcoming a few obstacles such as the high level of terrestrial radio-frequency interference (RFI) or size of the required aperture (10–1,000 m). OLFAR will consist of a swarm of 50 or more nanosatellites that will sense the EM waves of interest, distribute the data within the swarm, process it, and send the end results to a base station (BS) on Earth. The scientific goal of the mission as well as the implementation details (the lunar orbit, the large number of spacecraft, the distributed processing, and the cubesat platform) will impose stringent restrictions on the communication layer of the OLFAR swarm. Both inter-satellite as well as swarm-to-Earth communication will have to deal with high data rates (in the order of Mbps), and will have to cover large distances (100 km and 400,000 km, respectively). The objective of this research is to determine whether a swarm of nanosatellites can meet the data flow requirements of a high-resolution imaging instrument for low-frequency radio astronomy. This thesis proposes solutions for the data distribution problems within the OLFAR swarm and from the OLFAR swarm to Earth. The solutions include a data distribution topology and an ISL design for in-swarm communications, as well as a cooperative downlink strategy and an antenna system for the swarm-to-Earth communication.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2015
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      Doctoral thesis . 2015
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  • Authors: Wærsted, Eivind;

    Fog causes hazards to human activity due to the reduction of visibility, especially through the risk of traffic accidents. Improving the forecasts of fog formation and dissipation is therefore an objective for research. This thesis analyses the life cycle of continental fog events occurring in the Paris area, using several ground-based remote sensing instruments deployed at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory. We focus on understanding the dissipation after sunrise and the local processes involved, assuming the fog layer is adiabatic (well-mixed). Over a 4-year period, more than 100 fog events are documented by observing cloud base (ceilometer), cloud top and clouds appearing above the fog (cloud radar), and the liquid water path (LWP) (microwave radiometer (MWR)). Most fog events dissipate by lifting of the base without a complete evaporation of the cloud, and often even without a reduction in LWP. This indicates that not only a reduction in LWP is important for fog dissipation, but also the evolution of the fog top, which together with the LWP determines whether the cloud extends down to the ground. Using the LES model DALES, we find a strong sensitivity of the vertical development of the fog top to the stratification above. By enhancing entrainment, a weak stratification at fog top can lead to earlier fog dissipation by (1) more depletion of LWP by entraining unsaturated air, especially if the air is dry, and (2) vertical development of the fog top leading to lifting of the fog base. The variability of this stratification can be observed reasonably well with the MWR temperature profile. In several cases of dissipation by lifting, the vertical profile of radar reflectivity in the fog has a max value near fog top prior to dissipation, which suggests a lack of bigger droplets in the lower levels of the fog. By observing the cloud top development, the stratification, the LWP and the profile of reflectivity, the radar and MWR provide information that has potential for anticipating fog dissipation by lifting.Radiative processes are studied using the comprehensive radiative transfer code ARTDECO. The radiative cooling at fog top can produce 40–70 g m-2 h-1 of LWP when the fog is opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (production is lower for thin fog) and there are no clouds above. This cooling thus is the main process of LWP production and can renew the fog LWP in 0.5–2 h. Its variability is mainly explained by the fog temperature and the humidity profile above. Clouds above the fog will strongly reduce this production, especially low clouds: a cloud with optical depth 4 can reduce it by 30 (100) % at 10 (2) km. Loss of LWP by absorption of solar radiation by the fog is 5–15 g m-2 h-1 around midday in winter, depending on cloud thickness, but it can be enhanced by 100 % in case of important amounts of absorbing aerosols (dry AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Heating due to solar radiation absorbed at the surface is found to be the dominating process of LWP loss after sunrise (according to LES model simulations), but its magnitude is sensitive to the Bowen ratio. However, observations of the turbulent heat fluxes during fog are not precise enough to quantify the Bowen ratio. The importance of the Bowen ratio means that improvements of its measurement during fog should be a priority.A conceptual model which calculates the LWP budget of fog directly from observations is developed. Using 12 observed parameters and 2 from reanalysis data, it calculates the impact on LWP of terrestrial and solar radiation, surface heat fluxes, entrainment, subsidence and deposition. It is applied to 45 observed fog events dissipating after sunrise. An important variability in radiation, entrainment and subsidence between the cases is found, which can partly explain the different dissipation times. While the terms of radiation are rather robust, several other terms suffer from significant uncertainties, leaving room for improvements in the future.; Le brouillard cause des dangers pour le trafic par la réduction de visibilité. L’amélioration des prévisions du brouillard est donc un objectif scientifique. Cette thèse analyse le cycle de vie des brouillards continentaux autour de Paris, observés par télédétection au sol à l’observatoire atmosphérique SIRTA. La thèse se focalise sur la compréhension des processus en jeu dans la dissipation après le lever du soleil, sous l’hypothèse d’une couche de brouillard adiabatique. Pendant 4 ans, plus de 100 événement de brouillard sont documentés par l’observation de la base du nuage (par télémètre), son sommet et la présence de nuages au-dessus (radar nuage), et le contenu intégré d’eau liquide (LWP) (radiomètre micro-onde (MWR)). La plupart des brouillards se dissipe suite à un soulèvement de la base, sans que tout le nuage s’évapore, et souvent sans une réduction du LWP. Donc, non seulement est la réduction du LWP importante pour la dissipation du brouillard, mais aussi l’évolution de son sommet, qui avec le LWP détermine l’altitude de la base. Des simulations par le modèle LES DALES montrent une sensibilité importante à la stratification au-dessus : en augmentant l’entrainement, une stratification faible au sommet peut accélérer la dissipation par (1) plus de perte d’eau liquide par l’entrainement de l’air non-saturé, et (2) par un développement vertical menant au lever de la base. La variabilité de cette stratification peut être raisonnablement bien observée par le profil de température du MWR. Avant la dissipation du brouillard par lever de la base, le radar observe souvent un max de réflectivité près du sommet, ce qui peut être lié à l’absence de grandes gouttelettes dans les basses couches. Donc, par leur observation du développement du sommet, le LWP, la stratification, et le profil de réflectivité, le radar et le MWR donnent des informations qui peuvent potentiellement anticiper la dissipation du brouillard.Les processus radiatifs sont étudiés avec le code de transfert radiatif ARTDECO. Le refroidissement radiatif au sommet du brouillard peut produire 40–70 g m-2 h-1 d’LWP quand le brouillard est opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (c’est moins pour les brouillards minces) et il n’y a pas de nuage au-dessus. C’est la source principale d’LWP et il peut renouveler le LWP du brouillard en 0.5–2 h. Sa variabilité s’explique principalement par la température du brouillard et le profil d’humidité au-dessus. Les nuages au-dessus du brouillard réduisent fortement la production, en particulier les nuages bas. La perte d’LWP par absorption de rayonnement solaire par le brouillard est 5–15 g m-2 h-1 autour de midi en hiver, dépendant de l’épaisseur du brouillard, mais ça peut augmenter par 100 % quand une quantité importante d’aérosols absorbants est présente (AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Nos résultats par simulation LES indiquent que le réchauffement par absorption de rayonnement solaire à la surface est le premier processus de perte d’LWP après le lever du soleil, mais sa magnitude est sensible au rapport de Bowen. Vu son importance, une amélioration de l’observation du rapport de Bowen dans le brouillard devrait être une priorité, car les observations actuelles des flux turbulents ne sont pas suffisamment précises pour quantifier le rapport de Bowen.Un modèle conceptuel pour calculer le bilan du LWP directement à partir des observations est développé. En utilisant 12 paramètres observés et 2 qui viennent d’une réanalyse, il calcule les impacts au LWP par rayonnement, flux de chaleur à la surface, entrainement, subsidence et dépôt. Ce modèle est appliqué à 45 brouillards observés qui se dissipent après le lever du soleil. Une variabilité importante dans le rayonnement, l’entrainement et la subsidence entre les cas est trouvée, qui peut en partie expliquer les différences en heure de dissipation. Tandis que les termes de rayonnement sont plutôt précis, des autres ont des incertitudes importantes et pourront être améliorés dans le futur.

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    Authors: Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan;

    All physical systems interact by exchanging power, or energy. This energy can be explicitly taken into account when designing robotic systems, in dynamic models of systems and controllers, leading to more insight in energy-related effects. In this thesis, a biomimetic cheetah robot is developed, by first identifying core dynamic (energy-based) principles of the real cheetah and then translating them into a mechanical design. Theoretical aspects required for this analysis and design are amongst others synchronisation of limit cycles, energy-efficiency of hopping robots, passivity and energy-aware controllers, morphological computation. Finally, we introduce a biomimetic robotic bird on which we aim to apply the methods and tools used and developed for the cheetah.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2017
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      Doctoral thesis . 2017
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    Authors: Wærsted, Eivind;

    Le brouillard cause des dangers pour le trafic par la réduction de visibilité. L’amélioration des prévisions du brouillard est donc un objectif scientifique. Cette thèse analyse le cycle de vie des brouillards continentaux autour de Paris, observés par télédétection au sol à l’observatoire atmosphérique SIRTA. La thèse se focalise sur la compréhension des processus en jeu dans la dissipation après le lever du soleil, sous l’hypothèse d’une couche de brouillard adiabatique. Pendant 4 ans, plus de 100 événement de brouillard sont documentés par l’observation de la base du nuage (par télémètre), son sommet et la présence de nuages au-dessus (radar nuage), et le contenu intégré d’eau liquide (LWP) (radiomètre micro-onde (MWR)). La plupart des brouillards se dissipe suite à un soulèvement de la base, sans que tout le nuage s’évapore, et souvent sans une réduction du LWP. Donc, non seulement est la réduction du LWP importante pour la dissipation du brouillard, mais aussi l’évolution de son sommet, qui avec le LWP détermine l’altitude de la base. Des simulations par le modèle LES DALES montrent une sensibilité importante à la stratification au-dessus : en augmentant l’entrainement, une stratification faible au sommet peut accélérer la dissipation par (1) plus de perte d’eau liquide par l’entrainement de l’air non-saturé, et (2) par un développement vertical menant au lever de la base. La variabilité de cette stratification peut être raisonnablement bien observée par le profil de température du MWR. Avant la dissipation du brouillard par lever de la base, le radar observe souvent un max de réflectivité près du sommet, ce qui peut être lié à l’absence de grandes gouttelettes dans les basses couches. Donc, par leur observation du développement du sommet, le LWP, la stratification, et le profil de réflectivité, le radar et le MWR donnent des informations qui peuvent potentiellement anticiper la dissipation du brouillard.Les processus radiatifs sont étudiés avec le code de transfert radiatif ARTDECO. Le refroidissement radiatif au sommet du brouillard peut produire 40–70 g m-2 h-1 d’LWP quand le brouillard est opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (c’est moins pour les brouillards minces) et il n’y a pas de nuage au-dessus. C’est la source principale d’LWP et il peut renouveler le LWP du brouillard en 0.5–2 h. Sa variabilité s’explique principalement par la température du brouillard et le profil d’humidité au-dessus. Les nuages au-dessus du brouillard réduisent fortement la production, en particulier les nuages bas. La perte d’LWP par absorption de rayonnement solaire par le brouillard est 5–15 g m-2 h-1 autour de midi en hiver, dépendant de l’épaisseur du brouillard, mais ça peut augmenter par 100 % quand une quantité importante d’aérosols absorbants est présente (AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Nos résultats par simulation LES indiquent que le réchauffement par absorption de rayonnement solaire à la surface est le premier processus de perte d’LWP après le lever du soleil, mais sa magnitude est sensible au rapport de Bowen. Vu son importance, une amélioration de l’observation du rapport de Bowen dans le brouillard devrait être une priorité, car les observations actuelles des flux turbulents ne sont pas suffisamment précises pour quantifier le rapport de Bowen.Un modèle conceptuel pour calculer le bilan du LWP directement à partir des observations est développé. En utilisant 12 paramètres observés et 2 qui viennent d’une réanalyse, il calcule les impacts au LWP par rayonnement, flux de chaleur à la surface, entrainement, subsidence et dépôt. Ce modèle est appliqué à 45 brouillards observés qui se dissipent après le lever du soleil. Une variabilité importante dans le rayonnement, l’entrainement et la subsidence entre les cas est trouvée, qui peut en partie expliquer les différences en heure de dissipation. Tandis que les termes de rayonnement sont plutôt précis, des autres ont des incertitudes importantes et pourront être améliorés dans le futur. Fog causes hazards to human activity due to the reduction of visibility, especially through the risk of traffic accidents. Improving the forecasts of fog formation and dissipation is therefore an objective for research. This thesis analyses the life cycle of continental fog events occurring in the Paris area, using several ground-based remote sensing instruments deployed at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory. We focus on understanding the dissipation after sunrise and the local processes involved, assuming the fog layer is adiabatic (well-mixed). Over a 4-year period, more than 100 fog events are documented by observing cloud base (ceilometer), cloud top and clouds appearing above the fog (cloud radar), and the liquid water path (LWP) (microwave radiometer (MWR)). Most fog events dissipate by lifting of the base without a complete evaporation of the cloud, and often even without a reduction in LWP. This indicates that not only a reduction in LWP is important for fog dissipation, but also the evolution of the fog top, which together with the LWP determines whether the cloud extends down to the ground. Using the LES model DALES, we find a strong sensitivity of the vertical development of the fog top to the stratification above. By enhancing entrainment, a weak stratification at fog top can lead to earlier fog dissipation by (1) more depletion of LWP by entraining unsaturated air, especially if the air is dry, and (2) vertical development of the fog top leading to lifting of the fog base. The variability of this stratification can be observed reasonably well with the MWR temperature profile. In several cases of dissipation by lifting, the vertical profile of radar reflectivity in the fog has a max value near fog top prior to dissipation, which suggests a lack of bigger droplets in the lower levels of the fog. By observing the cloud top development, the stratification, the LWP and the profile of reflectivity, the radar and MWR provide information that has potential for anticipating fog dissipation by lifting.Radiative processes are studied using the comprehensive radiative transfer code ARTDECO. The radiative cooling at fog top can produce 40–70 g m-2 h-1 of LWP when the fog is opaque (LWP >= 30 g m-2) (production is lower for thin fog) and there are no clouds above. This cooling thus is the main process of LWP production and can renew the fog LWP in 0.5–2 h. Its variability is mainly explained by the fog temperature and the humidity profile above. Clouds above the fog will strongly reduce this production, especially low clouds: a cloud with optical depth 4 can reduce it by 30 (100) % at 10 (2) km. Loss of LWP by absorption of solar radiation by the fog is 5–15 g m-2 h-1 around midday in winter, depending on cloud thickness, but it can be enhanced by 100 % in case of important amounts of absorbing aerosols (dry AOD=0.15, SSA=0.82).Heating due to solar radiation absorbed at the surface is found to be the dominating process of LWP loss after sunrise (according to LES model simulations), but its magnitude is sensitive to the Bowen ratio. However, observations of the turbulent heat fluxes during fog are not precise enough to quantify the Bowen ratio. The importance of the Bowen ratio means that improvements of its measurement during fog should be a priority.A conceptual model which calculates the LWP budget of fog directly from observations is developed. Using 12 observed parameters and 2 from reanalysis data, it calculates the impact on LWP of terrestrial and solar radiation, surface heat fluxes, entrainment, subsidence and deposition. It is applied to 45 observed fog events dissipating after sunrise. An important variability in radiation, entrainment and subsidence between the cases is found, which can partly explain the different dissipation times. While the terms of radiation are rather robust, several other terms suffer from significant uncertainties, leaving room for improvements in the future.

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    Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Budianu, Alexandru;

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project is aimed at developing a low-frequency radio telescope to observe the cosmic radiation in the 0.3–30-MHz domain. This frequency band is one of the last unexplored regions of radio astronomy, and studying it will reveal details about the so-called Dark Ages of the Universe, exoplanets, and other celestial bodies and phenomena. Building a telescope to capture these ultra-long electromagnetic (EM) waves requires overcoming a few obstacles such as the high level of terrestrial radio-frequency interference (RFI) or size of the required aperture (10–1,000 m). OLFAR will consist of a swarm of 50 or more nanosatellites that will sense the EM waves of interest, distribute the data within the swarm, process it, and send the end results to a base station (BS) on Earth. The scientific goal of the mission as well as the implementation details (the lunar orbit, the large number of spacecraft, the distributed processing, and the cubesat platform) will impose stringent restrictions on the communication layer of the OLFAR swarm. Both inter-satellite as well as swarm-to-Earth communication will have to deal with high data rates (in the order of Mbps), and will have to cover large distances (100 km and 400,000 km, respectively). The objective of this research is to determine whether a swarm of nanosatellites can meet the data flow requirements of a high-resolution imaging instrument for low-frequency radio astronomy. This thesis proposes solutions for the data distribution problems within the OLFAR swarm and from the OLFAR swarm to Earth. The solutions include a data distribution topology and an ISL design for in-swarm communications, as well as a cooperative downlink strategy and an antenna system for the swarm-to-Earth communication.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2015
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      Doctoral thesis . 2015
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