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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis

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  • Authors: Keriquel, Virginie;

    The development of Computer-Assisted Medical Interventions (CAMI) results from converging evolutions in medicine, physics, materials, electronics, informatics and robotics. CAMI aim at providing tools that allow the clinician to use multi-modal data in a rational and quantitative way in order to plan, simulate and execute mini-invasive medical interventions accurately and safely. In parallel, technological advances in the fields of automation, miniaturization and computer aided design and machining have also led to the development of bioprinting technologies which could be defined as the computer-aided, layer-by-layer deposition, transfer and patterning of biologically relevant materials. These results pave the way of using bioprinting technologies for Computer-Assisted Medical Interventions. More precisely, we show that 3D tissue constructs can be printed in vivo and in situ in relation with defect morphology. Interestingly, we demonstrate that printing cells in situ with a cell-level resolution tends to orientate tissue repair.; Le développement des Interventions Médicales Assistées par ordinateur (CAMI) est le résultat d'évolutions convergeantes dans les domaines de la médecine, physique, biomatériaux, électronique, informatique et robotique. CAMI visent à fournir les outils qui permettent au clinicien d'utiliser des données multi-modales de manière rationnelle et quantitative pour planifier, simuler et exécuter des interventions médicales mini-invasives avec précision et sans risque. Parallèlement, les avancées technologiques dans les domaines de l’automatisation, la miniaturisation, la conception assistée par ordinateur et l'usinage ont aussi mené au développement des technologies telles que la bioimpression assistée par ordinateur permettant une impression couche par couche de biomatériaux avec une géométrie contrôlée dans l’espace. Ces résultats ouvrent la voie pour l’utilisation des technologies de bioimpression pour des Interventions Médicales Assistées par ordinateur plus précises et sans risque. Dans ce travail, nous montrons que des constructions tissulaires 3D peuvent être imprimées in vivo et in situ et adaptées à la morphologie d’un défaut. Les résultats ont montré que l'impression de cellules in situ avec une résolution à l’échelle cellulaire a tendance à orienter la réparation tissulaire.

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    Authors: Oruç, Gökhan;

    AYDIN İLİ KARACASU İLÇESİ CEVİZ (Juglans regia L.) GENOTİPLERİNİN SELEKSİYONU Gökhan ORUÇ Doktora Tezi, Bahçe Bitkileri Anabilim Dalı Tez Danışmanı: Prof. Dr. Faik Ekmel TEKİNTAŞ Prof. Dr. Halil Güner SEFEROĞLU 2020, 163 sayfa Zengin biyoçeşitliliğe sahip olan ülkeler arasında yer alan Türkiye, bir çok türde gen merkezlerinden biridir. Bu bağlamda Aydın İli Karacasu İlçesindeki, sert kabuklu meyve türlerinden olan Ceviz (Juglans regia L.) popülasyonu üzerinde geç uyanma ve üstün meyve kalitesine sahip genotipleri seçmek amacıyla seleksiyon çalışması yürütülmüştür. Bunun için 5 farklı lokasyonda 720 km2 alandaki 8800 genotip taranmış ve 144 genotip belirlenmiştir. Belirlenen genotipler üzerinde fenolojik, morfolojik ve pomolojik özellikler incelenmiştir. Buna göre belirlenen genotiplerden 742,5-587,5 tartılı derecelendirme metodu puan aralığındaki 26 genotip, ümitvar genotipler olarak seçilmiş; meyve ağırlığı 7,19-13,85 gr aralığında (09_AYKA_86-09_AYKA_104), iç ağırlıkları 3,86-7,39 gr aralığında (09_AYKA_104-09_AYKA_27), randıman %39,01-60 oran (09_AYKA_114- 09_AYKA_116) aralıklarındaki kodlu genotiplerde belirlenmiştir. Meyve boyutları; meyve kalınlığı 26,42-37,76 mm, meyve eni 26,67-33,02 mm, meyve yüksekliği 31,22-41,20 mm aralığında ölçülmüş ve seçilen genotiplerin ekstra sınıfa girdiği tespit edilmiştir. Seçilen ümitvar genotipler dikogami açısından 13 protogeny, 3 protandri ve 10 homogami tarzında çiçeklenme (blooming) özelliği göstermiştir. 26 ümitvar genotipte lateral meyve tutum oranı (lateral bearing) %20-75 aralığında belirlenmiştir. Ümitvar genotiplerin en erken ve geç dönemde; uyanma dönemi açısından 7Mart-9Nisan (09_AYKA_30-09_AYKA_127), dişi çiçeklenme zamanı 19 Mart - 15 Mayıs (09_AYKA_30-09_AYKA_73), erkek çiçeklenme zamanı 22 Mart-19 Mayıs (09_AYKA_30-09_AYKA_73) tarihlerinde gerçekleşmiştir. Gerçekleştirilen Seleksiyon çalışması yerel genotiplerin standardizasyonu anlamında bu noktada önem arz etmekte ve çeşit oluşturma çalışmalarına ışık olacaktır. İÇİNDEKİLER ÖZET.....................................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................ix ÖNSÖZ...................................................................................................................xi SİMGELER KISALTMALAR DİZİNİ.............................................................xv ŞEKİLLER DİZİNİ...........................................................................................xvii ÇİZELGELER DİZİNİ......................................................................................xix .GİRİŞ ..................................................................................................................1 . KAYNAK ÖZETLERİ...................................................................................21 . MATERYAL VE YÖNTEM..........................................................................40 . Materyal........................................................................................................40 . Yöntem...........................................................................................................46 . Morfolojik Özelliklerin Belirlenmesi..........................................................46 . Fenolojik Özelliklerin Belirlenmesi ..........................................................47 . Pomolojik Özelliklerin Belirlenmesi.........................................................49 . Ümitvar genotiplerin belirlenmesi...............................................................53 . BULGULAR....................................................................................................55 . Morfolojk özellik verileri...............................................................................55 . Genotiplerin 2015 yılı morfolojik özelliklerine ait verileri.........................55 . Genotiplerin 2016 yılı morfolojik özelliklerine ait verileri.........................65 . Genotiplerin 2017 yılı morfolojik özelliklerine ait verileri.........................73 . Fenolojik özelliklere ait veriler ......................................................................74 . Genotiplerin fenolojik özelliklerinin 2015 yılı verileri ..............................74 xiv . Genotiplerin fenolojik özelliklerinin 2016 yılı verileri ............................. 81 Genotiplerin fenolojik özelliklerinin 2017 yılı verileri ................................ 86 . Pomolojik Özelliklere ait Veriler .................................................................. 86 . Genotiplerin 2015 yılı pomolojik verileri................................................... 87 . Genotiplerin 2016 yılı pomolojik verileri................................................. 102 . Genotiplerin 2017 yılı pomolojik verileri................................................. 115 . Tartılı Derecelendirme Metodu değerlendirilmesi ...................................... 117 . Tartılı Derecelendirme Metodu sonuçları................................................. 117 . Ümitvar genotiplerin belirlenmesi ve tanıtılması ..................................... 121 . Bazı özellikler bakımından üstün genotipler............................................... 135 .............................................................................. 137 ÖZGEÇMİŞ........................................................................................................163

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    Authors: Pan, Mingming;

    Ce travail vise à construire un système compact et facile à mettre en œuvre de réflectométrie guidée par ondes térahertz (TGR) en tirant parti de l'émetteur-récepteur térahertz et des guides d'ondes pour diverses applications. Par rapport aux systèmes conventionnels utilisant une méthode quasi-optique, le nouveau concept a une configuration beaucoup plus simple et permet des applications de sondage à distance.Après des études sur le développement de la technologie térahertz, un émetteur-récepteur à double ACP à pompage optique et deux émetteurs-récepteurs radar à ondes continues modulées en fréquence (FMCW) ainsi que des guides d'ondes à parois minces à noyau creux sont sélectionnés pour mettre en œuvre le premier système TGR en mode impulsionnel et en mode FMCW. Les deux expériences et la simulation 3D pleine onde sont exploitées pour étudier les comportements de propagation des ondes à l'intérieur du système et pour évaluer les performances du système. Les systèmes TGR créés font l'objet d'une démonstration à des fins d'imagerie et de détection. Grâce à la capacité de guidage du guide d'ondes, ces installations présentent un potentiel dans certaines conditions de mesure difficiles, comme dans un environnement étroit et semi-fermé ou dans le liquide. En particulier, la lentille d'immersion solide insérée à l'extrémité du guide d'ondes s'est avérée être une méthode efficace pour améliorer la capacité d'imagerie du système TGR en mode FMCW, donnant lieu à une résolution de sous-longueur d'onde dans la bande de fréquences autour de 100 GHz.En plus des études sur les systèmes TGR, un système de réflectométrie sur plaquette exploitant des sources à pompage optique est également proposé pour bénéficier de la large bande de fréquences des sources photoniques. Comme première tentative, des sondes RF associées à un émetteur-récepteur à double ACP sont utilisées pour délivrer le signal d'impulsion dans des échantillons sur la tranche et les signaux temporels obtenus sont analysés. D'autres propositions sont faites pour pousser plus loin cette étude. This work aims to build up a compact easily-implemented terahertz wave-guided reflectometry (TGR) system by taking advantage of the terahertz transceiver and waveguides for diverse applications. Compared to conventional systems using a quasi-optical method, the new concept has a much simpler configuration and allows for remote probing applications.After reviews on the development of terahertz technology, an optical-pumped double-PCA transceiver and two frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar transceivers together with hollow-core thin-wall waveguides are selected to implement the first TGR system in pulse mode and in FMCW mode. Both experiments and 3D full-wave simulation are exploited to investigate the propagation behaviors of waves inside the system and to evaluate the system performance. The created TGR systems are demonstrated for imaging and sensing purposes. Thanks to the guiding capacity of the waveguide, these setups show potential in some difficult measurement conditions, such as in a narrow semi-enclosed environment or the liquid. In particular, the solid immersion lens inserted at the end of the waveguide has been proved as an efficient method to enhance the imaging capacity of the TGR system in FMCW mode, giving rise to a subwavelength resolution at the frequency band around 100 GHz.In addition to the studies of TGR systems, an on-wafer reflectometry system exploiting optical-pumped sources is as well proposed to benefit from the wide frequency band of photonic sources. As the first attempt, RF probes in association with double-PCA transceiver are used to deliver the pulse signal into samples on-wafer and the obtained time signals are analyzed. More propositions are given to push further up this study.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Doctoral thesis
      Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Kirschner, Stefanie;

    Industrielle Röntgendurchleuchtungsgeräte lassen sich für die Untersuchung verschiedenster Fragestellungen anwenden. Das Spektrum der Anwendbarkeit reicht von der hochauflösenden in vivo-Bildgebung von z. B. Glioblastomen, zerebralen Hirngefäßen, abdominellen und thorakalen Organen in der Maus, bis hin zur hoch-auflösenden Untersuchung von Objekten wie z. B. Stents, Zähnen, Insekten oder auch einzelner Organe ex vivo. Desweitern zeichnet das hier eingesetzte industrielle Röntgengerät die Möglichkeit zur Strahlentherapie von Tieren aus, was mit herkömmlichen speziellen Kleintier-Computertomographen nicht möglich ist. Ziel dieser Dissertation war zum einen die Etablierung eines Glioblastom-Maus-Modells und anschließend die Überprüfung der Anwendbarkeit eines Mikro-CT für die wiederholte bildgebende Darstellung der Hirntumoren vor und nach Strahlentherapie. Darüber hinaus wurde die Mikro-CT für die Evaluierung sowohl der Verschlussrate von Aneurysmen als auch der artefaktfreien Darstellung der verwendeten Materialien im Modellversuch getestet. Wir konnten in beiden von uns durchgeführten Studien die Mikro-CT erfolgreich zur Bildgebung anwenden. Zur Etablierung des Glioblastom-Maus-Modells wurde die gesamte OP-Methode zur Tumorzellimplantation in das Gehirn zunächst an toten Mäusen durchgeführt. Anstatt Zellen wurde eine äquivalente Menge an mit Kontrastmittel vermengter Methylcellulose des später geplanten Injektionsvolumens an Zellen in das Gehirn appliziert. Anschließend wurde zur Erfolgskontrolle eine Röntgenaufnahme im Mikro-CT angefertigt. Anhand der Aufnahmen konnten wir die genaue Lokalisation und Ausdehnung der applizierten Menge beurteilen und unsere OP-Methode gegebenenfalls optimieren. Erst nach verlässlicher Reproduzierbarkeit der OP wurden humane Zellen in vivo in die rechte Hemisphäre von insgesamt 27 NOD/SCID/yc-/- Mäusen injiziert. Zwei Wochen nach Xenotransplantation erfolgte eine erste kontrasmittelgestützte Untersuchung im Mikro-CT zur Tumordetektion. Bei negativem Befund wurde bei den Tieren wöchentlich eine weitere Mikro-CT durchgeführt. Tiere mit positivem Befund wurden je nach geplantem Versuch nicht therapiert (n=21) oder mittels Strahlentherapie (n=6) behandelt. Alle Tiere wurden im weiteren Verlauf wöchentlich bis zum Versuchsende im Mikro-CT untersucht. Insgesamt wurden 103 kontrastmittelgestützte Untersuchungen im Mikro-CT durchgeführt. Der maximale Tumordurchmesser und das maximale Tumorvolumen wurden anhand der einzelnen CT-Datensätze bestimmt. Zusätzlich wurden die Gehirne histologisch aufgearbeitet um das maximale Volumen und den maximalen Durchmesser der Tumore anhand der Histologie zu berechnen. Die histologischen Ergebnisse wurden mit der jeweils letzten Mikro-CT (durchgeführt am Tag des Versuchsendes) verglichen. Die hervorragende Korrelation von maximalem Tumordurchmesser und Tumorvolumen ermittelt in der Mikro-CT mit den Ergebnissen aus der Histologie (Tumordurchmesser: 0,929, p < 0,001; Tumorvolumen: 0969, p < 0,001, n = 17) belegt die hohe Genauigkeit und damit Anwendbarkeit der Mikro-CT für ein Hirntumormodell. Die hohe Sensitivität (0,95) und Spezifität (0,71) belegen zusätzlich die Exaktheit der Mikro-CT zur Erkennung von Gehirntumoren in sehr kleinen Tieren wie Mäusen (PPV=0,91, NPV=0,83). Die zweite im Rahmen dieser kumulativen Dissertation eingereichte Arbeit befasst sich mit der Evaluation einer neuen Methode zur Embolisation von Aneurysmen. Hierzu wurden Aneurysmen mit einem dicht gewobenem Stent (sog. Flow diverter) überdeckt. Über einen zuvor im Aneurysma platzierten Mikrokatheter wurde das Aneurysma mit Mikropartikeln embolisiert, welche größer als die Maschen des flussmodulierenden Stents sind. Die Mikro-CT konnten wir erfolgreich einsetzen, um mit einer hohen Auflösung die 700–900 µm kleinen Partikel im Aneurysma darzustellen und die komplette Ausfüllung des Aneurysmas zu verifizieren. Auch die Maschendichte des Stents im Verhältnis zum Aneurysma konnte mittels Mikro-CT analysiert werden. Die Möglichkeit der wiederholten Darstellbarkeit von Gehirntumoren im zeitlichen Verlauf mittels Mikro-CT bietet eine Grundlage für weitere Versuchsvorhaben, wie z. B. die Visualisierung morphologischer Veränderungen des Tumors unter verschiedenen Therapieansätzen. Die erfolgreiche Evaluation der Verschlussrate von Aneurysmen mittels einer neuen Technik in der Mikro-CT ist ein wesentlicher Schritt, bevor es zu einer ersten Anwendung im lebenden Tier kommt. Beide hier vorgestellten Arbeiten tragen durch den erfolgreichen Einsatz eines bildgebenden Verfahrens erheblich zur langfristigen Senkung der Versuchstierzahlen bei. Zusammenfassend konnten wir durch die erfolgreiche Anwendung der Mikro-CT in den hier vorgestellten Arbeiten das Spektrum der Anwendbarkeit eines industriellen Mikro-CTs in der präklinischen Forschung deutlich erweitern. Micro-CT systems are being used with increasing frequency in preclinical research. The range of examinations includes high-resolution in vivo imaging of glioblastoma, cerebral vessels, abdominal and thoracic organs in mice as well as investigation of other small objects like stents, teeth, insects or single organs ex vivo or in vitro. In addition, micro-CT may be used for radiation therapy of small rodents like mice and rats, as shown in our studies. Aim of this thesis was to establish an orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model and to evaluate the applicability of a micro-CT for repetetive imaging of brain tumors in mice. We furthermore used a micro-CT to evaluate the distribution of microspheres used to treat a silicone aneurysm model. The glioblastoma mouse model was trained in dead mice first. Instead of tumor cells we first injected methylcellulose mixed with contrast agent to train intracerebral injections. The use of contrast agent allowed us to verify our injection technique by subsequent micro-CT. After successfully establishing the technique, human brain tumor cells were in injected into the right hemisphere of n = 27 NOD/SCID/yc-/- mice. Two weeks after xenotransplantation mice underwent first contrast-enhanced micro-CT. Animals with negative results in micro-CT received additional micro-CT scans weekly until brain tumors were detected. Animals were left untreated (control group), or were treated with radiation- or chemotherapy. During treatment all animals received weekly micro-CT scans until animals had to be sacrificed. The maximum diameter and volume of intracerebrally growing xenografts were measured. Brains of sacrificed mice were histologically worked up and maximum tumor diameter and tumor volume were measured again. Results from histology were compared to micro-CT data. The excellent correlation between maximum tumor diameter and tumor volume measured in micro-CT and histology (tumor diameter: 0.929, p < 0.001; tumor volume: 0.969, p < 0.001, n=17). Sensitivity and specificity of micro-CT were 0.95 and 0.71, respectively (PPV=0.91, NPV=0.83). This proved the high accurary of micro-CT for brain tumor detection in animals as small as mice. The second paper referenced to within this doctoral thesis describes the evaluation of the distribution of microspheres within a silicon aneurysm and the degree of aneurysm occlusion. For this purpose a silicon aneurysm was treated with a densely woven stent (a so called flow diverter). Additionally, the aneurysm was embolized with microspheres larger than the pores of the stent via a microcatheter previously placed in the aneurysm. Using our micro-CT we were able to visualize the 700-900 µm small microspheres, which allowed us to verify complete embolization of the aneurysm. Furthermore, the mesh density of the flow diverter in relation to the size of the microspheres was analyzed using the micro-CT. From our findings we conclude, that micro-CT is a versatile tool that may be used for imaging of a vast range of objects and thus propose that micro-CT will be used with increasing frequency in preclinical research.

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    Authors: Sundell, David;

    Lignocellulosic plants are the most abundant source of terrestrial biomass and are one of the potential sources of renewable energy that can replace the use of fossil fuels. For a country such as Sweden, where the forest industry accounts for 10% of the total export, there would be large economical benefits associated with increased biomass yield. The availability of research on wood development conducted in conifer tree species, which represent the majority of the forestry in Sweden, is limited and the majority of research has been conducted in model angiosperm species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the large evolutionary distance between angiosperms and gymnosperms limits the possibility to identify orthologous genes and regulatory pathways by comparing sequence similarity alone. At such large evolutionary distances, the identification of gene similarity is, in most cases, not sufficient and additional information is required for functional annotation. In this thesis, two high-spatial resolution datasets profiling wood development were processed; one from the angiosperm tree Populus tremula and the other from the conifer species Picea abies. These datasets were each published together with a web resource including tools for the exploration of gene expression, co-expression and functional enrichment of gene sets. One developed resource allows interactive, comparative co-expression analysis between species to identify conserved and diverged co-expression modules. These tools make it possible to identifying conserved regulatory modules that can focus downstream research and provide biologists with a resource to identify regulatory genes for targeted trait improvement. Lignocellulosa är den vanligast förekommande källan till markburen biomassa och är en av de förnybara energikällor som potentiellt kan ersätta användningen av fossila bränslen. För ett land som Sverige, där skogsindustrin som står för 10 \% av den totala exporten, skulle därför en ökad produktion av biomassa kunna ge stora ekonomiska fördelar. Forskningen på barrträd, som utgör majoriteten av svensk skog är begränsad och den huvudsakliga forskningen som har bedrivits på växter, har skett i modell organismer tillhörande gruppen gömfröiga växter som till exempel i Arabidopsis thaliana. Det evolutionära avståndet mellan gömfröiga (blommor och träd) och nakenfröiga (gran och tall) begränsar dock möjligheten att identifiera regulatoriska system mellan dessa grupper. Vid sådana stora evolutionära avstånd krävs det mer än att bara identifiera en gen i en modellorganism utan ytterligare information krävs som till exempel genuttrycksdata. I denna avhandling har två högupplösta experiment som profilerar vedens utveckling undersökts; ett från gömfröiga träd Populus tremula och det andra från nakenföriga träd (barrträd) Picea abies. Datat som behandlats har publicerats tillsammans med webbsidor med flera olika verktyg för att bland annat visa genuttryck, se korrelationer av genuttryck och test för anrikning av funktionella gener i en grupp. En resurs som utvecklats tillåter interaktiva jämförelser av korrelationer mellan arter för att kunna identifiera moduler (grupper av gener) som bevaras eller skilts åt mellan arter över tid. Identifieringen av sådana bevarade moduler kan hjälpa att fokusera framtida forskning samt ge biologer en möjlighet att identifiera regulatoriska gener för en riktad förbättring av egenskaper hos träd.

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    Становлення ринкових відносин в Україні супроводжується значними труднощами в проведенні реформ як в економічній площині, так і соціально-політичній. Особливо важким є процес перетворень в аграрній сфері. Досвід розвинених країн світу свідчить про значні масштаби державної підтримки фермерів. Проте, недостатньо вивченими залишаються питання врахування різновекторного впливу заходів державного регулювання в коротко- та довгостроковому періодах. В цьому зв’язку актуальною є проблема пошуку оптимальних стратегій державного втручання в ринкове середовище в аграрному секторі, враховуючи фактор часу. При цитуванні документа, використовуйте посилання http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/36993

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    Authors: Ayan, Alp;

    Bu tez çalışması kapsamında ülkemizde yaygın ekime sahip olan Osmancık-97 ve Karadeniz bölgesinde geliştirilmiş olan Mevlütbey çeltik çeşitlerinden, gama radyasyonu ile tuzluluğa toleranslı mutantların elde edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Cs-137 gama radyasyonu kaynağı ile 0, 250, 300 ve 400 Gy dozlarında çeltik tohumları ışınlanmıştır. Işınlanan tohumlar Karadeniz Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü deneme tarlalarına ekilerek M1 generasyonunda radyasyonun neden olduğu fizyolojik zararlanmalar gözlenmiş ve bitkilerden tohum alınmıştır.Tuza toleranslı mutantların belirlenmesi için seleksiyonlar M2 generasyonunda T.C. İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Moleküler Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü Bitki Biyoteknolojisi Laboratuvarı'nda yapılmıştır. In vivo ortamda yapılan seleksiyonlarda seçilen tuzluluğa toleranslı 86 mutantın 43 tanesi Osmancık-97 çeşidine aittir. Seçilen M2 generasyonundaki mutant bitkiler tohum elde etmek amacıyla Trakya Tarımsal Araştırma Müdürlüğü deneme tarlalarına dikilmiştir.M3 generasyonunda tuz toleransının devamlılığının kontrol edilmesi için in vitro kallus kültürleri kurulmuştur. Kültürler için kullanılan eksplantlar tohumların embriyonik kısımlarından alınmıştır. Doku kültürlerinde kallus eldesi için en uygun besi yeri içeriği B3 besi yeri (MS tuzları, 3 mg/L 2,4-D ve 560 mg/L prolin) olarak tespit edilmiştir. In vitro kültürlerin sonuçları doğrultusunda tuz stresi altında, tuz stresi uygulanmamış Osmancık-97 kontrol kalluslarına göre daha iyi kallus gelişimi gösteren 250-2, 300-5, 400-2 ve 400-5 mutantları ile moleküler karakterizasyon çalışmalarının yapılmasına karar verilmiştir.Seçilen tuza toleranslı mutantların tuzlu ve tuzsuz ortamlarda biyokimyasal cevaplarını belirlemek amacı ile lipid peroksidasyon, prolin miktarı, fotosentetik pigment konsantrasyonu, total protein konsantrasyonu, peroksidaz, superoksit dismutaz, katalaz enzim aktivitesi saptanmıştır.Seçilen tuza toleranslı mutantların kökenlendikleri Osmancık-97 çeşidi ile ve birbirleriyle olan genetik uzaklıklarını belirlemek için ISSR primerleri kullanılarak PZR yapılmıştır. Elde edilen bant profillerine göre Jaccard genetik benzerlik matrisi oluşturulmuş ve UPGMA dendogramı çizilmiştir. Elde edilen dendogramda Osmancık-97 çeşidi ve mutantların tuz uygulanmış ve uygulanmamış örnekleri iki kümeye ayrılmıştır. Dendogram sonuçları mutantların tamamının Osmancık-97 çeşidinden ayrı alt gruplarda yer aldıklarını göstermiştir.Tuza toleranslı mutantların iki boyutlu proteomik analizleri yapılmıştır. Elde edilen protein spotu profilleri değerlendirilerek tuz stresi altında anlatım farklılığı gösteren 30 protein tespit edilmiştir. Kütle spektroskopisi yöntemi ile tanımlanan bu proteinlerden 9 tanesinin (ribüloz bisfosfat karboksilaz/oksigeneaz aktivaz, trioz fosfat izomeraz, 2-Cys peroksiredoksin, oksijen-evolving enhancer protein 1, ferritin-1, ferredoksin--NADP redüktaz, gliseraldehit-3-fosfat dehidrogenaz, tubby-benzeri F-box protein 11, peptidil-prolil cis-trans izomeraz) tuz stresine tolerans ile bağlantılı olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmamızda, çeltik mutantlarının tuz stresi altında verdiği cevaplardaki farklılıklarda, özellikle ferredoksin-NADP redüktaz, oksijen-evolving enhancer protein 1, trioz fosfat izomeraz ve 2-Cys peroksiredoksin proteinleri rol oynamaktadır.Sonuç olarak, ülkemizde bu tez kapsamında ilk defa radyasyon ile tuza toleranslı çeltik mutantların geliştirilebildiği gösterilmiştir. Yapılan çalışma sonucunda tuza toleranslı dört farklı çeltik mutantı elde edilmiştir. Bu dört mutantın farklı çevre, iklim ve coğrafik koşullarda daha yüksek ürün potansiyeline sahip çeşitlerin geliştirilmesinde önemli rolü olacaktır. Ayrıca araştırmada kullanılan çeltik çeşitleri ülkemizde geliştirilen yerli çeşitler olması nedeni ile yapılan bu mutasyon çalışması ülkemiz ekonomisi açısından ayrı bir öneme sahiptir. In context of this Ph. D. thesis study, it is aimed to obtain salinity tolerance on Osmancık-97, which is widely planted rice variety in our country, and Mevlütbey, which is a rice variety improved in Black Sea region, by using gamma radiation. Rice seeds were irradiated by 0, 250, 300 ve 400 Gy dose of Cs-137 source. Irradiated seeds were planted in the experimental fields of Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute and physiological effects of radiation on M1 generation were observed, as well as seed were harvested.Selections in M2 generation for determination of salt tolerant mutants were conducted in Plant Biotechnology Laboratory of T.C. Istanbul Kultur University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics. Following in vivo selections, 43 of selected salt tolerant mutants were belonging to Osmancık-97 variety. Selected M2 generation mutant plants were planted to Trakya Agricultural Research Institute to obtain seeds.In vitro callus cultures were established in order to determine persistence of salt tolerance in M3 generation. Embrios of the seeds were selected as explant source. B3 medium (MS salts, 3 mg/L 2,4-D, 560 mg/L proline) is determined to be the most suitable medium for callus induction. In respect to the data obtained from in vitro studies, 250-2, 300-5, 400-2 and 400-5 mutants which presented better callus growth comparing to the untreated Osmancık-97 control calluses were selected for further molecular characterization studies.Biochemical responses of selected salt tolerant mutants under salt treated and untreated conditions were evaluated by lipid peroxidation, proline content, photosynthetic pigment content, total protein content, enzyme activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase results.Genetic distance between mutants and Osmancık-97 as their origin were determined by PCR reactions conducted with ISSR primers. Jaccard genetic similarity matrix was generated according to the band profiles and UPGMA dendrogram was drawn. According to the dendrogram, Osmancık-97 variety and salt treated/untreated mutants divided into two distinct clusters. Moreover, all the mutants were seperated from Osmancık-97 variety in different sub-clusters.Two dimensional proteomic analysis of salt tolerant mutants were conducted. Evaluation of protein spot profiles of samples presented that 30 proteins were differed in expression. 9 of these 30 proteins (ribulose biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase activase, triose phosphate isomerase, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, oxygene-evolving enhancer protein 1, ferritine-1, ferredoxin-NADP reductase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, tubby-like F-box protein 11, peptydil-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) were characterized by mass spectroscopy and they were found to be salt tolerans related. In this study, proteomic response differences between rice mutants under salt stress were found to be related to the roles of ferredoxin-NADP reductase, oxygene-evolving enhancer protein 1, triose phosphate isomerase and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin proteins.As a result, it is the first time in Turkey that we presented salt tolerant rice mutants can be induced by gamma radiation. In this study, four different salt tolerant rice mutants were obtained. These four mutants will play important roles on improving novel rice varieties which have higher yield potential under different environmental, climate and geographical conditions. Also, this study is important for our country's economy due to the fact that our salt tolerant mutants were induced from our local rice varieties. 201

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    Authors: Herr, Christina;

    In a time of climate change and against the background of intensive animal husbandry and biogas production in Germany, strategies for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) release and Nitrogen (N) losses from silage maize production become increasingly important, especially for organic fertilizers. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to determine the height of GHG release from silage maize production on a medium textured soil which is typical for this region in Southwest Germany and to evaluate useful fertilization opportunities to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) footprint per yield unit. To identify management factors improving GHG budget from silage maize, annual nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) measurements were carried out during maize growth and subsequent black fallow at least weekly. Investigations were conducted over two years on two adjacent fields (one for each study year). Amounts of ammonia (NH3) volatilizations after fertilization and nitrate (NO3-) leaching losses were also included in GHG balances. In dependence on available data, determined or estimated values were used. Additionally, yield and N removal from maize plants were quantified. The basic treatments of this study which investigated impact of fertilizer form and application techniques, were an unfertilized control (CON), a mineral fertilization (MIN), a banded cattle slurry application by trailing hose and subsequent incorporation (INC) and a cattle slurry injection (INJ). As confirmed repeatedly, in contrast to broadcast slurry incorporation, slurry injection efficiently reduced the risk of NH3 losses by direct slurry placement into the soil, but simultaneously provoked N2O formation more strongly, probably due to the anaerobic conditions in the injection slot favoring denitrification. For reducing N2O release from slurry injection, the applicability of six single or combined nitrification inhibitors (NIs) concerning potential GHG reduction were investigated. This N2O reduction should be reached through the desynchronized availability of carbon (C) and NO3-, derived from nitrified slurry ammonium (NH4+). Thus, in the period after slurry application, N2O losses from denitrification as well as from nitrification should be reduced through NIs. For final evaluation, collection of measured and estimated data (including direct and indirect N2O losses (NH3, NO3-), CH4 budget, pre-chain emissions from mineral fertilizer and fuel consumption) were converted into CO2 equivalents and summarized as area- or yield-related GHG balances. Except for one of the INJ treatments with NI (exclusively investigated in the first year) and one INC treatment with NI (exclusively investigated in the second year), all remaining treatments were tested in both experimental years. The height of NH3 emissions from INC treatment (12-23 % of applied NH4+-N) was more weather-dependent than those from INJ treatment (12-15 % of applied NH4+-N). In mean over both years, cumulative N2O emission from INJ treatment (13.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), was significantly higher than from CON, MIN, and INC which recorded 2.8, 4.7, and 4.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1. NIs decreased the fertilization-induced N2O emissions from injection by 36 % (mean over all NIs and years) by an order of magnitude comparable to slurry incorporation. The NIs investigated tended to be categorized in inhibitors with prior and delayed inhibitory maximum. Whether low persistence, or poor biological degradability was an advantage, depended on environmental conditions. A combination of two NIs, one with putative prior and one with delayed release behavior reached the highest N2O reduction. In the additional INC treatment, this NI combination tended to reduce annual N2O release by 20 % in comparison to incorporation without inhibitor. Beside the potential of reducing fertilization-induced N2O emissions, NIs might also help to improve CH4 budgets in silage maize production. In general, CON, MIN and INC were net CH4 sinks in both years with mean uptakes of 460, 127, and 793 g CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Conversely, slurry injection resulted in net CH4 emissions of 3144 g CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 (mean over both years). However, NIs tended to reduce CH4 emissions from injection by around 48 % and increased CH4 consumption from slurry incorporation by 20 %. Across all treatments and years, direct N2O emissions were the major contributor to total GHG balance. Yield-related GHG budgets from both years were lowest for CON, followed by INC or MIN treatment and significantly highest for sole slurry injection. NIs decreased fertilization-induced GHG release from injection in mean over both years by order of magnitude comparable with slurry incorporation. Consequently, alongside slurry incorporation and broadcast mineral fertilization, slurry injection combined with recommended NIs was evaluated as an equally appropriate fertilization strategy in terms of the atmospheric burden for livestock farmers. In Zeiten des Klimawandels und vor dem Hintergrund intensiver Tierhaltung und Biogasproduktion in Deutschland gewinnen Treibhausgas (THG)-Emissionen und Stickstoff (N)-Verluste in der Silomaisproduktion, insbesondere beim Einsatz organischer Düngemittel zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Studie war es daher, den THG-Ausstoß für die Silomaisproduktion in einer Region Südwestdeutschlands auf einem für diese Region typischen mittelschweren Boden zu quantifizieren und anhand unterschiedlicher Düngungsstrategien klimafreundliche Methoden mit möglichst geringem CO2-Fußabdruck herauszustellen. Zur Quantifizierung der THG-Bilanzen von Silomais mit unterschiedlichen Reduktionsansätzen, wurden durchgehend über zwei Jahre hinweg mindestens einmal wöchentlich Lachgas (N2O)- und Methan (CH4)-Flüsse gemessen. Zudem wurden indirekte N2O Emissionen (Ammoniak (NH3), Nitrat (NO3-)) erfasst oder geschätzt sowie Silomaiserträge und N-Abfuhren ermittelt. Jedes der beiden Versuchsjahre beinhaltete folgende Basis-Behandlungen: ungedüngte Kontrolle (CON), mineralische Düngung (MIN), Rindergülleapplikation mittels Schleppschlauch und anschließender Einarbeitung (INC) und Rindergülleinjektion (INJ). Im Gegensatz zur oberflächigen Gülleapplikation mit breitflächiger Einarbeitung ist die Gülleinjektion dafür bekannt, NH3-Verluste durch die direkte Platzierung in den Boden effektiver zu mindern, im Gegenzug allerdings die N2O-Bildung zu erhöhen. Um die vermehrte N2O-Produktion dieser Applikationstechnik zu vermindern, wurde der Einsatz sechs verschiedener Nitrifikationsinhibitoren (NIs) zur strategischen THG-Minderung zusätzlich untersucht. Abgesehen von einer INJ-Variante mit NI, die im zweiten Jahr durch eine zusätzliche INC-Variante mit NI ersetzt wurde, wurden alle übrigen Behandlungen in beiden Jahren untersucht. Für die abschließende Bewertung der getesteten Düngungsstrategien wurden die zur THG-Bilanz beitragenden Posten in CO2-Äquivalente umgewandelt und auf Flächen- oder Ertragseinheiten bezogen. Hierbei wurden direkte und indirekte N2O-Emissionen (NH3, NO3-), CH4-Budget, Vorketten-Emissionen für die Mineraldüngerbereitstellung und der Dieselverbrauch für Feldmaßnahmen berücksichtigt. Die Höhe der NH3-Emissionen der INC-Behandlung (12-23 % des gedüngten NH4+-N) war stärker von den Witterungsverhältnissen abhängig als die der INJ-Behandlung (12-15 % des gedüngten NH4+-N). Kumulative N2O-Emissionen der Gülleinjektion betrugen im Mittel über beide Jahre 13.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 Jahr-1 und lagen damit signifikant über dem Mittel der CON-, MIN-, oder INC-Behandlung, die Emissionen in Höhe von 2.8, 4.7 und 4.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 Jahr-1 verzeichneten. Der Einsatz von NIs reduzierte die jährlichen N2O-Emissionen der Gülleinjektion im Durchschnitt über alle NIs und Jahre um 36 % und machte die Gülleinjektion mit der INC-Behandlung somit vergleichbar. Innerhalb dieser Studie konnten die verwendeten NIs tendenziell in zwei Gruppen eingeteilt werden. Eine Gruppe mit vermeintlich geringerer Persistenz und früherem Inhibierungsmaximum im Boden und eine Gruppe, deren Substanzen ihre volle Wirkung erst zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt entfalteten. Welche Gruppe eine vermeintlich höhere Inhibierungswirkung aufwies, hing stark von den Umweltbedingungen des jeweiligen Versuchsjahres ab. Die INJ-Variante, die sowohl ein NI mit früherem und späterem Inhibierungsmaximum enthielt, verzeichnete tendenziell das höchste N2O-Reduktionspotential. Für die zusätzliche INC-Behandlung mit NI, wurde ebenfalls diese Wirkstoffkombination angewendet, sie erzielte eine N2O-Reduktion von 20 % im Vergleich zur Gülleeinarbeitung ohne Hemmstoff. Der Einsatz von NIs stellte sich auch für das CH4-Budget als vorteilhaft heraus. Die Behandlungen CON, MIN und INC zeigten in beiden Jahren eine Netto-CH4-Aufnahme mit durchschnittlich 460, 127 und 793 g CH4-C ha-1 Jahr-1. Im Gegensatz dazu führte eine Gülleinjektion in beiden Jahren zu Netto-CH4-Emissionen mit durchschnittlich 3144 g CH4-C ha-1 Jahr-1. Der Einsatz von NIs reduzierte die Höhe dieser CH4-Emissionen allerdings um rund die Hälfte. Außerdem führte eine inhibierte Nitrifikation bei breitflächiger Gülleeinarbeitung tendenziell zur Erhöhung der CH4-Aufnahme um 20 %. Die direkten N2O-Emissionen hatten, unabhängig von Behandlung oder Jahr, den größten Anteil an der THG-Bilanz. Die geringste ertragsbezogene THG-Bilanz ergab sich für die Variante CON, gefolgt von INC oder MIN, die höchste ergab sich für die INJ-Variante. Allerdings konnten die rein auf die Düngungsmaßnahme bezogenen THG-Emissionen der Gülleinjektion durch den Einsatz von NIs im Mittel über beide Jahre auf ein THG-Niveau abgesenkt werden, das mit der breitflächigen Gülleeinarbeitung vergleichbar war. Somit stellte sich neben einer mineralischen oder oberflächigen Gülleapplikation mit möglichst zeitnaher Einarbeitung, auch die Gülleinjektion als vergleichsweise THG-freundliche Applikationstechnik heraus, vorausgesetzt einer der empfohlenen NIs wurde vorab zugegeben.

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    Authors: Lindner, Jonas Philipp;

    Die anaerobe mikrobielle Konversion von Biomasse zu Biogas erfolgt über mehrere Prozessschritte, die aufgrund der beteiligten Mikroorganismen zur primären Gärung, sekundären Gärung und Methanbildung zusammengefasst werden können. Im Gegensatz zu einstufigen Verfahren soll in zweistufigen Biogasprozessen die primäre Gärung und die Methanogenese räumlich getrennt ablaufen, um den unterschiedlichen Milieuanforderungen der beteiligten Mikroorganismen besser entsprechen zu können. Für diese zweistufige Biogasproduktion sind in der Literatur viele verschiedene Kombinationen an Reaktortypen beschrieben. Die hauptsächlich für die Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen eingesetzten, diskontinuierlich betriebenen Perkolationsreaktoren haben den Nachteil, dass im Prozessablauf der pH-Wert nicht reguliert werden kann und somit keine konstante Säure- und Gasbildung möglich ist. Daneben werden geregelt wird. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde an der Landesanstalt für Agrartechnik und Bioenergie ein vollständig automatisiertes, kontinuierliches, zweistufiges Verfahren entwickelt und im Labormaßstab aufgebaut. Bei diesem Verfahren wurde ein Rührkesselreaktor mit integrierter Filtration zur Fest-Flüssigtrennung mit einem Anaerobfilter kombiniert. Der pH-Wert der ersten Prozessstufe konnte über die Rückführung von basischem Effluent aus dem Anaerobfilter reguliert werden. Um diese neu entwickelte Regulierung des pH-Wertes zu überprüfen und zu optimieren, wurde untersucht, (I) welcher Einfluss von den Substrateigenschaften auf den Abbaugrad und den Biogasertrag der zugeführten Biomasse ausgeht, (II) welcher pH-Wert in der ersten Prozessstufe einen optimalen Aufschluss der Biomasse ermöglicht, (III) ob durch eine kombinierte mechanisch/enzymatische Aufbereitung der Gärreste und deren Rückführung in den Prozess eine Steigerung des Gesamtmethanertrages der Biomasse erreicht werden kann. Die durchgeführten Untersuchungen zeigten, dass eine pH-Wert-Regulierung in der primären Gärung mittels einer Rückführung von basischem Effluent aus dem Anaerobfilter ohne Einsatz von Additiven mit einer sehr hohen Präzision möglich ist. Durch diese pH-Wert-Regulierung konnte eine konstante Säure- und Gasbildung erzielt werden. Die Untersuchungen zum Einfluss des pH-Wertes auf den Abbaugrad von lignocellulosehaltigen Substraten zeigten ein Optimum, wie in der Literatur beschrieben, bei pH-Werten zwischen 7 und 8. Bei einem pH-Wert von 5,75 wurde im Vergleich zu den ermittelten Gasertragspotenzialen der Substrate im zweistufigen System eine Methanausbeute erzielt, die bei dem Substrat „Heu/Stroh“ um -70,6 % und bei dem Substrat „Maissilage“ um -31,3 % geringer ist. Im Gegensatz dazu konnte bei zuckerhaltigen Substraten kein Unterschied zwischen dem Batchtest und dem zweistufigen System ermittelt werden. Die Aufbereitung der Gärreste mittels der Kugelmühle zeigte keine Verluste an leicht flüchtigen Substanzen durch eine Erwärmung. Durch die mechanische Aufbereitung konnte eine Steigerung des spezifischen Methanertrages um 9 % bei der Aufbereitung des „Maissilage“ Gärrestes und um 17 % bei der Aufbereitung des „Heu/Stroh“ Gärrestes aus der zweistufigen Anlage erreicht werden. Bei der Aufbereitung des Gärrestes der Praxisanlage konnte eine Verdreifachung des spezifischen Methanertrages auf einem sehr geringen Niveau ermittelt werden. Die kombinierte mechanische/enzymatische Aufbereitung mit dem aeroben Pilz „lentinula edodes“ führt bei dem „Heu/Stroh“ Gärrest zu Verlusten der organischen Trockenmasse zwischen 58,2 % und 86,4 % und bei dem Gärrest der Praxisanlage zwischen 10,8 % und 18,4 %. Außerdem konnte bei dem „Heu/Stroh“ Gärrest ein Anstieg des Ligningehaltes ermittelt werden. Bei den Gärresten der zweistufigen Anlage führte die kombinierte mechanisch/enzymatische Aufbereitung zu einem Verlust der Methanausbeute von bis zu 86,4 %. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigte der Gärrest der Praxisanlage einen Anstieg der Methanbildung um 134,5 %. Die Untersuchungen belegen, dass der Einsatz von zweistufigen Systemen im Sinne der „klassischen“ Biogasproduktion nur für leicht abbaubare Stoffe vorteilhaft ist. Wird auf eine Trennung der Milieubedingungen verzichtet, ist die Reaktorkaskade aus Rührkesselreaktor und Anaerobfilter aufgrund der Flexibilität, Prozessstabilität und hohen Belastbarkeit sehr gut zur Verwertung von Bioabfällen mit wechselnden Zusammensetzungen geeignet. Zudem konnten wesentliche Grundlagen für den Einsatz von innovativen Fermentationsverfahren, wie z.B. der Druckfermentation, gelegt werden. Die kombinierte mechanisch/enzymatische Aufbereitung scheint sowohl für die einstufige als auch für die zweistufige Biogasproduktion eine sinnvolle Alternative zur klassischen Substrataufbereitung zu sein und sollte in weiteren Projekten untersucht werden. The microbial conversion of biomass into biogas generally comprises several steps. These steps, are divided in accordance to the involved microorganisms and are often referred to as primary fermentation, secondary fermentation and methane formation. In contrast to single-stage, two-stage biogas system performs primary fermentation spatially separated from the methanogenesis in order to provide optimal milieu conditions for each group of microorganisms. There are many different reactor settings outlined in scientific literature for two-stage biogas production. For the digestion of energy crops or biowaste, discontinuously charged leach-bed reactors are often combined with anaerobic filters. The main disadvantage of this setup is the impossibility of regulating the pH-value in the first step, thus leading to fluctuating acid and gas production rates. To avoid this, new approaches aim to use continuous flow stirred-tank reactors for the process of primary fermentation, using chemical additives for the pH regulation. In the framework of this research, a process automation for a continuous two-stage system was developed and implemented in two lab scale plants at the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy. Each laboratory plant comprised of a continuous stirred-tank reactor with an integrated filtration for solid-liquid separation and an anaerobic filter. In the primary fermentation stage, the adjustment of the pH-value was made by an indicatorbased return of alkaline effluent from the anaerobic filter. In order to evaluate and optimize the newly developed and completely automated pH-regulation system, this study investigated the (I) influence of the substrate characteristics on the degree of degradation and the biogas yields, (II) optimal pH-value for biomass degradation in the primary fermentation and (III) the possibility of enhancing methane yields by combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment of digestates with a subsequent refeeding into the process. The results of the investigations clearly showed the suitability of the system for a highprecision pH-regulation in primary fermentation for the tested pH-values 5.5, 6.0, 7.0 and 7.5. This unique technique enabled the continuous formation of organic acids and biogenic gases. Hay/straw, maize silage and sugar beet silage were digested at a pH-value of 5.75 in order to investigate the influence of different substrates on the two-stage system performance. Compared to the determined potential biogas yields, the recorded methane yields were 70.6 % lower for the hay/straw substrate and 31.3 % lower for maize silage in the two-stage system. Contrary to this, for sugar beet silage no difference in the gas yields between the batchtest and the two-stage system could be detected. Further investigations on the influence of pH-value on the degradation rate of lignocellulosic substrates showed an optimum pH between 7 and 8. The mechanical treatment of the digestates with the ball mill exhibited no losses of volatile solids through warming. The application of this procedure enhanced the specific methane yield from 9 to 17 % for maize silage digestate and hay/straw digestate respectively from the described laboratory plant. The treatment of the digestate obtained from a full-scale plant permitted a triplication of the specific methane yield at very low level. The combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment through the aerobic fungi “lentinula edodes” resulted in losses of volatile solids between 58.2 and 86.4 % for the hay/straw digestate and between 10.8 and 18.4 % for the substrate from the full-scale biogas plant depending on the incubation time. Furthermore, the investigations determined an increase in the lignin content of the hay/straw digestate by the combined treatment. Overall, using the digestate of the two-stage system, the mechanical/enzymatic treatment attributed to a methane yield loss by 86.4 %. In contrast, an increase of methane production by 134.5 % was observed with the full-scale digestates. This study has revealed that two-stage biogas systems are favorable only for easily degradable substrates. The phase separation was not beneficial for fiber rich substrates. Based on the results, a reactor cascade consisting of a continuous stirred-tank reactor and an anaerobic filter with similar milieu conditions seems to be well suited for the digestion of organic wastes. Due to the extraordinary high process stability, flexibility and high load capacity this system is very suitable for the treatment of substrates with extremely varying compositions. Moreover, within the study essential basics for the application of innovative fermentation procedures (e.g. pressure fermentation) were investigated. The combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment of digestates seems to be an interesting alternative to the established substrate pretreatment systems and it can be recommended also for single-stage biogas plants.

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    Authors: Férriz Núñez, Macarena;

    El aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico [CO2] como consecuencia de las emisiones antropogénicas lleva asociado un aumento en la temperatura media del planeta. La cuenca mediterránea es particularmente sensible a perturbaciones más intensas debido a una mayor aridez y al legado de usos de suelo que ha modificado notablemente los paisajes actuales. En este contexto de cambio global, estudiamos el decaimiento y las dinámicas de regeneración de tres especies de coníferas mediterráneas con diferente tolerancia a la sequía Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Capítulo 2). Comparamos los patrones de crecimiento y la respuesta al clima de individuos con diferente estado de salud: sanos (las tres especies), en decaimiento (sólo P. pinaster) y muertos (P. pinaster y P. pinea). La actual especie dominante, P. pinaster, muestra claros signos de decaimiento -definido por alta defoliación e infección de muérdago- y mortalidad, con escasa regeneración, siendo reemplazada por regeneración de otras especies más tolerantes a la sequía como Quercus ilex, P. pinea y J, oxycedrus. Desde los años 80, los eventos de sequía han sido más frecuentes y severos en la zona, habiendo incitado el decaimiento en P. pinaster pero no en las otras especies acompañantes. Los individuos no-sanos de P. pinaster mostraron una reducción en el crecimiento desde 1995, mientras que en los individuos muertos de P. pinea este declive comenzó en 2005. La supervivencia de P. pinaster en la zona estaba relacionada con una mayor sensibilidad a la precipitación de primavera y a sitios con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que la supervivencia de P. pinea estaba principalmente relacionada con un mayor diámetro del árbol. En el Capítulo 3, seleccionamos 5 árboles de cada estado de salud y especie y estudiamos la anatomía del xilema y la discriminación isotópica de carbono (13C) en anillos de crecimiento. Las dos especies de pinos mostraron traqueidas más grandes y una mayor plasticidad del xilema en respuesta a la variabilidad climática que J. oxycedrus. Los caracteres anatómicos se diferenciaron entre estados de salud en P. pinaster y P. pinea. Los individuos sanos tenían mayor área de lumen en la madera temprana y paredes celulares más gruesas en la madera tardía que los individuos no-sanos, junto con mayor plasticidad en el xilema frente al clima, lo que les permitió ajustar sus caracteres anatómicos para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema durante eventos de sequía. La habilidad de mantener un xilema competitivo y plástico es crucial para conseguir ratios productivos en escenarios de cambio climático. Nuestro estudio reveló que los pinos muertos y en decaimiento tenían valores similares de 13C que los árboles sanos, lo que sugiere que los pinos no-sanos ejercen un menor control estomático que debería maximizar la tasa fotosintética y aumentar el transporte de agua hacia la copa para compensar por la pérdida excesiva de agua. Los resultados de los Capítulos 2 y 3 sugieren que a pesar del decaimiento general observado en P. pinaster en el área, los individuos sanos de esta especie pueden sobrevivir en áreas con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que en el resto del paisaje serán eventualmente sustituidos por especies más tolerantes a la sequía como P. pinea y J. oxycedrus. Además, los patrones de regeneración en la zona revelaron que tanto el estrés hídrico como el legado de usos de suelo limitan el establecimiento de regenerado de P. pinaster en comparación con la más abundante regeneración que presentan P. pinea, J, oxycedrus y Q. ilex. Debido a que los cambios de distribución de las especies están determinados en última instancia por el regenerado, comprender el efecto combinado de altas concentraciones de [CO2] y el estrés hídrico es fundamental para pronosticar futuros cambios en el paisaje e identificar qué especies prevalecerán en estos nuevos escenarios. Por ello en el Capítulo 4, analizamos cómo el enriquecimiento con [CO2] puede mitigar los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico en plántulas de dos especies de pino mediterráneas P. pinaster y P. pinea. En cámaras de crecimiento, testamos los efectos de dos concentraciones de [CO2]: a[CO2] (380 ppm) y e[CO2] (800 ppm) y dos regímenes de riego. En condiciones de e[CO2], ambas especies aumentaron la biomasa total, WUE (el uso en la eficiencia del agua a nivel de toda la planta) y WUEi (uso en la eficiencia del agua intrínseco) en comparación con valores medidos en condiciones de a[CO2]. El aumento de WUEi bajo condiciones de alto [CO2] se debió a una reducción en la conductancia estomática y a un aumento de la tasa fotosintética. Sin embargo, encontramos diferencias en los ajustes funcionales al e[CO2] y estrés hídrico en las dos especies. P. pinea mostró una mayor tasa fotosintética y menores potenciales hídricos al amanecer (amanecer) y al mediodía (mediodía,) mostrando que esta especie tiene un comportamiento más anisohídrico que P. pinaster, el cual mantuvo una estrategia más isohídrica y de mayor ahorro de agua mediante un mayor control estomático, invirtiendo más en el desarrollo de la raíz que P. pinea. Además, en el Capítulo 5 estudiamos los ajustes en la anatomía del xilema y en el sistema hidráulico de las plántulas en estas condiciones de e[CO2] alto y estrés hídrico. El estrés hídrico indujo una menor producción de acículas en P. pinaster para minimizar la pérdida de agua. Por otro lado P. pinea mostró una mayor plasticidad en el xilema mediante la reducción del tamaño del lumen para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema ante estrés hídrico. Aunque ambas estrategias pueden ser efectivas a la hora de minimizar transpiración y mantener la seguridad en el xilema, reducir el área foliar puede comprometer la tasa fotosintética a largo plazo, perjudicando la habilidad del individuo para competir. Por el contrario, una mayor plasticidad en el xilema en P. pinea permitiría a los árboles adaptar su crecimiento y estructura a las condiciones ambientales y optimizar el uso de recursos disponibles manteniendo una mayor área foliar activa (es decir, el aparato fotosintético). Altas concentraciones de [CO2] redujeron la conductancia específica de la hoja en ambas especies de pino, probablemente mediante menor conductancia estomática. El aumento en el número de traqueidas en el xilema P. pinea le permite construir un xilema más seguro a la vez que compensa un menor tamaño de traqueidas bajo estrés hídrico. Por tanto, nuestros resultados sugieren que un aumento de [CO2] beneficiará de forma diferente a las dos especies estudiadas, aun asumiendo que ambas pertenecen al mismo grupo funcional. El enriquecimiento en [CO2] beneficiará más a P. pinea que a P. pinaster bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, debido a que P. pinea puede mantener la conductividad hidráulica con un xilema más resistente a la cavitación. Si extrapolamos nuestros resultados a condiciones naturales y en particular a los escenarios climáticos esperados en el futuro, podemos concluir que la mayor tolerancia a la sequía expresada por P. pinea hará que esta especie prevalezca frente a P. pinaster en ambientes futuros con mayor aridez y mayor concentración de [CO2]. ----------ABSTRACT---------- Rising CO2 atmospheric concentration ([CO2]) as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions is driving an increase in the average temperature of the planet. The Mediterranean basin is particularly sensitive to more intense disturbances due to aridification and land-use legacies that have strongly shaped the current landscapes in the Region. In this context of global change, we studied the decline and regeneration dynamics of three co-occurring Mediterranean coniferous species of different drought tolerance: Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Chapter 2). We compared the growth patterns and climatic response of trees with different health status: healthy (for the three species), declining (only P. pinaster) and dead (P. pinaster and P. pinea). The currently dominant species, P. pinaster, shows extensive signs of decline -assessed by high canopy defoliation and mistletoe infection- and mortality. In addition, the species presents scarce regeneration, whereas it is being replaced by Quercus ilex, P. pinea and J. oxycedrus, with more abundant regeneration and abundance in juvenile stages. Since the 1980s, more frequent and severe drought events have occurred, inciting tree growth decline in dead and non-healthy pine trees, but with differences between species. Non-healthy individuals of P. pinaster exhibited negative growth trends since 1995. In dead P. pinea trees, the growth decline started later since 2005. P. pinaster survival in the study area was linked to a higher sensitivity to spring precipitation and was concentrated in sites with higher moisture availability, while P. pinea survival was higher in trees with larger diameters. In Chapter 3, we selected 5 individuals from each status and species and studied the xylem anatomical traits and carbon isotopic discrimination (13C) in annual tree-rings. Pine trees exhibited larger tracheids and higher xylem plasticity to climate variability than J. oxycedrus. Xylem traits differed between different health status in Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea. Healthy pine trees had bigger lumen sizes in the earlywood and thicker cell walls in the latewood than non-healthy trees, along with expressing a higher xylem plasticity to climate. This xylem plasticity allowed P. pinea to adjust their xylem characteristics to increase cell safety during drought events. The ability to maintain a competitive yet plastic xylem structure is crucial to sustain productivity rates under more xeric, climate change scenarios. Our study revealed that non-healthy pines (i.e. declining and dead pine trees) and healthy trees exhibited similar 13C, which suggests that non-healthy pine trees had low stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis and increase water transport to the crown to compensate for the excessive water loss. Results from Chapters 2 and 3 suggest that despite the general species decline (i.e. high mortality, canopy defoliation, mistletoe infection) observed in P. pinaster in the area, healthy individuals of this species are performing well in sites with higher moisture availability, while in soils with less moisture availability in the area it can be eventually replaced by more drought-tolerant P. pinea, J. oxycedrus and Q. ilex. Regeneration patterns in the area revealed that water stress along with land-use legacies are limiting P. pinaster establishment in comparison to more abundant regeneration of these three more drought-tolerant co-occurring taxa. Since species distribution shift is ultimately driven by regeneration success, understanding the combined effect of enriched [CO2] and water stress on seedlings is crucial to forecast future changes in the landscape and identify which species will prevail in these new scenarios. Therefore, in Chapter 4, we characterized how elevated [CO2] can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on seedlings of the two Mediterranean pine species P. pinaster and P. pinea. In growth chambers, we tested the effects of two [CO2] treatments: a[CO2] (380 ppm) and e[CO2] (800 ppm) and two water regimes. Under e[CO2], both species increased total biomass, WUE (whole-plant water use efficiency) and WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) in comparison to measured values in a[CO2]. Increases in WUEi under high [CO2] were both due to reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic rates. However, we also found differences in the functional adjustment to elevated [CO2] and water stress of the two species. P. pinea exhibited higher photosynthetic rates and lower water potential, both predawn and midday, suggesting that this species follows a more anisohydric behaviour than P. pinaster, which in contrast maintained a more isohydric, water-saving strategy and invested more in root development than P. pinea. In addition, in Chapter 5 we studied the xylem anatomical adjustments and hydraulic performance of seedlings under e[CO2] and water stress. Water shortage induced a reduction in P. pinaster leaf production to minimise water loss, while P. pinea exhibited a higher xylem plasticity, particularly by reducing lumen size to increase xylem safety. Although both strategies can be effective in minimising transpiration and maintaining xylem safety, reducing leaf area may compromise photosynthetic rates in the long-term, worsening plant ability to compete. In contrast, higher xylem plasticity in P. pinea would allow trees to adapt growth and structure to environmental conditions and to optimise the use of available resources by keeping a greater active leaf area (i.e., photosynthetic apparatus) under water stress. Elevated [CO2] reduced leaf specific conductivity in both pine species, which was probably linked to lower stomatal conductance. The increased in the number of tracheids in P. pinea xylem allowed it to develop a safer xylem that compensated for smaller tracheids under water stress. Thus, our results suggest that rising [CO2] will differently benefit the two studied species, even if they are assumed to belong to the same functional type. [CO2] enrichment will benefit more P. pinea under water stress than P. pinaster, since P. pinea can maintain hydraulic conductivity with a greater xylem resistance to cavitation. If our results hold for natural conditions, we can conclude that due to the higher drought tolerance expressed by P. pinea in comparison to P. pinaster, the former species will prevail under future more xeric and enriched [CO2] environments, particularly where these two species form mixed stands today.

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  • Authors: Keriquel, Virginie;

    The development of Computer-Assisted Medical Interventions (CAMI) results from converging evolutions in medicine, physics, materials, electronics, informatics and robotics. CAMI aim at providing tools that allow the clinician to use multi-modal data in a rational and quantitative way in order to plan, simulate and execute mini-invasive medical interventions accurately and safely. In parallel, technological advances in the fields of automation, miniaturization and computer aided design and machining have also led to the development of bioprinting technologies which could be defined as the computer-aided, layer-by-layer deposition, transfer and patterning of biologically relevant materials. These results pave the way of using bioprinting technologies for Computer-Assisted Medical Interventions. More precisely, we show that 3D tissue constructs can be printed in vivo and in situ in relation with defect morphology. Interestingly, we demonstrate that printing cells in situ with a cell-level resolution tends to orientate tissue repair.; Le développement des Interventions Médicales Assistées par ordinateur (CAMI) est le résultat d'évolutions convergeantes dans les domaines de la médecine, physique, biomatériaux, électronique, informatique et robotique. CAMI visent à fournir les outils qui permettent au clinicien d'utiliser des données multi-modales de manière rationnelle et quantitative pour planifier, simuler et exécuter des interventions médicales mini-invasives avec précision et sans risque. Parallèlement, les avancées technologiques dans les domaines de l’automatisation, la miniaturisation, la conception assistée par ordinateur et l'usinage ont aussi mené au développement des technologies telles que la bioimpression assistée par ordinateur permettant une impression couche par couche de biomatériaux avec une géométrie contrôlée dans l’espace. Ces résultats ouvrent la voie pour l’utilisation des technologies de bioimpression pour des Interventions Médicales Assistées par ordinateur plus précises et sans risque. Dans ce travail, nous montrons que des constructions tissulaires 3D peuvent être imprimées in vivo et in situ et adaptées à la morphologie d’un défaut. Les résultats ont montré que l'impression de cellules in situ avec une résolution à l’échelle cellulaire a tendance à orienter la réparation tissulaire.

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    Authors: Oruç, Gökhan;

    AYDIN İLİ KARACASU İLÇESİ CEVİZ (Juglans regia L.) GENOTİPLERİNİN SELEKSİYONU Gökhan ORUÇ Doktora Tezi, Bahçe Bitkileri Anabilim Dalı Tez Danışmanı: Prof. Dr. Faik Ekmel TEKİNTAŞ Prof. Dr. Halil Güner SEFEROĞLU 2020, 163 sayfa Zengin biyoçeşitliliğe sahip olan ülkeler arasında yer alan Türkiye, bir çok türde gen merkezlerinden biridir. Bu bağlamda Aydın İli Karacasu İlçesindeki, sert kabuklu meyve türlerinden olan Ceviz (Juglans regia L.) popülasyonu üzerinde geç uyanma ve üstün meyve kalitesine sahip genotipleri seçmek amacıyla seleksiyon çalışması yürütülmüştür. Bunun için 5 farklı lokasyonda 720 km2 alandaki 8800 genotip taranmış ve 144 genotip belirlenmiştir. Belirlenen genotipler üzerinde fenolojik, morfolojik ve pomolojik özellikler incelenmiştir. Buna göre belirlenen genotiplerden 742,5-587,5 tartılı derecelendirme metodu puan aralığındaki 26 genotip, ümitvar genotipler olarak seçilmiş; meyve ağırlığı 7,19-13,85 gr aralığında (09_AYKA_86-09_AYKA_104), iç ağırlıkları 3,86-7,39 gr aralığında (09_AYKA_104-09_AYKA_27), randıman %39,01-60 oran (09_AYKA_114- 09_AYKA_116) aralıklarındaki kodlu genotiplerde belirlenmiştir. Meyve boyutları; meyve kalınlığı 26,42-37,76 mm, meyve eni 26,67-33,02 mm, meyve yüksekliği 31,22-41,20 mm aralığında ölçülmüş ve seçilen genotiplerin ekstra sınıfa girdiği tespit edilmiştir. Seçilen ümitvar genotipler dikogami açısından 13 protogeny, 3 protandri ve 10 homogami tarzında çiçeklenme (blooming) özelliği göstermiştir. 26 ümitvar genotipte lateral meyve tutum oranı (lateral bearing) %20-75 aralığında belirlenmiştir. Ümitvar genotiplerin en erken ve geç dönemde; uyanma dönemi açısından 7Mart-9Nisan (09_AYKA_30-09_AYKA_127), dişi çiçeklenme zamanı 19 Mart - 15 Mayıs (09_AYKA_30-09_AYKA_73), erkek çiçeklenme zamanı 22 Mart-19 Mayıs (09_AYKA_30-09_AYKA_73) tarihlerinde gerçekleşmiştir. Gerçekleştirilen Seleksiyon çalışması yerel genotiplerin standardizasyonu anlamında bu noktada önem arz etmekte ve çeşit oluşturma çalışmalarına ışık olacaktır. İÇİNDEKİLER ÖZET.....................................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................ix ÖNSÖZ...................................................................................................................xi SİMGELER KISALTMALAR DİZİNİ.............................................................xv ŞEKİLLER DİZİNİ...........................................................................................xvii ÇİZELGELER DİZİNİ......................................................................................xix .GİRİŞ ..................................................................................................................1 . KAYNAK ÖZETLERİ...................................................................................21 . MATERYAL VE YÖNTEM..........................................................................40 . Materyal........................................................................................................40 . Yöntem...........................................................................................................46 . Morfolojik Özelliklerin Belirlenmesi..........................................................46 . Fenolojik Özelliklerin Belirlenmesi ..........................................................47 . Pomolojik Özelliklerin Belirlenmesi.........................................................49 . Ümitvar genotiplerin belirlenmesi...............................................................53 . BULGULAR....................................................................................................55 . Morfolojk özellik verileri...............................................................................55 . Genotiplerin 2015 yılı morfolojik özelliklerine ait verileri.........................55 . Genotiplerin 2016 yılı morfolojik özelliklerine ait verileri.........................65 . Genotiplerin 2017 yılı morfolojik özelliklerine ait verileri.........................73 . Fenolojik özelliklere ait veriler ......................................................................74 . Genotiplerin fenolojik özelliklerinin 2015 yılı verileri ..............................74 xiv . Genotiplerin fenolojik özelliklerinin 2016 yılı verileri ............................. 81 Genotiplerin fenolojik özelliklerinin 2017 yılı verileri ................................ 86 . Pomolojik Özelliklere ait Veriler .................................................................. 86 . Genotiplerin 2015 yılı pomolojik verileri................................................... 87 . Genotiplerin 2016 yılı pomolojik verileri................................................. 102 . Genotiplerin 2017 yılı pomolojik verileri................................................. 115 . Tartılı Derecelendirme Metodu değerlendirilmesi ...................................... 117 . Tartılı Derecelendirme Metodu sonuçları................................................. 117 . Ümitvar genotiplerin belirlenmesi ve tanıtılması ..................................... 121 . Bazı özellikler bakımından üstün genotipler............................................... 135 .............................................................................. 137 ÖZGEÇMİŞ........................................................................................................163

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    Authors: Pan, Mingming;

    Ce travail vise à construire un système compact et facile à mettre en œuvre de réflectométrie guidée par ondes térahertz (TGR) en tirant parti de l'émetteur-récepteur térahertz et des guides d'ondes pour diverses applications. Par rapport aux systèmes conventionnels utilisant une méthode quasi-optique, le nouveau concept a une configuration beaucoup plus simple et permet des applications de sondage à distance.Après des études sur le développement de la technologie térahertz, un émetteur-récepteur à double ACP à pompage optique et deux émetteurs-récepteurs radar à ondes continues modulées en fréquence (FMCW) ainsi que des guides d'ondes à parois minces à noyau creux sont sélectionnés pour mettre en œuvre le premier système TGR en mode impulsionnel et en mode FMCW. Les deux expériences et la simulation 3D pleine onde sont exploitées pour étudier les comportements de propagation des ondes à l'intérieur du système et pour évaluer les performances du système. Les systèmes TGR créés font l'objet d'une démonstration à des fins d'imagerie et de détection. Grâce à la capacité de guidage du guide d'ondes, ces installations présentent un potentiel dans certaines conditions de mesure difficiles, comme dans un environnement étroit et semi-fermé ou dans le liquide. En particulier, la lentille d'immersion solide insérée à l'extrémité du guide d'ondes s'est avérée être une méthode efficace pour améliorer la capacité d'imagerie du système TGR en mode FMCW, donnant lieu à une résolution de sous-longueur d'onde dans la bande de fréquences autour de 100 GHz.En plus des études sur les systèmes TGR, un système de réflectométrie sur plaquette exploitant des sources à pompage optique est également proposé pour bénéficier de la large bande de fréquences des sources photoniques. Comme première tentative, des sondes RF associées à un émetteur-récepteur à double ACP sont utilisées pour délivrer le signal d'impulsion dans des échantillons sur la tranche et les signaux temporels obtenus sont analysés. D'autres propositions sont faites pour pousser plus loin cette étude. This work aims to build up a compact easily-implemented terahertz wave-guided reflectometry (TGR) system by taking advantage of the terahertz transceiver and waveguides for diverse applications. Compared to conventional systems using a quasi-optical method, the new concept has a much simpler configuration and allows for remote probing applications.After reviews on the development of terahertz technology, an optical-pumped double-PCA transceiver and two frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar transceivers together with hollow-core thin-wall waveguides are selected to implement the first TGR system in pulse mode and in FMCW mode. Both experiments and 3D full-wave simulation are exploited to investigate the propagation behaviors of waves inside the system and to evaluate the system performance. The created TGR systems are demonstrated for imaging and sensing purposes. Thanks to the guiding capacity of the waveguide, these setups show potential in some difficult measurement conditions, such as in a narrow semi-enclosed environment or the liquid. In particular, the solid immersion lens inserted at the end of the waveguide has been proved as an efficient method to enhance the imaging capacity of the TGR system in FMCW mode, giving rise to a subwavelength resolution at the frequency band around 100 GHz.In addition to the studies of TGR systems, an on-wafer reflectometry system exploiting optical-pumped sources is as well proposed to benefit from the wide frequency band of photonic sources. As the first attempt, RF probes in association with double-PCA transceiver are used to deliver the pulse signal into samples on-wafer and the obtained time signals are analyzed. More propositions are given to push further up this study.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Doctoral thesis
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    Authors: Kirschner, Stefanie;

    Industrielle Röntgendurchleuchtungsgeräte lassen sich für die Untersuchung verschiedenster Fragestellungen anwenden. Das Spektrum der Anwendbarkeit reicht von der hochauflösenden in vivo-Bildgebung von z. B. Glioblastomen, zerebralen Hirngefäßen, abdominellen und thorakalen Organen in der Maus, bis hin zur hoch-auflösenden Untersuchung von Objekten wie z. B. Stents, Zähnen, Insekten oder auch einzelner Organe ex vivo. Desweitern zeichnet das hier eingesetzte industrielle Röntgengerät die Möglichkeit zur Strahlentherapie von Tieren aus, was mit herkömmlichen speziellen Kleintier-Computertomographen nicht möglich ist. Ziel dieser Dissertation war zum einen die Etablierung eines Glioblastom-Maus-Modells und anschließend die Überprüfung der Anwendbarkeit eines Mikro-CT für die wiederholte bildgebende Darstellung der Hirntumoren vor und nach Strahlentherapie. Darüber hinaus wurde die Mikro-CT für die Evaluierung sowohl der Verschlussrate von Aneurysmen als auch der artefaktfreien Darstellung der verwendeten Materialien im Modellversuch getestet. Wir konnten in beiden von uns durchgeführten Studien die Mikro-CT erfolgreich zur Bildgebung anwenden. Zur Etablierung des Glioblastom-Maus-Modells wurde die gesamte OP-Methode zur Tumorzellimplantation in das Gehirn zunächst an toten Mäusen durchgeführt. Anstatt Zellen wurde eine äquivalente Menge an mit Kontrastmittel vermengter Methylcellulose des später geplanten Injektionsvolumens an Zellen in das Gehirn appliziert. Anschließend wurde zur Erfolgskontrolle eine Röntgenaufnahme im Mikro-CT angefertigt. Anhand der Aufnahmen konnten wir die genaue Lokalisation und Ausdehnung der applizierten Menge beurteilen und unsere OP-Methode gegebenenfalls optimieren. Erst nach verlässlicher Reproduzierbarkeit der OP wurden humane Zellen in vivo in die rechte Hemisphäre von insgesamt 27 NOD/SCID/yc-/- Mäusen injiziert. Zwei Wochen nach Xenotransplantation erfolgte eine erste kontrasmittelgestützte Untersuchung im Mikro-CT zur Tumordetektion. Bei negativem Befund wurde bei den Tieren wöchentlich eine weitere Mikro-CT durchgeführt. Tiere mit positivem Befund wurden je nach geplantem Versuch nicht therapiert (n=21) oder mittels Strahlentherapie (n=6) behandelt. Alle Tiere wurden im weiteren Verlauf wöchentlich bis zum Versuchsende im Mikro-CT untersucht. Insgesamt wurden 103 kontrastmittelgestützte Untersuchungen im Mikro-CT durchgeführt. Der maximale Tumordurchmesser und das maximale Tumorvolumen wurden anhand der einzelnen CT-Datensätze bestimmt. Zusätzlich wurden die Gehirne histologisch aufgearbeitet um das maximale Volumen und den maximalen Durchmesser der Tumore anhand der Histologie zu berechnen. Die histologischen Ergebnisse wurden mit der jeweils letzten Mikro-CT (durchgeführt am Tag des Versuchsendes) verglichen. Die hervorragende Korrelation von maximalem Tumordurchmesser und Tumorvolumen ermittelt in der Mikro-CT mit den Ergebnissen aus der Histologie (Tumordurchmesser: 0,929, p < 0,001; Tumorvolumen: 0969, p < 0,001, n = 17) belegt die hohe Genauigkeit und damit Anwendbarkeit der Mikro-CT für ein Hirntumormodell. Die hohe Sensitivität (0,95) und Spezifität (0,71) belegen zusätzlich die Exaktheit der Mikro-CT zur Erkennung von Gehirntumoren in sehr kleinen Tieren wie Mäusen (PPV=0,91, NPV=0,83). Die zweite im Rahmen dieser kumulativen Dissertation eingereichte Arbeit befasst sich mit der Evaluation einer neuen Methode zur Embolisation von Aneurysmen. Hierzu wurden Aneurysmen mit einem dicht gewobenem Stent (sog. Flow diverter) überdeckt. Über einen zuvor im Aneurysma platzierten Mikrokatheter wurde das Aneurysma mit Mikropartikeln embolisiert, welche größer als die Maschen des flussmodulierenden Stents sind. Die Mikro-CT konnten wir erfolgreich einsetzen, um mit einer hohen Auflösung die 700–900 µm kleinen Partikel im Aneurysma darzustellen und die komplette Ausfüllung des Aneurysmas zu verifizieren. Auch die Maschendichte des Stents im Verhältnis zum Aneurysma konnte mittels Mikro-CT analysiert werden. Die Möglichkeit der wiederholten Darstellbarkeit von Gehirntumoren im zeitlichen Verlauf mittels Mikro-CT bietet eine Grundlage für weitere Versuchsvorhaben, wie z. B. die Visualisierung morphologischer Veränderungen des Tumors unter verschiedenen Therapieansätzen. Die erfolgreiche Evaluation der Verschlussrate von Aneurysmen mittels einer neuen Technik in der Mikro-CT ist ein wesentlicher Schritt, bevor es zu einer ersten Anwendung im lebenden Tier kommt. Beide hier vorgestellten Arbeiten tragen durch den erfolgreichen Einsatz eines bildgebenden Verfahrens erheblich zur langfristigen Senkung der Versuchstierzahlen bei. Zusammenfassend konnten wir durch die erfolgreiche Anwendung der Mikro-CT in den hier vorgestellten Arbeiten das Spektrum der Anwendbarkeit eines industriellen Mikro-CTs in der präklinischen Forschung deutlich erweitern. Micro-CT systems are being used with increasing frequency in preclinical research. The range of examinations includes high-resolution in vivo imaging of glioblastoma, cerebral vessels, abdominal and thoracic organs in mice as well as investigation of other small objects like stents, teeth, insects or single organs ex vivo or in vitro. In addition, micro-CT may be used for radiation therapy of small rodents like mice and rats, as shown in our studies. Aim of this thesis was to establish an orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model and to evaluate the applicability of a micro-CT for repetetive imaging of brain tumors in mice. We furthermore used a micro-CT to evaluate the distribution of microspheres used to treat a silicone aneurysm model. The glioblastoma mouse model was trained in dead mice first. Instead of tumor cells we first injected methylcellulose mixed with contrast agent to train intracerebral injections. The use of contrast agent allowed us to verify our injection technique by subsequent micro-CT. After successfully establishing the technique, human brain tumor cells were in injected into the right hemisphere of n = 27 NOD/SCID/yc-/- mice. Two weeks after xenotransplantation mice underwent first contrast-enhanced micro-CT. Animals with negative results in micro-CT received additional micro-CT scans weekly until brain tumors were detected. Animals were left untreated (control group), or were treated with radiation- or chemotherapy. During treatment all animals received weekly micro-CT scans until animals had to be sacrificed. The maximum diameter and volume of intracerebrally growing xenografts were measured. Brains of sacrificed mice were histologically worked up and maximum tumor diameter and tumor volume were measured again. Results from histology were compared to micro-CT data. The excellent correlation between maximum tumor diameter and tumor volume measured in micro-CT and histology (tumor diameter: 0.929, p < 0.001; tumor volume: 0.969, p < 0.001, n=17). Sensitivity and specificity of micro-CT were 0.95 and 0.71, respectively (PPV=0.91, NPV=0.83). This proved the high accurary of micro-CT for brain tumor detection in animals as small as mice. The second paper referenced to within this doctoral thesis describes the evaluation of the distribution of microspheres within a silicon aneurysm and the degree of aneurysm occlusion. For this purpose a silicon aneurysm was treated with a densely woven stent (a so called flow diverter). Additionally, the aneurysm was embolized with microspheres larger than the pores of the stent via a microcatheter previously placed in the aneurysm. Using our micro-CT we were able to visualize the 700-900 µm small microspheres, which allowed us to verify complete embolization of the aneurysm. Furthermore, the mesh density of the flow diverter in relation to the size of the microspheres was analyzed using the micro-CT. From our findings we conclude, that micro-CT is a versatile tool that may be used for imaging of a vast range of objects and thus propose that micro-CT will be used with increasing frequency in preclinical research.

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    Authors: Sundell, David;

    Lignocellulosic plants are the most abundant source of terrestrial biomass and are one of the potential sources of renewable energy that can replace the use of fossil fuels. For a country such as Sweden, where the forest industry accounts for 10% of the total export, there would be large economical benefits associated with increased biomass yield. The availability of research on wood development conducted in conifer tree species, which represent the majority of the forestry in Sweden, is limited and the majority of research has been conducted in model angiosperm species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the large evolutionary distance between angiosperms and gymnosperms limits the possibility to identify orthologous genes and regulatory pathways by comparing sequence similarity alone. At such large evolutionary distances, the identification of gene similarity is, in most cases, not sufficient and additional information is required for functional annotation. In this thesis, two high-spatial resolution datasets profiling wood development were processed; one from the angiosperm tree Populus tremula and the other from the conifer species Picea abies. These datasets were each published together with a web resource including tools for the exploration of gene expression, co-expression and functional enrichment of gene sets. One developed resource allows interactive, comparative co-expression analysis between species to identify conserved and diverged co-expression modules. These tools make it possible to identifying conserved regulatory modules that can focus downstream research and provide biologists with a resource to identify regulatory genes for targeted trait improvement. Lignocellulosa är den vanligast förekommande källan till markburen biomassa och är en av de förnybara energikällor som potentiellt kan ersätta användningen av fossila bränslen. För ett land som Sverige, där skogsindustrin som står för 10 \% av den totala exporten, skulle därför en ökad produktion av biomassa kunna ge stora ekonomiska fördelar. Forskningen på barrträd, som utgör majoriteten av svensk skog är begränsad och den huvudsakliga forskningen som har bedrivits på växter, har skett i modell organismer tillhörande gruppen gömfröiga växter som till exempel i Arabidopsis thaliana. Det evolutionära avståndet mellan gömfröiga (blommor och träd) och nakenfröiga (gran och tall) begränsar dock möjligheten att identifiera regulatoriska system mellan dessa grupper. Vid sådana stora evolutionära avstånd krävs det mer än att bara identifiera en gen i en modellorganism utan ytterligare information krävs som till exempel genuttrycksdata. I denna avhandling har två högupplösta experiment som profilerar vedens utveckling undersökts; ett från gömfröiga träd Populus tremula och det andra från nakenföriga träd (barrträd) Picea abies. Datat som behandlats har publicerats tillsammans med webbsidor med flera olika verktyg för att bland annat visa genuttryck, se korrelationer av genuttryck och test för anrikning av funktionella gener i en grupp. En resurs som utvecklats tillåter interaktiva jämförelser av korrelationer mellan arter för att kunna identifiera moduler (grupper av gener) som bevaras eller skilts åt mellan arter över tid. Identifieringen av sådana bevarade moduler kan hjälpa att fokusera framtida forskning samt ge biologer en möjlighet att identifiera regulatoriska gener för en riktad förbättring av egenskaper hos träd.

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    Становлення ринкових відносин в Україні супроводжується значними труднощами в проведенні реформ як в економічній площині, так і соціально-політичній. Особливо важким є процес перетворень в аграрній сфері. Досвід розвинених країн світу свідчить про значні масштаби державної підтримки фермерів. Проте, недостатньо вивченими залишаються питання врахування різновекторного впливу заходів державного регулювання в коротко- та довгостроковому періодах. В цьому зв’язку актуальною є проблема пошуку оптимальних стратегій державного втручання в ринкове середовище в аграрному секторі, враховуючи фактор часу. При цитуванні документа, використовуйте посилання http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/36993

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    Authors: Ayan, Alp;

    Bu tez çalışması kapsamında ülkemizde yaygın ekime sahip olan Osmancık-97 ve Karadeniz bölgesinde geliştirilmiş olan Mevlütbey çeltik çeşitlerinden, gama radyasyonu ile tuzluluğa toleranslı mutantların elde edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Cs-137 gama radyasyonu kaynağı ile 0, 250, 300 ve 400 Gy dozlarında çeltik tohumları ışınlanmıştır. Işınlanan tohumlar Karadeniz Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü deneme tarlalarına ekilerek M1 generasyonunda radyasyonun neden olduğu fizyolojik zararlanmalar gözlenmiş ve bitkilerden tohum alınmıştır.Tuza toleranslı mutantların belirlenmesi için seleksiyonlar M2 generasyonunda T.C. İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Moleküler Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü Bitki Biyoteknolojisi Laboratuvarı'nda yapılmıştır. In vivo ortamda yapılan seleksiyonlarda seçilen tuzluluğa toleranslı 86 mutantın 43 tanesi Osmancık-97 çeşidine aittir. Seçilen M2 generasyonundaki mutant bitkiler tohum elde etmek amacıyla Trakya Tarımsal Araştırma Müdürlüğü deneme tarlalarına dikilmiştir.M3 generasyonunda tuz toleransının devamlılığının kontrol edilmesi için in vitro kallus kültürleri kurulmuştur. Kültürler için kullanılan eksplantlar tohumların embriyonik kısımlarından alınmıştır. Doku kültürlerinde kallus eldesi için en uygun besi yeri içeriği B3 besi yeri (MS tuzları, 3 mg/L 2,4-D ve 560 mg/L prolin) olarak tespit edilmiştir. In vitro kültürlerin sonuçları doğrultusunda tuz stresi altında, tuz stresi uygulanmamış Osmancık-97 kontrol kalluslarına göre daha iyi kallus gelişimi gösteren 250-2, 300-5, 400-2 ve 400-5 mutantları ile moleküler karakterizasyon çalışmalarının yapılmasına karar verilmiştir.Seçilen tuza toleranslı mutantların tuzlu ve tuzsuz ortamlarda biyokimyasal cevaplarını belirlemek amacı ile lipid peroksidasyon, prolin miktarı, fotosentetik pigment konsantrasyonu, total protein konsantrasyonu, peroksidaz, superoksit dismutaz, katalaz enzim aktivitesi saptanmıştır.Seçilen tuza toleranslı mutantların kökenlendikleri Osmancık-97 çeşidi ile ve birbirleriyle olan genetik uzaklıklarını belirlemek için ISSR primerleri kullanılarak PZR yapılmıştır. Elde edilen bant profillerine göre Jaccard genetik benzerlik matrisi oluşturulmuş ve UPGMA dendogramı çizilmiştir. Elde edilen dendogramda Osmancık-97 çeşidi ve mutantların tuz uygulanmış ve uygulanmamış örnekleri iki kümeye ayrılmıştır. Dendogram sonuçları mutantların tamamının Osmancık-97 çeşidinden ayrı alt gruplarda yer aldıklarını göstermiştir.Tuza toleranslı mutantların iki boyutlu proteomik analizleri yapılmıştır. Elde edilen protein spotu profilleri değerlendirilerek tuz stresi altında anlatım farklılığı gösteren 30 protein tespit edilmiştir. Kütle spektroskopisi yöntemi ile tanımlanan bu proteinlerden 9 tanesinin (ribüloz bisfosfat karboksilaz/oksigeneaz aktivaz, trioz fosfat izomeraz, 2-Cys peroksiredoksin, oksijen-evolving enhancer protein 1, ferritin-1, ferredoksin--NADP redüktaz, gliseraldehit-3-fosfat dehidrogenaz, tubby-benzeri F-box protein 11, peptidil-prolil cis-trans izomeraz) tuz stresine tolerans ile bağlantılı olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmamızda, çeltik mutantlarının tuz stresi altında verdiği cevaplardaki farklılıklarda, özellikle ferredoksin-NADP redüktaz, oksijen-evolving enhancer protein 1, trioz fosfat izomeraz ve 2-Cys peroksiredoksin proteinleri rol oynamaktadır.Sonuç olarak, ülkemizde bu tez kapsamında ilk defa radyasyon ile tuza toleranslı çeltik mutantların geliştirilebildiği gösterilmiştir. Yapılan çalışma sonucunda tuza toleranslı dört farklı çeltik mutantı elde edilmiştir. Bu dört mutantın farklı çevre, iklim ve coğrafik koşullarda daha yüksek ürün potansiyeline sahip çeşitlerin geliştirilmesinde önemli rolü olacaktır. Ayrıca araştırmada kullanılan çeltik çeşitleri ülkemizde geliştirilen yerli çeşitler olması nedeni ile yapılan bu mutasyon çalışması ülkemiz ekonomisi açısından ayrı bir öneme sahiptir. In context of this Ph. D. thesis study, it is aimed to obtain salinity tolerance on Osmancık-97, which is widely planted rice variety in our country, and Mevlütbey, which is a rice variety improved in Black Sea region, by using gamma radiation. Rice seeds were irradiated by 0, 250, 300 ve 400 Gy dose of Cs-137 source. Irradiated seeds were planted in the experimental fields of Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute and physiological effects of radiation on M1 generation were observed, as well as seed were harvested.Selections in M2 generation for determination of salt tolerant mutants were conducted in Plant Biotechnology Laboratory of T.C. Istanbul Kultur University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics. Following in vivo selections, 43 of selected salt tolerant mutants were belonging to Osmancık-97 variety. Selected M2 generation mutant plants were planted to Trakya Agricultural Research Institute to obtain seeds.In vitro callus cultures were established in order to determine persistence of salt tolerance in M3 generation. Embrios of the seeds were selected as explant source. B3 medium (MS salts, 3 mg/L 2,4-D, 560 mg/L proline) is determined to be the most suitable medium for callus induction. In respect to the data obtained from in vitro studies, 250-2, 300-5, 400-2 and 400-5 mutants which presented better callus growth comparing to the untreated Osmancık-97 control calluses were selected for further molecular characterization studies.Biochemical responses of selected salt tolerant mutants under salt treated and untreated conditions were evaluated by lipid peroxidation, proline content, photosynthetic pigment content, total protein content, enzyme activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase results.Genetic distance between mutants and Osmancık-97 as their origin were determined by PCR reactions conducted with ISSR primers. Jaccard genetic similarity matrix was generated according to the band profiles and UPGMA dendrogram was drawn. According to the dendrogram, Osmancık-97 variety and salt treated/untreated mutants divided into two distinct clusters. Moreover, all the mutants were seperated from Osmancık-97 variety in different sub-clusters.Two dimensional proteomic analysis of salt tolerant mutants were conducted. Evaluation of protein spot profiles of samples presented that 30 proteins were differed in expression. 9 of these 30 proteins (ribulose biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase activase, triose phosphate isomerase, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, oxygene-evolving enhancer protein 1, ferritine-1, ferredoxin-NADP reductase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, tubby-like F-box protein 11, peptydil-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) were characterized by mass spectroscopy and they were found to be salt tolerans related. In this study, proteomic response differences between rice mutants under salt stress were found to be related to the roles of ferredoxin-NADP reductase, oxygene-evolving enhancer protein 1, triose phosphate isomerase and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin proteins.As a result, it is the first time in Turkey that we presented salt tolerant rice mutants can be induced by gamma radiation. In this study, four different salt tolerant rice mutants were obtained. These four mutants will play important roles on improving novel rice varieties which have higher yield potential under different environmental, climate and geographical conditions. Also, this study is important for our country's economy due to the fact that our salt tolerant mutants were induced from our local rice varieties. 201

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    Authors: Herr, Christina;

    In a time of climate change and against the background of intensive animal husbandry and biogas production in Germany, strategies for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) release and Nitrogen (N) losses from silage maize production become increasingly important, especially for organic fertilizers. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to determine the height of GHG release from silage maize production on a medium textured soil which is typical for this region in Southwest Germany and to evaluate useful fertilization opportunities to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) footprint per yield unit. To identify management factors improving GHG budget from silage maize, annual nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) measurements were carried out during maize growth and subsequent black fallow at least weekly. Investigations were conducted over two years on two adjacent fields (one for each study year). Amounts of ammonia (NH3) volatilizations after fertilization and nitrate (NO3-) leaching losses were also included in GHG balances. In dependence on available data, determined or estimated values were used. Additionally, yield and N removal from maize plants were quantified. The basic treatments of this study which investigated impact of fertilizer form and application techniques, were an unfertilized control (CON), a mineral fertilization (MIN), a banded cattle slurry application by trailing hose and subsequent incorporation (INC) and a cattle slurry injection (INJ). As confirmed repeatedly, in contrast to broadcast slurry incorporation, slurry injection efficiently reduced the risk of NH3 losses by direct slurry placement into the soil, but simultaneously provoked N2O formation more strongly, probably due to the anaerobic conditions in the injection slot favoring denitrification. For reducing N2O release from slurry injection, the applicability of six single or combined nitrification inhibitors (NIs) concerning potential GHG reduction were investigated. This N2O reduction should be reached through the desynchronized availability of carbon (C) and NO3-, derived from nitrified slurry ammonium (NH4+). Thus, in the period after slurry application, N2O losses from denitrification as well as from nitrification should be reduced through NIs. For final evaluation, collection of measured and estimated data (including direct and indirect N2O losses (NH3, NO3-), CH4 budget, pre-chain emissions from mineral fertilizer and fuel consumption) were converted into CO2 equivalents and summarized as area- or yield-related GHG balances. Except for one of the INJ treatments with NI (exclusively investigated in the first year) and one INC treatment with NI (exclusively investigated in the second year), all remaining treatments were tested in both experimental years. The height of NH3 emissions from INC treatment (12-23 % of applied NH4+-N) was more weather-dependent than those from INJ treatment (12-15 % of applied NH4+-N). In mean over both years, cumulative N2O emission from INJ treatment (13.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), was significantly higher than from CON, MIN, and INC which recorded 2.8, 4.7, and 4.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1. NIs decreased the fertilization-induced N2O emissions from injection by 36 % (mean over all NIs and years) by an order of magnitude comparable to slurry incorporation. The NIs investigated tended to be categorized in inhibitors with prior and delayed inhibitory maximum. Whether low persistence, or poor biological degradability was an advantage, depended on environmental conditions. A combination of two NIs, one with putative prior and one with delayed release behavior reached the highest N2O reduction. In the additional INC treatment, this NI combination tended to reduce annual N2O release by 20 % in comparison to incorporation without inhibitor. Beside the potential of reducing fertilization-induced N2O emissions, NIs might also help to improve CH4 budgets in silage maize production. In general, CON, MIN and INC were net CH4 sinks in both years with mean uptakes of 460, 127, and 793 g CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Conversely, slurry injection resulted in net CH4 emissions of 3144 g CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 (mean over both years). However, NIs tended to reduce CH4 emissions from injection by around 48 % and increased CH4 consumption from slurry incorporation by 20 %. Across all treatments and years, direct N2O emissions were the major contributor to total GHG balance. Yield-related GHG budgets from both years were lowest for CON, followed by INC or MIN treatment and significantly highest for sole slurry injection. NIs decreased fertilization-induced GHG release from injection in mean over both years by order of magnitude comparable with slurry incorporation. Consequently, alongside slurry incorporation and broadcast mineral fertilization, slurry injection combined with recommended NIs was evaluated as an equally appropriate fertilization strategy in terms of the atmospheric burden for livestock farmers. In Zeiten des Klimawandels und vor dem Hintergrund intensiver Tierhaltung und Biogasproduktion in Deutschland gewinnen Treibhausgas (THG)-Emissionen und Stickstoff (N)-Verluste in der Silomaisproduktion, insbesondere beim Einsatz organischer Düngemittel zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Studie war es daher, den THG-Ausstoß für die Silomaisproduktion in einer Region Südwestdeutschlands auf einem für diese Region typischen mittelschweren Boden zu quantifizieren und anhand unterschiedlicher Düngungsstrategien klimafreundliche Methoden mit möglichst geringem CO2-Fußabdruck herauszustellen. Zur Quantifizierung der THG-Bilanzen von Silomais mit unterschiedlichen Reduktionsansätzen, wurden durchgehend über zwei Jahre hinweg mindestens einmal wöchentlich Lachgas (N2O)- und Methan (CH4)-Flüsse gemessen. Zudem wurden indirekte N2O Emissionen (Ammoniak (NH3), Nitrat (NO3-)) erfasst oder geschätzt sowie Silomaiserträge und N-Abfuhren ermittelt. Jedes der beiden Versuchsjahre beinhaltete folgende Basis-Behandlungen: ungedüngte Kontrolle (CON), mineralische Düngung (MIN), Rindergülleapplikation mittels Schleppschlauch und anschließender Einarbeitung (INC) und Rindergülleinjektion (INJ). Im Gegensatz zur oberflächigen Gülleapplikation mit breitflächiger Einarbeitung ist die Gülleinjektion dafür bekannt, NH3-Verluste durch die direkte Platzierung in den Boden effektiver zu mindern, im Gegenzug allerdings die N2O-Bildung zu erhöhen. Um die vermehrte N2O-Produktion dieser Applikationstechnik zu vermindern, wurde der Einsatz sechs verschiedener Nitrifikationsinhibitoren (NIs) zur strategischen THG-Minderung zusätzlich untersucht. Abgesehen von einer INJ-Variante mit NI, die im zweiten Jahr durch eine zusätzliche INC-Variante mit NI ersetzt wurde, wurden alle übrigen Behandlungen in beiden Jahren untersucht. Für die abschließende Bewertung der getesteten Düngungsstrategien wurden die zur THG-Bilanz beitragenden Posten in CO2-Äquivalente umgewandelt und auf Flächen- oder Ertragseinheiten bezogen. Hierbei wurden direkte und indirekte N2O-Emissionen (NH3, NO3-), CH4-Budget, Vorketten-Emissionen für die Mineraldüngerbereitstellung und der Dieselverbrauch für Feldmaßnahmen berücksichtigt. Die Höhe der NH3-Emissionen der INC-Behandlung (12-23 % des gedüngten NH4+-N) war stärker von den Witterungsverhältnissen abhängig als die der INJ-Behandlung (12-15 % des gedüngten NH4+-N). Kumulative N2O-Emissionen der Gülleinjektion betrugen im Mittel über beide Jahre 13.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 Jahr-1 und lagen damit signifikant über dem Mittel der CON-, MIN-, oder INC-Behandlung, die Emissionen in Höhe von 2.8, 4.7 und 4.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 Jahr-1 verzeichneten. Der Einsatz von NIs reduzierte die jährlichen N2O-Emissionen der Gülleinjektion im Durchschnitt über alle NIs und Jahre um 36 % und machte die Gülleinjektion mit der INC-Behandlung somit vergleichbar. Innerhalb dieser Studie konnten die verwendeten NIs tendenziell in zwei Gruppen eingeteilt werden. Eine Gruppe mit vermeintlich geringerer Persistenz und früherem Inhibierungsmaximum im Boden und eine Gruppe, deren Substanzen ihre volle Wirkung erst zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt entfalteten. Welche Gruppe eine vermeintlich höhere Inhibierungswirkung aufwies, hing stark von den Umweltbedingungen des jeweiligen Versuchsjahres ab. Die INJ-Variante, die sowohl ein NI mit früherem und späterem Inhibierungsmaximum enthielt, verzeichnete tendenziell das höchste N2O-Reduktionspotential. Für die zusätzliche INC-Behandlung mit NI, wurde ebenfalls diese Wirkstoffkombination angewendet, sie erzielte eine N2O-Reduktion von 20 % im Vergleich zur Gülleeinarbeitung ohne Hemmstoff. Der Einsatz von NIs stellte sich auch für das CH4-Budget als vorteilhaft heraus. Die Behandlungen CON, MIN und INC zeigten in beiden Jahren eine Netto-CH4-Aufnahme mit durchschnittlich 460, 127 und 793 g CH4-C ha-1 Jahr-1. Im Gegensatz dazu führte eine Gülleinjektion in beiden Jahren zu Netto-CH4-Emissionen mit durchschnittlich 3144 g CH4-C ha-1 Jahr-1. Der Einsatz von NIs reduzierte die Höhe dieser CH4-Emissionen allerdings um rund die Hälfte. Außerdem führte eine inhibierte Nitrifikation bei breitflächiger Gülleeinarbeitung tendenziell zur Erhöhung der CH4-Aufnahme um 20 %. Die direkten N2O-Emissionen hatten, unabhängig von Behandlung oder Jahr, den größten Anteil an der THG-Bilanz. Die geringste ertragsbezogene THG-Bilanz ergab sich für die Variante CON, gefolgt von INC oder MIN, die höchste ergab sich für die INJ-Variante. Allerdings konnten die rein auf die Düngungsmaßnahme bezogenen THG-Emissionen der Gülleinjektion durch den Einsatz von NIs im Mittel über beide Jahre auf ein THG-Niveau abgesenkt werden, das mit der breitflächigen Gülleeinarbeitung vergleichbar war. Somit stellte sich neben einer mineralischen oder oberflächigen Gülleapplikation mit möglichst zeitnaher Einarbeitung, auch die Gülleinjektion als vergleichsweise THG-freundliche Applikationstechnik heraus, vorausgesetzt einer der empfohlenen NIs wurde vorab zugegeben.

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