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7,304 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis

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    Authors: Strigens, Alexander Carl Georg;

    Since the introduction of maize into Europe, open-pollinated varieties of flint maize were cultivated across the continent. Natural selection promoted adaptation to the climatic conditions prevailing in the different regions. With the advent of hybrid breeding in Europe during the 1950’s, some of the genes responsible for the specific adaptations of the landraces to abiotic and biotic stress were captured in the first developed inbred lines, but most of their genetic diversity is still untapped. Development of inbred lines out of this material by recurrent selfing is very tedious due to strong inbreeding depression. In contrast, the doubled-haploid (DH) technology allows producing fully homozygous lines out of landraces in only one step. This allows their precise characterization in replicated trials and identification of new genes by genome wide association (GWA) mapping. In this study we genotyped a set of 132 DH lines derived from European Flint landraces and 364 elite European flint (EU-F), European dent (EU-D) and North-American dent (NA-D) inbred lines with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The lines were evaluated in field trials for morphologic and agronomic traits and GWA mapping was performed to identify underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, our objectives were to (1) develop a robust method for quantifying early growth with a non-destructive remote-sensing platform, (2) evaluate the importance of early growth performance of inbred lines with regard to their testcross performance, (3) determine the potential of GWA mapping to identify genes underlying early growth and cold tolerance related traits, (4) evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity recovered in the DH lines derived from the landraces, (5) estimate the effect of the DH method on the recovered genetic diversity, (6) identify new genes by GWA mapping in the DH lines derived from landraces, and (8) discuss the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to improve the genetic diversity and performance of elite maize germplasm. A phenotyping platform using spectral reflectance and light curtains was used to perform repeated measurements of biomass and estimate relative growth rates (RGR) of the DH and inbred lines, as well as of two testcrosses of 300 dent inbred lines. The DH lines derived from the landraces Schindelmeiser and Gelber Badischer had the highest RGR followed by EU-F lines, DH lines derived from Bugard, EU-D lines and, finally, NA-D lines. For inbred lines, whole plant dry matter yield (DMY) was positively correlated with RGR (r = 0.49), whereas this relation was weaker in the testcrosses (r = 0.29). RGR of the inbred lines correlated with RGR of their testcrosses (r = 0.42), but it had no influence on testcross DMY. A set of 375 EU-F, EU-D and NA-D lines were further evaluated in growth chambers under chilling (16/13°C) and optimal (27/25°C) temperatures. Photosynthetic and early growth performance were estimated for each treatment and an adaptation index (AI) built as the chilling to optimal performance ratio. Nineteen QTL were identified by GWA mapping for trait performance and AI. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signaling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. Several QTL for photosynthetic performance co-located with previously reported QTL and the QTL identified for shoot dry wieght under optimal conditions co-located with a QTL for RGR. Comparison of the DH lines derived from landraces with the EU-F lines showed that genotypic variances in single DH populations were greater than in the EU-F breeding population. A high average genetic distance among the DH lines derived from the same landrace as well as a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium suggests a high effective population size of the landraces. Because no systematic phenotypic differences were observed between the landraces and synthetic landraces obtained by intermating the corresponding DH lines, the expected purge of lethal recessive alleles during the DH production did neither improve grain yield performance nor affect the recovered genetic diversity. Performing GWA in the DH lines derived from landraces as well as the EU-F, and EU-D lines allowed the identification of 49 QTL for 27 traits. A larger set of DH lines derived from more landraces might solve problems arising from population structure and allow a much higher power for the detection of new alleles. In conclusion, the introgression of DH lines derived from landraces into the elite breeding material would strongly broaden its genetic base. However, grain yield performance was 22% higher in EU-F lines than in the DH lines derived from landraces. Selection of the best DH lines would allow partially bridging this yield gap and marker-assisted selection may allow introgression of positive QTL without introducing negative features by linkage drag. Seit der Einfuhr von Mais aus der „neuen“ Welt nach Europa, wurden offen abblühende Flint-Mais Populationen auf dem gesamten Kontinent angebaut. Durch natürliche Selektion passten sich diese Landsorten an die Klimate des Kontinents an. In den Anfängen der Hybridzüchtung wurden Gene und Allele, die für diese spezifische Anpassung an biotische und abiotische Stressfaktoren verantwortlich sind, in den ersten Inzuchtlinien nur teilweise fixiert. Der Grossteil der genetischen Vielfalt der Landsorten blieb jedoch ungenutzt, da die Entwicklung von Inzuchtlinien aus diesem Material wegen besonders starker Inzuchtdepression sehr mühsam ist. Demgegenüber erlaubt es die seit etwa 10 Jahre eingesetzte Methode der Erzeugung von Doppel-Haploiden (DH), vollständig homozygote Linien aus Landsorten in einem einzigen Schritt zu entwickeln. Diese DH-Linien können in wiederholten Feldversuchen sehr präzise evaluiert werden. Dies vereinfacht die Kartierung von Genen mithilfe der Genom-weiten Assoziations-Kartierung (GWA) enorm. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden 132 DH-Linien aus europäischen Landsorten, 364 Inzucht-linien aus Nordamerikanischem Dent (NA-D), europäischem Flint (EU-F) und europäischem Dent (EU-D) Zuchtmaterial mit 56110 genetischen Markern genotypisiert. Agronomische Eigenschaften der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien wurden in Feldversuchen evaluiert und mittels GWA kartiert, um vorteilhafte Gene zu identifizieren. Zu unseren Zielen gehörten insbesondere (1) die Entwicklung einer robusten, nicht-destruktiven Methode zur Erfassung der Jugendentwicklung mittels Sensoren, (2) die Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen der Jugendentwicklung der Linien per se und deren Testkreuzungen, (3) die Erforschung von GWA zur Identifikation von Kühletoleranz- und Jugendentwicklungs-Genen in Elite-Inzuchtlinien, (4) die Evaluierung der aus den Landsorten mittels der DH-Methode geborgene phänotypische und genetische Vielfalt, (5) die Abschätzung eines möglichen Einfluss der DH-Methode auf der genetischen Vielfalt der DH-Linien, (6) die Entdeckung neuer Gene in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten mittels GWA, und (7) die Ermittlung des Potentials von DH-Linien aus Landsorten, um die Leistung und genetische Diversität des modernen Zuchtmaterials zu verbessern. Die Biomasse und relative Wachstumsrate (RGR) der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien sowie je zwei Testkreuzungen von 300 Dent Inzuchtlinien wurden mit Lichtschranken und spektraler Reflektion geschätzt. Die DH-Linien aus den Landsorten Schindelmeiser und Gelber Badischer wiesen die höchste RGR auf, gefolgt von EU-F Linien, DH-Linien aus Bugard, EU-D Linien und zuletzt NA-D Linien. Die Gesamttrockenmasse der Linien war mit deren RGR positiv korreliert (r = 0.49), während diese Korrelationen für die Testkreuzungen schwächer ausfiel (r = 0.29). Die RGR der Linien korrelierte mit der RGR der Testkreuzungen (r = 0.42), hatte jedoch keinen Einfluss auf deren Gesamttrockenmasse. Ein Satz von 375 EU-F, EU-D und NA-D Linien wurde unter kühlen (16/13°C) und optimalen (27/25°C) Temperaturen in Klimakammern untersucht. Die photosynthetische Leistung und die Jugendentwicklung wurden für jedes Verfahren gemessen. Aus dem Verhältnis der Leistungen unter kühlen und optimalen Bedingungen wurde ein Adaptations-Index (AI) berechnet. Neunzehn Genorte (QTL) wurden für verschiedene Merkmale und deren AI mittels GWA identifiziert. Gene mit Beteiligung in der Äthylen-Signalkette, Brassinolid- und Lignin-Biosynthese wurden als Kandidaten identifiziert. Mehrere QTL für photosynthetische Leistung co-lokalisierten mit bereits beschriebenen QTL. Der Vergleich der genetischen Varianzen zeigte, dass diese innerhalb der einzelnen Landsorten grösser ist als innerhalb des EU-F Zuchtmaterials. Sowohl die hohe mittlere genetische Distanz zwischen den DH-Linien einer Landsorte, als auch das rasch abfallende Kopplungs-ungleichgewicht innerhalb der Landsorten deuten auf eine grosse Effektive Populationsgrösse hin. Die erwartete Eliminierung von rezessiven letalen Allelen durch die DH-Methode konnte den Ertrag synthetischer Landsorten nicht erhöhen und hatte auch keinen grossen Einfluss auf die genetische Diversität. Mittels GWA Analyse in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten und in Elite-Inzuchtlinien konnten 49 QTL für 27 Merkmale kartiert werden. Eine grössere Anzahl von DH-Linien aus Landsorten würde es erlauben, die durch Populationsstruktur verursachten Artefakte zu beseitigen und somit die Wahrscheinlichkeit, neue Allele zu entdecken, stark erhöhen. Zusammengefasst kann die genetische Diversität des Zuchtmaterials durch die Einkreuzung von DH-Linien aus Landsorten stark erhöht werden. Der grosse Abstand zwischen der Leistung des Zuchtmaterials und den DH-Linien aus Landsorten (22%) kann durch Selektion der besten DH-Linien teilweise ausgeglichen werden. Marker-gestützte Selektion könnte das Einkreuzen von positiven QTL ohne Introgression von unerwünschten negativen Eigenschaften erleichtern.

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    Authors: Trinh, Lan Anh;

    Over decades, automatic robots that are pre-programmed to perform repetitive tasks in industrial production has been reaching the cutting edge of technology. There is emerging the next development with autonomous control, where a robot is able to have some levels of its own decision, i.e. self-governing, without direct controls from humans. This brings autonomous robots extensively applicable not only in industry but also in commonly accessible services in our daily life such as self-driving cars, automated health care, or entertainment. Yet, one of the backbone of the robotic system, the navigation and path planning, has to face more and more challenges including unstructured environments, uncertainty of moving objects, coexist with humans, and multiple robotic agents. Aiming toward a dependable, i.e. available, reliable, and safe, path planning system to overcome such challenges, this thesis proposes the development of multiple path planning along with obstacle avoidance and congestion control algorithms. At first, a novel dipole flow field, which is constructed from a flow field to drive robots to their goals and a dipole field to push robots far away from potential collision directions, is proposed. The algorithm is efficient in implementation yet is able to overcome the drawback of conventional field-based approach, which is easily trapped by a local optimisation of energy functions. Secondly, a congestion control mechanism with Petri net is developed to synchronise the movement of robots when they enter in a cross or narrow area. Different Petri nets are evaluated to find the optimal configuration to reduce the traffic jam through possible conflict regions. In the next contribution, the dead- or live-lock problem of a path planning system is addressed. The solution is based on multiple path planning where each robot has alternative paths to the goal. All robots in the same working space communicate with each other to update their locations and paths so that the appropriate configuration can be chosen to avoid potential deadlocks. The algorithm also takes into account the obstacle avoidance so that the robots are able to avoid mutual collisions as well as collisions with unexpected moving objects like humans. Finally, a distributed multiple path planning algorithm is implemented to help the system to deal with some level of failures, which happens when the central controlling system of robots stops working or a part of communication network between the robots is unexpectedly disconnected. The proposed approaches have been evaluated by extensive experiments to show their effectiveness in addressing collisions, congestion, as well as deadlocks. The implementation of the algorithms has been performed on widely accessible platform, robot operating system (ROS) and transferred into real robots.

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    Authors: Taşkaya Top, Berrin;

    Bu çalışmanın amacı; Türkiye'de tarımsal ürünlerin pazarlama kanalında yer alan Tarım Satış Kooperatifleri Birliklerinin, pazarlama faaliyetleri ile stratejilerinin ortaya konulması ve pazar paylarının artırılmasına yönelik çeşitli önerilerin geliştirilmesidir.Araştırmanın birincil verileri, tam sayım yöntemi kullanılarak, TSKB'lerin pazarlama/satış/ticaret bölümü yöneticileri ile yüz yüze görüşmek suretiyle anket uygulanarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada, anketlerden elde edilen veriler; frekans dağılım tabloları, likert ölçeği, khi-kare testi ve SWOT analizi yardımıyla değerlendirilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. Ayrıca Birliklerin finansal yapılarının ortaya konulması amacıyla, oranlar (rasyolar) vasıtasıyla mali analizleri yapılmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; Türkiye'de tarım ürünlerinin pazarlanmasında TSKB'nin pazar payları Birliklere göre değişmekte ve yıllar itibariyle azalmaktadır. Son 10 yılda, ürün alımlarında en yüksek pazar payına sahip Birlik, Türkiye piyasasında monopson olması nedeniyle Kozabirlik'tir (%97,95). Antbirlik ise bölge rekoltesinden aldığı pay yüksek olmasına karşın, Türkiye pamuk piyasasında pazar payı en düşük olan birliktir (%0,84).Birliklerin pazarlamada yaşadıkları sorunlar arasında, özel sektör karşısında rekabet güçlerinin düşük oluşu birinci derecede, maliyet ve dağıtımda yaşanan sorunlar ise ikinci derecede önemli sorun olarak belirlenmiştir. İncelenen birliklerin tamamı satışı geliştirme ve tutundurma faaliyetleri için finansman sıkıntısı çektiklerini belirtmişlerdir. Nitekim, Birliklerin %53,85'i pazarlama faaliyetleri için kaynaklarının yeterli olmadığını belirtmiştir. İncelenen Birlikler içinde finansal oranları açısından en başarılı Birliğin Trakyabirlik olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ancak Birliklerin finansal yapıları ile pazarlama stratejileri arasında doğrudan bir ilişki bulunamamıştır.Birliklerin faaliyet alanına giren ürünlerinin nitelikleri ve işleme aşamaları, yaşadıkları finansman sıkıntısı, özel sektörle rekabet güçlükleri, birliklerde karar alıcıların birlik faaliyetleri ve harcamalar konusundaki öncelikleri ve yöneticilerin pazarlama fonksiyonunu algılama şekilleri Türkiye'de TSKB'lerin pazarlama faaliyetleri yürütmelerinde etkili olmaktadır. Bu sorunların giderilmesi Birliklerin pazarlama hizmetlerinde başarıya ulaşmalarını sağlayacaktır. The aim of this study is to set marketing activities and strategies in the meantime to make various suggestions to increase market share of Agricultural Sales Cooperatives Associations (ASCA) which is located in marketing channel of agricultural products in Turkey.Primary data of this research had been collected by using full-count method while questionnaires applied to the managers of marketing/sales/trade departments of Agricultural Sales Cooperatives Associations (ASCA) were done by face to face interviews. During this research, the data collected from questionnaires so the frequency distribution tables were evaluated and interpreted through likert scale, chi square test and SWOT analysis. Apart from this, in order to set the financial structure of Associations, financial analysis and evaluations were done through proportions (ratio) method. Survey results indicated that; market share of Associations in sales & marketing of agricultural products depend on the Association nevertheless is decreasing year by year. Last decade, Kozabirlik had been the major buyer (%97,95) because its monopany situation in Turkish market. ANTBIRLIK having high share ratio (%0,84) from the total product in its region has the least market share on cotton markets Turkey wide.Amongst the problems associations encountered in marketing of products; primary issue faced was weakness against private enterprise in terms of competition and secondarily cost and distribution of products were determined and has been identified as a problem. All of the examined associations stated that they were facing financial constraints for sales promotion and promotion activities. Thus, 53.85% of the associations declared that they have no sufficient financial resources for marketing activities.Among the examined Associations, it was found that Trakyabirlik was the most successful in terms of financial ratios. Solely, no link was found between Associations's financial structure and their marketing strategies.The qualifications and processing phases of the crops that ASCAs dealt with in the field of activity, financial difficulties faced, weakness in competition against private sector, managerial weakness, the privileges' of the managers on spending and their understanding of union's marketing function are the factors that effect on the realization of marketing activities of ASCAs. Solving these problems will provide ASCAs with success for marketing services. 353

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    Authors: Wapelhorst, Britta;

    In der vorliegenden Doktorarbeit sollte a) die Expression sowie b) die zelluläre Lokalisation des SLC10A6 (SOAT) im humanen Hoden geklärt werden. Der SOAT zeigt im Vergleich mit weiteren Gewebetypen vergleichsweise hohe Expression im Hoden und weist eine Transportaffinität für sulfatierte Steroide auf. Sulfatierte Steroide können aufgrund ihrer hydrophilen Eigenschaften Zellmembranen nicht durch Diffusion passieren, sondern benötigen einen Transporter. Zudem sind sulfatierte Steroide biologisch nicht aktiv und können erst nach Desulfatierung an ihre entsprechenden Rezeptoren binden und eine biologische Antwort hervorrufen. Aufgrund seiner Eigenschaften ist der SOAT ein potentieller Kandidat für den Transport sulfatierter Steroide im humanen Hoden und somit für die lokale Bereitstellung von Androgenen und Östrogenen. Die Untersuchungen wurden an Hodenbiopsien von Patienten durchgeführt, die eine normale Spermatogenese aufwiesen und Hodenbiopsien von Patienten mit gestörter Spermatogenese, bis hin zu einer völligen Abwesenheit von Keimzellen, dem Sertoli Cell Only Syndrom. Der Nachweis der Expression des SOAT erfolgte mittels TaqMan®-RT-qPCR, RT-PCR nach Laser-assistierter Mikrodissektion und In-situ- Hybridisierung. In den Untersuchungen der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte durch TaqMan®-RT-qPCR und RT-PCR nach Laser-assistierter Mikrodissektion gezeigt werden, dass der SOAT in Hodenbiopsien mit normaler Spermatogenese exprimiert wird. Der zelluläre Nachweis des SOAT erfolgte mittels In-situ-Hybridisierung in Keimzellen, den primären Spermatozyten. Für den Nachweis des SOAT Proteins wurden im Rahmen dieser Dissertation sechzehn Antikörper eingesetzt. Eine spezifische Färbung konnte jedoch bei keinem Antikörper beobachtet werden. Untersuchungen von Fietz et al. (2013) konnten das SOAT-Protein schließlich mittels eines Antikörpers gegen das Soat-Protein der Maus Soat(m329-344) in Spermatozyten und teilweise in Spermatiden nachweisen. Da es sulfatierten Steroiden nicht möglich ist, die Blut-Hoden-Schranke ohne die Hilfe eines Transporters zu überwinden und so die Keimzellen zu erreichen, stellt sich die Frage nach der Funktion des SOAT in den Keimzellen des humanen Hodens. Der Nachweis der Expression des SOAT erfolgte auch in drei Hodenbiopsien mit Spermatogenestörungen, die mit einer Infertilität einhergehen. Aufgrund der signifikant geringeren Expression des SOAT in Hodenbiopsien mit einer Hypospermatogenese kann vermutet werden, dass eine signifikant geringere Expression des SOAT mit einem verringertem Transport von sulfatierten Steroiden und in Folge mit einer reduzierten Bereitstellung von lokal verfügbaren Androgenen und Östrogenen einhergeht (Fietz et al. 2013). Diese Fragestellung könnte durch Untersuchungen der Spermatogenese von Slc10a6-knockout Mäusen weiterführend untersucht werden. It was the aim of this doctoral thesis to elucidate a) the expression and b) the cellular localization of the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SLC10A6 (SOAT) in human testis. SOAT is predomiantly expressed in human testis and shows specific transport for sulfated steroids. Because of their hydrophilic nature, sulfated steroids are not able to pass cell membranes and therefore need the help of a transporter. Moreover, sulfated steroids are not biologically active, only after desulfatation they can bind to their receptors to induce a biological response. SOAT is a potential candidate not only for transport of sulfated steroids in the human testis, but also for a local supply of androgens and estrogens. The study included testicular biopsis showing normal spermatogenesis and spermatogenic impairment, including Sertoli cell only syndrome. Detection of SOAT mRNA was performed by TaqMan®-RT-qPCR, RT-PCR after laser-assisted microdissection and in situ hybridization. TaqMan®-RT-qPCR and RT-PCR after LAM detected expression of SOAT in testicular biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis. SOAT was localized in germ cells, in primary spermatocytes by in situ hybridization. For verification of SOAT protein distribution 16 antibodies were tested but none could give answer to the question of protein localization. Fietz et al. (2013) employed a new antibody against SOAT protein of mice (Soatm329-433) and detected SOAT in spermatocytes and spermatid of various stages. Due to unabillity for sulfated steroids to pass the blood-testis-barrier, the function of SOAT in spermatocytes is still not known. SOAT could be verified in three testicular biopsies showing impaired spermatogenesis resulting in infertility. Fietz et al. confirmed a significant lower expression of SOAT in testicular biopsies showing hypospermatogenesis. It is suggested that the reduction or lack of SOAT expression might be related to a decreased local supply with androgens and estrogens (Fietz et al. 2013). Further studies with Slc10a6-knockout mice could corroborate this hypothesis.

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  • Authors: Tsatsenko, Natalia;

    This thesis covers four topics based on the intersection of the fields of entrepreneurship and development economics: (a) African small business development, including SME policies; (b) the process of structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa; (c) the special role of agriculture in modern African development; (d) relationship between institutions and entrepreneurship in developing and developed countries in the world. Chapter 1 introduces the research problem, the research framework, and the main strands of literature that served as the basis for this work, and then gives an overview of each chapter and its main conclusions. Chapter 2 deals with different aspects related to SME development in Sub-Saharan Africa and how SMEs could be embedded into the process of structural change using Ghana and South Africa as a case study. Chapter 3 deals with one of the directions of the economic development process in the Sub-Saharan African region and uncovers the questions about the importance of the agricultural sector in that region and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Chapter 4 provides new insight into the structural change process in Ghana over 1990 and 2018 by studying the pace and pattern, and also seeks answers to what sector plays a key driver of economic performance between 1990 and 2018 and how the direction and pattern of structural change in Ghana coincides with the overall trend in Africa. The evidence from Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 suggests that for sustainable economic development in the future for Africa, it needs to promote several sectors and not only one. Chapter 5 explores the relationship between formal institutions and entrepreneurship based on the sample of efficiency-driven countries (refer to developing) and innovation-driven countries (refer to developed). This chapter contributes to the existed literature by examining the entrepreneurial activities at early and mature stages which makes it possible to reveal how different quality of institutional dimensions have the different effect on a business that has started recently and a business that has existed for several years.

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    Authors: Yabacı, Seyhun Hüseyin;

    Tarımsal üretimde en önemli girdilerden birisi sulamadır. Ülkemizin yıllık tüketilebilir su potansiyeli toplamı 112 milyar m3 'tür. Teknik ve ekonomik olarak ortalama bitki deseni için sulanabilen alanda kullanılan su 96 km3/yıl iken toplam sulanabilir alan için ihtiyaç ise 296,5 km3/yıl olarak belirlenmiştir Bu farktan anlaşılacağı üzere tatlı su kaynakları yetersiz gelmektedir. Mevcut suyun ekonomik olarak kullanılması hassas tarım teknolojilerinden faydalanmayı gerektirmektedir. Çalışmamızda tarımsal sulamanın uygulama tekniklerinden birisi olan Tamburlu tip yağmurlama sulama sistemi incelenerek hassas tarım uygulamaları kapsamında toprak tipine göre bilgisayarla sulama miktarını ayarlandığı bir sistem tasarlanmıştır. Sistemimiz, arazinin önceden hazırlanmış veri tabanlarında belirtilen toprak tipi ve sulama ihtiyacına göre, makineden elde edilen konum, hız ve debi değerlerini kullanarak sulamanın değişken düzeyli olmasını sağlamaktadır. Yapılan yazılım ve donanım eklemeleriyle tekdüze sulama yapan bir Tamburlu tip sulama makinesi, bilgisayar sistemi ile kumanda edilerek makinenin konumu ve sulama hızının tespiti ve kontrolü ile istenilen değişken düzeyli sulama etkinliğini sağlamıştır. Sulamanın yapıldığı noktada bulunan debi ölçme sistemi, konum, hız değerlerinin alındığı ölçme sistemleri ve bu verilerin iletilmesini sağlayan kablosuz iletim sistemi birinci kısmı, bu verilerin işlenerek sulama makinesinin çalışma hızının ayarlandığı sulama makinesinde bulunan kontrol sistemi ikinci kısmı oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada makine, bilgisayar ve kontrol sistemlerinin birbiri ile uyumlu çalışması sağlanmış ve sulama etkinliğinin sağlanması, su kaybının önlenmesinin yanında etkin sulama ile verim artışı ön görülmektedir. Irrigation is the most important inputs in agricultural production. The annual total of consumable water potential of our country is 112 billion m3. Technically and economically, the water used in the irrigable area for the average plant pattern is 96 km3/year, while the need for the total irrigable area is determined as 296.5 km3/year. Therefore, the economical use of existing water requires the use of precision agriculture technologies. In our study, hose reel type irrigation system, which is one of the application techniques of agricultural irrigation, was examined and a system in which the amount of irrigation was adjusted by computer according to the soil type was designed within the scope of precision agriculture applications. Our system provides a variable level of irrigation by using the location, speed and flow values obtained from the machine, according to the soil type and irrigation need specified in the pre-prepared databases of the land. A hose reel machine that performs uniform irrigation with the additions of software and hardware, controlled by a computer system, provided the desired variable level irrigation efficiency by detecting and controlling the location of the machine and the irrigation speed. The first part of the flow measurement system (irrigation part), the position and velocity values are taken, and the wireless transmission system that provides the transmission of these data, the second part of the control system in the irrigation machine where the operating speed of the irrigation machine is adjusted by processing these data. In the study, the machine, computer and control systems work in harmony with each other and it is foreseen that the efficiency of irrigation will increase, the prevention of water loss, as well as the increase in efficiency with effective irrigation.

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    Authors: Meßlinger, Helena Amelie;

    Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Die einzelligen Leishmania-Parasiten, die Erreger der teils tödlich verlaufenden Leishmaniose werden über den Stich von Sandmücken auf viele unter-schiedliche Säugetiere, wie auch den Menschen, übertragen. Durch die fortschreitende Aus-breitung des Vektors und verstärkte Zuwanderung aus Endemiegebieten hat die Leishmaniose auch in Deutschland in den letzten Jahren immer mehr an Bedeutung gewonnen. Leishmanien werden nach der Übertragung passiv über Phagozytose in unterschiedliche Zellen, vor allem Immunzellen, aufgenommen und vermehren sich intrazellulär. Eine effektive Immunantwort gegen Leishmanien ist daher mit der Produktion von leishmanizid wirkenden, reaktiven Sauerstoff- und Stickstoffspezies (z. B. Stickstoffmonoxid [NO]) durch die infizierten Zellen selbst verbunden. Die NO-Produktion wird vor allem durch das Zytokin Interferon (IFN)-gamma induziert, das von T-Lymphozyten und Natürlichen Killer (NK)-Zellen produziert wird. Im Mausmodell der Leishmaniose konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass IFN-gamma von NK-Zellen bei einer Leishmanien-Infektion einen protektiven Effekt hat. Auch beim Menschen gibt es Hinweise darauf, dass NK-Zellen an der Immunabwehr von Leishmanien beteiligt sind. Allerdings sind die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen der NK-Zell-Aktivierung im menschlichen Körper teils noch unklar und die bisher erzielten Ergebnisse kontrovers. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde daher untersucht, ob aus dem Blut isolierte humane NK-Zellen in vitro in einem Zeitraum von 20 h durch Leishmanien aktiviert werden können und welche Faktoren hierfür notwendig sind. Ergebnisse: Die Kokultur von PBMCs mit promastigoten Stadien unterschiedlicher Leishma-nia-Arten führte zu einer gesteigerten Expression des Aktivierungsmarkers CD69 auf NK-Zellen. Die Stärke der Expression war spezies- und dosisabhängig, zeigte jedoch keinen Zusammenhang zum Organtropismus der jeweiligen Parasiten-Stämme. Während T- oder B-Lymphozyten keine Rolle spielten, wurden Leishmania-infizierte Monozyten als Induktoren der NK-Zell-Aktivierung identifiziert. Die Steigerung der CD69-Expression war dabei nicht abhängig von einer bestimmten Monozytensubpopulation. Sie konnte sowohl durch einen löslichen Faktor, der von Leishmania-infizierten Monozyten produziert wurde, als auch durch direkten Kontakt zwischen Monozyten und NK-Zellen ausgelöst werden. Während es in dieser Arbeit nicht möglich war, den löslichen Faktor zu identifizieren, konnte das auf Monozyten präsentierte, membrangebundene IL-18 für die kontaktabhängige Steigerung der CD69-Expression verantwortlich gemacht werden. Es wurden keine Hinweise auf eine direkte Akti-vierung der NK-Zellen durch Leishmanien gefunden. Trotz der CD69-Steigerung auf NK-Zellen wurde weder die Produktion von IFN-gamma noch eine NK-Zell-Zytotoxizität unter den genannten Bedingungen ausgelöst. Unter zusätzlicher Stimulation mit dem Zytokin IL-12 kam es jedoch in IL-18-abhängiger Weise zum Ablauf der genannten Effektormechanismen. Die Anwesenheit von neutrophilen Granulozyten oder unreifen, aus Monozyten generierten dendritischen Zellen (Mo-DCs) in PBMC-Leishmania-Kokulturen hatte allerdings keinen Einfluss auf die Effektorfunktionen der NK-Zellen. Die zelluläre Quelle des für die Aktivierung benötigten IL-12 in einer in vivo-Situation ist daher bisher nicht geklärt. Vielversprechende Kandidaten sind, wie bereits im Mausmodel gezeigt, reife DCs. Neben den indirekten Effekten der Leishmanien auf NK-Zellen konnte auch eine direkte, kon-taktabhängige Interaktion gemessen werden, die zur verminderten Expression des Oberflä-chenmoleküls CD56 auf den NK-Zellen führte. Welche Auswirkungen diese Reaktion auf die allgemeine Funktionalität der NK-Zellen hat, bedarf weiterer Untersuchungen. Schlussfolgerungen: Die vorliegenden Daten zeigen, dass NK-Zellen nicht Leishmania-infizierter Menschen in vitro in sehr kurzer Zeit durch unterschiedliche Leishmania spp. aktiviert werden können und dass hierfür spezifische Signale weiterer Zelltypen, wie z. B. über Monozyten präsentiertes IL-18, notwendig sind. Für die Auslösung NK-Zell-spezifischer Ef-fektorantworten sind jedoch weitere Stimuli wie IL-12 notwendig. Obwohl die Quelle für IL-12 in einer in vivo-Situation noch unklar ist, ist es wahrscheinlich, dass NK-Zellen auch in dieser Situation an der frühen Abwehr einer Leishmania-Infektion beteiligt sind. Background and Hypothesis: Protozoan Leishmania parasites, which are the causative agents of potentially lethal leishmaniasis, are transmitted by the bite of sandflies to a variety of mammals, including humans. Due to progressive spreading of the vector and considerable immigration from endemic countries over the last years, leishmaniasis has also gained en-hanced medical significance in Germany. After transmission, Leishmania parasites are pas-sively taken up via phagocytosis by different cell types, mainly immune cells, and replicate intracellularly. Thus, an effective immune response against Leishmania is associated with the host cell production of leishmanicidal reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (e. g. nitrogen monoxide [NO]). The NO production is mainly induced by the cytokine interferon (IFN)-gamma, which is produced by T-lymphocytes and NK cells. In a murine model of leishmaniasis, it was shown that NK cell-derived IFN-gamma plays a protective role in Leishmania infections. Similarly, in the human system there are some evidences that NK cells contribute to the immune response against Leishmania. However, the underlying mechanisms of NK cell activation in the human context are not entirely known and the data are somewhat controversial, so far. Therefore, this study intended to analyse whether human blood-derived NK cells can be activated by Leishmania in vitro (within a period of 20 hours), and to identify the inducers or stimuli of NK cell activation in this context. Results: The coculture of PBMCs with different Leishmania spp. led to an increased expres-sion of the activation marker CD69 on NK cells. This reaction was species- and dose-dependent but independent of the organotropism of the different parasite strains. Leishmania-infected monocytes were identified as triggers of NK cell activation, whilst neither T- nor B-lymphocytes exhibited any stimulatory effect on NK cells. However, CD69 upregulation revealed as independent on the monocyte subtype. CD69 expression was triggered by both, a soluble factor being produced by Leishmania-infected monocytes, and by direct contact of monocytes and NK cells. In the current study it was not possible to identify the soluble factor but to elucidate monocyte-derived, surface-bound IL-18 as trigger of contact-dependent CD69 induction. Overall, there was no evidence of direct contact-dependent NK cell activation by Leishmania stages themselves or of CD69-induced production of IFN-gamma or NK cell cytotoxicity. For the latter reactions an additional stimulation with the cytokine IL-12 is obviously necessary, which is effective only in the presence of IL-18. However, the addition of neutrophil granulocytes or immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells to PBMC-Leishmania coculture, had no effect on the NK cell effector function. Therefore, the cellular source of the IL-12 needed for activation in an in vivo situation is still unclear. Similar to the mouse model, promising candidates for this function are mature DCs. Besides indirect effects of Leishmania on NK cells, a direct interaction between these cells led to a contact-dependent reduction of surface CD56 expression on NK cells. The consequences of this change on NK cell function will be analysed in future projects. Conclusion: The current study shows that NK cells originating from non-infected humans are activated in vitro by different Leishmania spp. within a very short time span, and that these reactions depend on specific signals of other cell types, such as monocyte-derived surface-expressed IL-18. In addition, to trigger NK cell effector functions, IL-12 is needed as additional stimulus. Although the actual source of IL-12 in an in vivo situation remains unclear, it appears likely that NK cells contribute to the early immune defence in Leishmania-infections.

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    Authors: Du, Zhenyu;

    Multiple robot manipulators cooperating in a common manipulation task can accomplish complex tasks that a single manipulator would be unable to complete. To achieve physical cooperation with multiple manipulators working on a common object, interaction forces need to be controlled throughout the motion. The aim of this research is to develop an inverse dynamics model-based cooperative force and position control scheme for multiple robot manipulators. An extended definition of motion is proposed to include force demands based on a constrained Lagrangian dynamics and Lagrangian multipliers formulation. This allows the direct calculation of the inverse dynamics with both motion and force demands. A feedforward controller based on the proposed method is built to realise the cooperative control of two robots sharing a common load, with both motion and force demands. Furthermore, this thesis develops a method to design an optimal excitation trajectory for robot dynamic parameter estimation utilising the Schroeder Phased Harmonic Sequence. This method yields more precise and accurate inverse dynamics models, which result in better control. The proposed controller is then tested in an experimental set-up consisting of two robot manipulators and a common load. Results show that in general the proposed controller performs noticeably better position and force tracking, especially for higher speed motions, when compared to traditional hybrid position/force controllers.

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    Authors: Karaman, Muhittin;

    Bu tez çalışması Pamukkale Üniversitesi tarafından 2008-FBE-023 ve TÜBİTAK tarafından 110Y-255 nolu proje ile desteklenmiştir. Acıgöl; Na-Cl-SO4 tipinde, tektonik, alkali, mezotrofik-hiperötrofik, mesosalin-hipersalin bir göldür. Yarı kurak iklime sahip göl, meteorolojik olaylardan doğrudan etkilenir. Yağışlı-kurak dönem geçişinde göl hacminin %25’i buharlaşırken göl alanında %55-61 oranında küçülme gerçekleşir. Evaporatif konsantrasyon, evaporitlerin çözünümü ve tekrar çökelimi, göl kimyasını şekillendiren en önemli kimyasal olaylardır. Ayrıca biyo-jeokimyasal olayların etkisinde, karbonat çökelimi ve çözünümü, ikincil karbonat gelişimi, katyon değişimi, silikat bozunumu gibi olaylar gölün jeokimyasını etkiler. Gölde evaporitlerin çözünmesi ve sülfit minerallerinin oksitlenmesi, buna karşın sülfatın sedimanter olarak depolanması arasında dinamik bir denge sülfatın izotopik kompozisyonunu kontrol eder. İklim koşulları, biyojeokimyasal döngüler, suların fiziksel özelliklerindeki değişim ve redoks koşulları, gölü besleyen sular, güncel evaporitleşme sonunda yüzeyde efloresant gelişimi-çözünümü, mineral çökelimçözünüm reaksiyonları gölün hidrojeokimyasının farklılaşmasına neden olur. Gölün soğuk dönemdeki evaporatif evrimi, sıcak-ılıman dönemdeki evaporatif evriminden farklıdır. Kimyasal sedimantasyonla birlikte gölü çevreleyen litolojik birimlerin güncel göl sedimanlarının major element jeokimyasını denetlediği gölde düzenli istiflenme bölgelerinde yıllık sedimantasyon hızı 0,029 g.cm-2.y-1’dir. Gölü çevreleyen sular, meteorik kökenli, evaporitlerin çözündüğü ve tatlı-bikarbonatlı suların karışımının olduğu sulardır. Gölü besleyen suların beslenimi yağışlarla birlikte kar sularıdır. Sedimanlardaki NTE ve diğer iz element zenginleşmesi, fillosilikatlar başta olmak üzere K-feldispat vd. Al-silikatların kontrolündedir. Hiperspektral uydu görüntüleriyle gölün yağışlı-kurak döngüsünün izlenmesinde Proba-NDWI, tuzluluğunun izlenmesinde ONDLSI indisleri kullanılabilir. Hiperspektral uydu görüntüsünden elde edilen göl suyu spektrumunun kızıl ötesi bölgesinde 700-788nm arasındaki emilimde tuzluluk etkisi belirgindir. Tuzlu göllerin evaporitleşme-çözünme döngüsünün izlenmesinde çok zamanlı uydu görüntüleri kullanılmalıdır. Acıgöl is a Na-Cl-SO4 type, tectonic, alkaline, mesotrophic-hypereutrophic, mesosaline-hypersaline lake. The lake, which has semi-arid climate, is directly affected by meteorological events. Some 25% of the lake volume evaporates during the transition period between dry and pluvial periods; the lake area also shrinks by 55-61%. Evaporative concentration, dissolution and re-precipitation of evaporite are the most important chemical events that affect the chemistry of the lake. Moreover, under the influence of biogeochemical events, precipitation and dissolution of carbonates, growth of secondary carbonates, cation exchange, and silicate weathering have an impact on the geochemistry of the lake. The dynamic equilibrium between the dissolution of evaporites in the lake and the oxidation of sulphide minerals allowing the deposition of sulfate as sediments controls the isotopic composition of the sulfate component. Climate conditions, biogeochemical cycles, change in the physical properties of the water and redox conditions, water feeding the lake, evolution and dissolution of efflorescence on the lake surface as a result of current evaporation, mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions can all lead to differentiation of the hydro-geochemistry of the lake. Evaporative evolution in the cold period of the lake is different from evaporative evolution in the warmtemperate period. Major element geochemistry is controlled by recent lake sediments, which belong to lithologic units surrounding the lake and are formed by chemical sedimentation having an annual sedimentation rate of 0.029 g.cm-2.y-1. Water surrounding the lake has a meteoric origin where dissolution of evaporites and a fresh-bicarbonate water mixture are observed. Water feeding the lake is fed by rainfall and snowmelt waters. REE and trace element enrichment in the sediments is controlled by K-feldspar, Al-silicates and, especially, phyllosilicates. Proba-NDWI may be used for observing dry and pluvial cycle of the lake with hyperspectral satellite images, and besides, ONDLSI can be used for tracking salinity. The salinity effect is apparent in the absorption between 700-788nm ranges of the infrared region of the lake water spectrum, which are obtained from hyperspectral satellite images. Multi-temporal satellite images should be used to research evaporation-dissolution cycle of saline lakes.

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  • Authors: Guilloteau, clément;

    Rainfall variability involves a wide range of scales: from the millimeter-scale associated with microphysics to the synoptic scale of the global atmospheric circulation. No existing observation system is able to cover all these scales by itself. Satellite-based observation systems are currently the most efficient systems to resolve the large spatial and temporal scales: from mesoscale meteorology to the synoptic scale. This thesis is dedicated to the exploration of satellites ability to resolve spatial scales from 100km to 2km and temporal scales from 24h to 15 min (in order to resolve the diurnal cycle). The chosen approach is both physical and statistical (or deterministic and probabilistic). The idea is that the deterministic approach can resolve the large scales, but several factors limit its relevance when dealing with fine scales: -The limited resolution of the instruments. -The number of orbiting instruments that limits temporal sampling. -The dynamic nature of fine scale variability. At fines scales, most of the errors in rainfall estimation from satellite comes from not perfectly localizing the precipitating cells. The first objective of this thesis is to identify precisely the lowest limit in scale where the deterministic approach is appropriate. The implementation of the physical-statistical approach relies on an existing multisensor estimate of daily precipitation at a 1° resolution: the TAPEER algorithm developed as part of the Megha-Tropiques mission. The chosen method is a hybrid physical disaggregation and stochastic downscaling via a multiscale representation. The result is an ensemble of high-resolution probable realizations of the rain intensity field. The ensemble is constrained by a high resolution rain detection mask derived from meteosat-SG infrared images at 3km resolution (one image every 15 minutes). The uncertainty associated with the final estimation is handled through the ensemble dispersion. Every realization is generated so that its statistical properties (frequency distribution of the intensities, autocorrelation function) mimic those of the true rain field. The generated fields and the proposed technique contribute to hydrological applications for instance by improving the runoff associated to high precipitation rates in models. Using several realizations is a way to study uncertainty propagation through a model.; Les précipitations sont un phénomène dont la variabilité s'étend sur une très large gamme d'échelles : de l'échelle millimétrique de la goutte d'eau (échelle microphysique) à l'échelle des circulations atmosphériques globales (échelle synoptique). Il n'existe pas de système unique capable de fournir des observations des précipitations couvrant toutes ces échelles. Les observations satellite sont celles qui actuellement résolvent le plus efficacement les grandes échelles spatiales et temporelles : de la méso-échelle à l'échelle synoptique. Dans cette thèse, nous explorons en zone tropicale les capacités des satellites à résoudre les échelles spatiales de l'ordre de 100km, jusqu'aux échelles kilométriques ; et les échelles temporelles comprises entre 24 heures et 15 minutes (afin de résoudre le cycle diurne). L'approche retenue est physico-statistique. Si les grandes échelles peuvent être résolues par des approches déterministes combinant les mesures de multiples instruments spatiaux, plusieurs facteurs limitent la pertinence des approches déterministes à fine échelle : - Les limites instrumentales en terme de résolution spatiale. - Le nombre d'instruments en orbite qui limite la fréquence d'échantillonnage des mesures. - La nature dynamique de la variabilité fine échelle. En particulier, aux fines échelles, c'est la difficulté à parfaitement localiser les structures précipitantes qui entraine les erreurs d'estimation les plus importantes. L'approche physico-statistique est ici synonyme de déterministe (pour les grandes échelles) et probabiliste (pour les fines échelles). Le premier objectif de cette thèse est de déterminer précisément la limite des échelles qui peuvent être résolues de façon déterministe. L'approche physico-statistique de l'estimation des intensités de précipitation est implémentée dans cette thèse à partir d'une méthode multicapteur déterministe pré-existante : l'algorithme TAPEER, développé dans le cadre de la mission Megha-Tropiques, qui fournit une estimation du cumul pluviométrique journalier à une résolution de 1°. C'est la génération d'ensembles désagrégés par une méthode stochastique multi-échelle qui a été retenue ici. Les ensembles sont contraints par une information fine échelle : un masque de détection des aires précipitantes dérivé des images infrarouge metosat-SG à une résolution de 3km (et avec une image toutes les 15 minutes). La génération d'ensemble permet de caractériser l'incertitude sur l'estimation à travers la dispersion des réalisations de l'ensemble. Chaque réalisation de l'ensemble est générée de façon à reproduire le plus fidèlement possible les propriétés statistiques (distribution de fréquence des intensités, autocorrélation spatiale et temporelle) des véritables champs de précipitation. Ces champs et cette technique ont un apport pour les applications hydrologiques, par exemple pour améliorer le ruissellement lié aux précipitations intenses dans les modèles. Considérer plusieurs réalisations permet de plus d'étudier la propagation des incertitudes à travers un modèle.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Strigens, Alexander Carl Georg;

    Since the introduction of maize into Europe, open-pollinated varieties of flint maize were cultivated across the continent. Natural selection promoted adaptation to the climatic conditions prevailing in the different regions. With the advent of hybrid breeding in Europe during the 1950’s, some of the genes responsible for the specific adaptations of the landraces to abiotic and biotic stress were captured in the first developed inbred lines, but most of their genetic diversity is still untapped. Development of inbred lines out of this material by recurrent selfing is very tedious due to strong inbreeding depression. In contrast, the doubled-haploid (DH) technology allows producing fully homozygous lines out of landraces in only one step. This allows their precise characterization in replicated trials and identification of new genes by genome wide association (GWA) mapping. In this study we genotyped a set of 132 DH lines derived from European Flint landraces and 364 elite European flint (EU-F), European dent (EU-D) and North-American dent (NA-D) inbred lines with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The lines were evaluated in field trials for morphologic and agronomic traits and GWA mapping was performed to identify underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, our objectives were to (1) develop a robust method for quantifying early growth with a non-destructive remote-sensing platform, (2) evaluate the importance of early growth performance of inbred lines with regard to their testcross performance, (3) determine the potential of GWA mapping to identify genes underlying early growth and cold tolerance related traits, (4) evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity recovered in the DH lines derived from the landraces, (5) estimate the effect of the DH method on the recovered genetic diversity, (6) identify new genes by GWA mapping in the DH lines derived from landraces, and (8) discuss the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to improve the genetic diversity and performance of elite maize germplasm. A phenotyping platform using spectral reflectance and light curtains was used to perform repeated measurements of biomass and estimate relative growth rates (RGR) of the DH and inbred lines, as well as of two testcrosses of 300 dent inbred lines. The DH lines derived from the landraces Schindelmeiser and Gelber Badischer had the highest RGR followed by EU-F lines, DH lines derived from Bugard, EU-D lines and, finally, NA-D lines. For inbred lines, whole plant dry matter yield (DMY) was positively correlated with RGR (r = 0.49), whereas this relation was weaker in the testcrosses (r = 0.29). RGR of the inbred lines correlated with RGR of their testcrosses (r = 0.42), but it had no influence on testcross DMY. A set of 375 EU-F, EU-D and NA-D lines were further evaluated in growth chambers under chilling (16/13°C) and optimal (27/25°C) temperatures. Photosynthetic and early growth performance were estimated for each treatment and an adaptation index (AI) built as the chilling to optimal performance ratio. Nineteen QTL were identified by GWA mapping for trait performance and AI. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signaling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. Several QTL for photosynthetic performance co-located with previously reported QTL and the QTL identified for shoot dry wieght under optimal conditions co-located with a QTL for RGR. Comparison of the DH lines derived from landraces with the EU-F lines showed that genotypic variances in single DH populations were greater than in the EU-F breeding population. A high average genetic distance among the DH lines derived from the same landrace as well as a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium suggests a high effective population size of the landraces. Because no systematic phenotypic differences were observed between the landraces and synthetic landraces obtained by intermating the corresponding DH lines, the expected purge of lethal recessive alleles during the DH production did neither improve grain yield performance nor affect the recovered genetic diversity. Performing GWA in the DH lines derived from landraces as well as the EU-F, and EU-D lines allowed the identification of 49 QTL for 27 traits. A larger set of DH lines derived from more landraces might solve problems arising from population structure and allow a much higher power for the detection of new alleles. In conclusion, the introgression of DH lines derived from landraces into the elite breeding material would strongly broaden its genetic base. However, grain yield performance was 22% higher in EU-F lines than in the DH lines derived from landraces. Selection of the best DH lines would allow partially bridging this yield gap and marker-assisted selection may allow introgression of positive QTL without introducing negative features by linkage drag. Seit der Einfuhr von Mais aus der „neuen“ Welt nach Europa, wurden offen abblühende Flint-Mais Populationen auf dem gesamten Kontinent angebaut. Durch natürliche Selektion passten sich diese Landsorten an die Klimate des Kontinents an. In den Anfängen der Hybridzüchtung wurden Gene und Allele, die für diese spezifische Anpassung an biotische und abiotische Stressfaktoren verantwortlich sind, in den ersten Inzuchtlinien nur teilweise fixiert. Der Grossteil der genetischen Vielfalt der Landsorten blieb jedoch ungenutzt, da die Entwicklung von Inzuchtlinien aus diesem Material wegen besonders starker Inzuchtdepression sehr mühsam ist. Demgegenüber erlaubt es die seit etwa 10 Jahre eingesetzte Methode der Erzeugung von Doppel-Haploiden (DH), vollständig homozygote Linien aus Landsorten in einem einzigen Schritt zu entwickeln. Diese DH-Linien können in wiederholten Feldversuchen sehr präzise evaluiert werden. Dies vereinfacht die Kartierung von Genen mithilfe der Genom-weiten Assoziations-Kartierung (GWA) enorm. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden 132 DH-Linien aus europäischen Landsorten, 364 Inzucht-linien aus Nordamerikanischem Dent (NA-D), europäischem Flint (EU-F) und europäischem Dent (EU-D) Zuchtmaterial mit 56110 genetischen Markern genotypisiert. Agronomische Eigenschaften der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien wurden in Feldversuchen evaluiert und mittels GWA kartiert, um vorteilhafte Gene zu identifizieren. Zu unseren Zielen gehörten insbesondere (1) die Entwicklung einer robusten, nicht-destruktiven Methode zur Erfassung der Jugendentwicklung mittels Sensoren, (2) die Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen der Jugendentwicklung der Linien per se und deren Testkreuzungen, (3) die Erforschung von GWA zur Identifikation von Kühletoleranz- und Jugendentwicklungs-Genen in Elite-Inzuchtlinien, (4) die Evaluierung der aus den Landsorten mittels der DH-Methode geborgene phänotypische und genetische Vielfalt, (5) die Abschätzung eines möglichen Einfluss der DH-Methode auf der genetischen Vielfalt der DH-Linien, (6) die Entdeckung neuer Gene in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten mittels GWA, und (7) die Ermittlung des Potentials von DH-Linien aus Landsorten, um die Leistung und genetische Diversität des modernen Zuchtmaterials zu verbessern. Die Biomasse und relative Wachstumsrate (RGR) der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien sowie je zwei Testkreuzungen von 300 Dent Inzuchtlinien wurden mit Lichtschranken und spektraler Reflektion geschätzt. Die DH-Linien aus den Landsorten Schindelmeiser und Gelber Badischer wiesen die höchste RGR auf, gefolgt von EU-F Linien, DH-Linien aus Bugard, EU-D Linien und zuletzt NA-D Linien. Die Gesamttrockenmasse der Linien war mit deren RGR positiv korreliert (r = 0.49), während diese Korrelationen für die Testkreuzungen schwächer ausfiel (r = 0.29). Die RGR der Linien korrelierte mit der RGR der Testkreuzungen (r = 0.42), hatte jedoch keinen Einfluss auf deren Gesamttrockenmasse. Ein Satz von 375 EU-F, EU-D und NA-D Linien wurde unter kühlen (16/13°C) und optimalen (27/25°C) Temperaturen in Klimakammern untersucht. Die photosynthetische Leistung und die Jugendentwicklung wurden für jedes Verfahren gemessen. Aus dem Verhältnis der Leistungen unter kühlen und optimalen Bedingungen wurde ein Adaptations-Index (AI) berechnet. Neunzehn Genorte (QTL) wurden für verschiedene Merkmale und deren AI mittels GWA identifiziert. Gene mit Beteiligung in der Äthylen-Signalkette, Brassinolid- und Lignin-Biosynthese wurden als Kandidaten identifiziert. Mehrere QTL für photosynthetische Leistung co-lokalisierten mit bereits beschriebenen QTL. Der Vergleich der genetischen Varianzen zeigte, dass diese innerhalb der einzelnen Landsorten grösser ist als innerhalb des EU-F Zuchtmaterials. Sowohl die hohe mittlere genetische Distanz zwischen den DH-Linien einer Landsorte, als auch das rasch abfallende Kopplungs-ungleichgewicht innerhalb der Landsorten deuten auf eine grosse Effektive Populationsgrösse hin. Die erwartete Eliminierung von rezessiven letalen Allelen durch die DH-Methode konnte den Ertrag synthetischer Landsorten nicht erhöhen und hatte auch keinen grossen Einfluss auf die genetische Diversität. Mittels GWA Analyse in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten und in Elite-Inzuchtlinien konnten 49 QTL für 27 Merkmale kartiert werden. Eine grössere Anzahl von DH-Linien aus Landsorten würde es erlauben, die durch Populationsstruktur verursachten Artefakte zu beseitigen und somit die Wahrscheinlichkeit, neue Allele zu entdecken, stark erhöhen. Zusammengefasst kann die genetische Diversität des Zuchtmaterials durch die Einkreuzung von DH-Linien aus Landsorten stark erhöht werden. Der grosse Abstand zwischen der Leistung des Zuchtmaterials und den DH-Linien aus Landsorten (22%) kann durch Selektion der besten DH-Linien teilweise ausgeglichen werden. Marker-gestützte Selektion könnte das Einkreuzen von positiven QTL ohne Introgression von unerwünschten negativen Eigenschaften erleichtern.

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    Authors: Trinh, Lan Anh;

    Over decades, automatic robots that are pre-programmed to perform repetitive tasks in industrial production has been reaching the cutting edge of technology. There is emerging the next development with autonomous control, where a robot is able to have some levels of its own decision, i.e. self-governing, without direct controls from humans. This brings autonomous robots extensively applicable not only in industry but also in commonly accessible services in our daily life such as self-driving cars, automated health care, or entertainment. Yet, one of the backbone of the robotic system, the navigation and path planning, has to face more and more challenges including unstructured environments, uncertainty of moving objects, coexist with humans, and multiple robotic agents. Aiming toward a dependable, i.e. available, reliable, and safe, path planning system to overcome such challenges, this thesis proposes the development of multiple path planning along with obstacle avoidance and congestion control algorithms. At first, a novel dipole flow field, which is constructed from a flow field to drive robots to their goals and a dipole field to push robots far away from potential collision directions, is proposed. The algorithm is efficient in implementation yet is able to overcome the drawback of conventional field-based approach, which is easily trapped by a local optimisation of energy functions. Secondly, a congestion control mechanism with Petri net is developed to synchronise the movement of robots when they enter in a cross or narrow area. Different Petri nets are evaluated to find the optimal configuration to reduce the traffic jam through possible conflict regions. In the next contribution, the dead- or live-lock problem of a path planning system is addressed. The solution is based on multiple path planning where each robot has alternative paths to the goal. All robots in the same working space communicate with each other to update their locations and paths so that the appropriate configuration can be chosen to avoid potential deadlocks. The algorithm also takes into account the obstacle avoidance so that the robots are able to avoid mutual collisions as well as collisions with unexpected moving objects like humans. Finally, a distributed multiple path planning algorithm is implemented to help the system to deal with some level of failures, which happens when the central controlling system of robots stops working or a part of communication network between the robots is unexpectedly disconnected. The proposed approaches have been evaluated by extensive experiments to show their effectiveness in addressing collisions, congestion, as well as deadlocks. The implementation of the algorithms has been performed on widely accessible platform, robot operating system (ROS) and transferred into real robots.

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    Authors: Taşkaya Top, Berrin;

    Bu çalışmanın amacı; Türkiye'de tarımsal ürünlerin pazarlama kanalında yer alan Tarım Satış Kooperatifleri Birliklerinin, pazarlama faaliyetleri ile stratejilerinin ortaya konulması ve pazar paylarının artırılmasına yönelik çeşitli önerilerin geliştirilmesidir.Araştırmanın birincil verileri, tam sayım yöntemi kullanılarak, TSKB'lerin pazarlama/satış/ticaret bölümü yöneticileri ile yüz yüze görüşmek suretiyle anket uygulanarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada, anketlerden elde edilen veriler; frekans dağılım tabloları, likert ölçeği, khi-kare testi ve SWOT analizi yardımıyla değerlendirilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. Ayrıca Birliklerin finansal yapılarının ortaya konulması amacıyla, oranlar (rasyolar) vasıtasıyla mali analizleri yapılmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; Türkiye'de tarım ürünlerinin pazarlanmasında TSKB'nin pazar payları Birliklere göre değişmekte ve yıllar itibariyle azalmaktadır. Son 10 yılda, ürün alımlarında en yüksek pazar payına sahip Birlik, Türkiye piyasasında monopson olması nedeniyle Kozabirlik'tir (%97,95). Antbirlik ise bölge rekoltesinden aldığı pay yüksek olmasına karşın, Türkiye pamuk piyasasında pazar payı en düşük olan birliktir (%0,84).Birliklerin pazarlamada yaşadıkları sorunlar arasında, özel sektör karşısında rekabet güçlerinin düşük oluşu birinci derecede, maliyet ve dağıtımda yaşanan sorunlar ise ikinci derecede önemli sorun olarak belirlenmiştir. İncelenen birliklerin tamamı satışı geliştirme ve tutundurma faaliyetleri için finansman sıkıntısı çektiklerini belirtmişlerdir. Nitekim, Birliklerin %53,85'i pazarlama faaliyetleri için kaynaklarının yeterli olmadığını belirtmiştir. İncelenen Birlikler içinde finansal oranları açısından en başarılı Birliğin Trakyabirlik olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ancak Birliklerin finansal yapıları ile pazarlama stratejileri arasında doğrudan bir ilişki bulunamamıştır.Birliklerin faaliyet alanına giren ürünlerinin nitelikleri ve işleme aşamaları, yaşadıkları finansman sıkıntısı, özel sektörle rekabet güçlükleri, birliklerde karar alıcıların birlik faaliyetleri ve harcamalar konusundaki öncelikleri ve yöneticilerin pazarlama fonksiyonunu algılama şekilleri Türkiye'de TSKB'lerin pazarlama faaliyetleri yürütmelerinde etkili olmaktadır. Bu sorunların giderilmesi Birliklerin pazarlama hizmetlerinde başarıya ulaşmalarını sağlayacaktır. The aim of this study is to set marketing activities and strategies in the meantime to make various suggestions to increase market share of Agricultural Sales Cooperatives Associations (ASCA) which is located in marketing channel of agricultural products in Turkey.Primary data of this research had been collected by using full-count method while questionnaires applied to the managers of marketing/sales/trade departments of Agricultural Sales Cooperatives Associations (ASCA) were done by face to face interviews. During this research, the data collected from questionnaires so the frequency distribution tables were evaluated and interpreted through likert scale, chi square test and SWOT analysis. Apart from this, in order to set the financial structure of Associations, financial analysis and evaluations were done through proportions (ratio) method. Survey results indicated that; market share of Associations in sales & marketing of agricultural products depend on the Association nevertheless is decreasing year by year. Last decade, Kozabirlik had been the major buyer (%97,95) because its monopany situation in Turkish market. ANTBIRLIK having high share ratio (%0,84) from the total product in its region has the least market share on cotton markets Turkey wide.Amongst the problems associations encountered in marketing of products; primary issue faced was weakness against private enterprise in terms of competition and secondarily cost and distribution of products were determined and has been identified as a problem. All of the examined associations stated that they were facing financial constraints for sales promotion and promotion activities. Thus, 53.85% of the associations declared that they have no sufficient financial resources for marketing activities.Among the examined Associations, it was found that Trakyabirlik was the most successful in terms of financial ratios. Solely, no link was found between Associations's financial structure and their marketing strategies.The qualifications and processing phases of the crops that ASCAs dealt with in the field of activity, financial difficulties faced, weakness in competition against private sector, managerial weakness, the privileges' of the managers on spending and their understanding of union's marketing function are the factors that effect on the realization of marketing activities of ASCAs. Solving these problems will provide ASCAs with success for marketing services. 353

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    Authors: Wapelhorst, Britta;

    In der vorliegenden Doktorarbeit sollte a) die Expression sowie b) die zelluläre Lokalisation des SLC10A6 (SOAT) im humanen Hoden geklärt werden. Der SOAT zeigt im Vergleich mit weiteren Gewebetypen vergleichsweise hohe Expression im Hoden und weist eine Transportaffinität für sulfatierte Steroide auf. Sulfatierte Steroide können aufgrund ihrer hydrophilen Eigenschaften Zellmembranen nicht durch Diffusion passieren, sondern benötigen einen Transporter. Zudem sind sulfatierte Steroide biologisch nicht aktiv und können erst nach Desulfatierung an ihre entsprechenden Rezeptoren binden und eine biologische Antwort hervorrufen. Aufgrund seiner Eigenschaften ist der SOAT ein potentieller Kandidat für den Transport sulfatierter Steroide im humanen Hoden und somit für die lokale Bereitstellung von Androgenen und Östrogenen. Die Untersuchungen wurden an Hodenbiopsien von Patienten durchgeführt, die eine normale Spermatogenese aufwiesen und Hodenbiopsien von Patienten mit gestörter Spermatogenese, bis hin zu einer völligen Abwesenheit von Keimzellen, dem Sertoli Cell Only Syndrom. Der Nachweis der Expression des SOAT erfolgte mittels TaqMan®-RT-qPCR, RT-PCR nach Laser-assistierter Mikrodissektion und In-situ- Hybridisierung. In den Untersuchungen der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte durch TaqMan®-RT-qPCR und RT-PCR nach Laser-assistierter Mikrodissektion gezeigt werden, dass der SOAT in Hodenbiopsien mit normaler Spermatogenese exprimiert wird. Der zelluläre Nachweis des SOAT erfolgte mittels In-situ-Hybridisierung in Keimzellen, den primären Spermatozyten. Für den Nachweis des SOAT Proteins wurden im Rahmen dieser Dissertation sechzehn Antikörper eingesetzt. Eine spezifische Färbung konnte jedoch bei keinem Antikörper beobachtet werden. Untersuchungen von Fietz et al. (2013) konnten das SOAT-Protein schließlich mittels eines Antikörpers gegen das Soat-Protein der Maus Soat(m329-344) in Spermatozyten und teilweise in Spermatiden nachweisen. Da es sulfatierten Steroiden nicht möglich ist, die Blut-Hoden-Schranke ohne die Hilfe eines Transporters zu überwinden und so die Keimzellen zu erreichen, stellt sich die Frage nach der Funktion des SOAT in den Keimzellen des humanen Hodens. Der Nachweis der Expression des SOAT erfolgte auch in drei Hodenbiopsien mit Spermatogenestörungen, die mit einer Infertilität einhergehen. Aufgrund der signifikant geringeren Expression des SOAT in Hodenbiopsien mit einer Hypospermatogenese kann vermutet werden, dass eine signifikant geringere Expression des SOAT mit einem verringertem Transport von sulfatierten Steroiden und in Folge mit einer reduzierten Bereitstellung von lokal verfügbaren Androgenen und Östrogenen einhergeht (Fietz et al. 2013). Diese Fragestellung könnte durch Untersuchungen der Spermatogenese von Slc10a6-knockout Mäusen weiterführend untersucht werden. It was the aim of this doctoral thesis to elucidate a) the expression and b) the cellular localization of the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SLC10A6 (SOAT) in human testis. SOAT is predomiantly expressed in human testis and shows specific transport for sulfated steroids. Because of their hydrophilic nature, sulfated steroids are not able to pass cell membranes and therefore need the help of a transporter. Moreover, sulfated steroids are not biologically active, only after desulfatation they can bind to their receptors to induce a biological response. SOAT is a potential candidate not only for transport of sulfated steroids in the human testis, but also for a local supply of androgens and estrogens. The study included testicular biopsis showing normal spermatogenesis and spermatogenic impairment, including Sertoli cell only syndrome. Detection of SOAT mRNA was performed by TaqMan®-RT-qPCR, RT-PCR after laser-assisted microdissection and in situ hybridization. TaqMan®-RT-qPCR and RT-PCR after LAM detected expression of SOAT in testicular biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis. SOAT was localized in germ cells, in primary spermatocytes by in situ hybridization. For verification of SOAT protein distribution 16 antibodies were tested but none could give answer to the question of protein localization. Fietz et al. (2013) employed a new antibody against SOAT protein of mice (Soatm329-433) and detected SOAT in spermatocytes and spermatid of various stages. Due to unabillity for sulfated steroids to pass the blood-testis-barrier, the function of SOAT in spermatocytes is still not known. SOAT could be verified in three testicular biopsies showing impaired spermatogenesis resulting in infertility. Fietz et al. confirmed a significant lower expression of SOAT in testicular biopsies showing hypospermatogenesis. It is suggested that the reduction or lack of SOAT expression might be related to a decreased local supply with androgens and estrogens (Fietz et al. 2013). Further studies with Slc10a6-knockout mice could corroborate this hypothesis.

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  • Authors: Tsatsenko, Natalia;

    This thesis covers four topics based on the intersection of the fields of entrepreneurship and development economics: (a) African small business development, including SME policies; (b) the process of structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa; (c) the special role of agriculture in modern African development; (d) relationship between institutions and entrepreneurship in developing and developed countries in the world. Chapter 1 introduces the research problem, the research framework, and the main strands of literature that served as the basis for this work, and then gives an overview of each chapter and its main conclusions. Chapter 2 deals with different aspects related to SME development in Sub-Saharan Africa and how SMEs could be embedded into the process of structural change using Ghana and South Africa as a case study. Chapter 3 deals with one of the directions of the economic development process in the Sub-Saharan African region and uncovers the questions about the importance of the agricultural sector in that region and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Chapter 4 provides new insight into the structural change process in Ghana over 1990 and 2018 by studying the pace and pattern, and also seeks answers to what sector plays a key driver of economic performance between 1990 and 2018 and how the direction and pattern of structural change in Ghana coincides with the overall trend in Africa. The evidence from Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 suggests that for sustainable economic development in the future for Africa, it needs to promote several sectors and not only one. Chapter 5 explores the relationship between formal institutions and entrepreneurship based on the sample of efficiency-driven countries (refer to developing) and innovation-driven countries (refer to developed). This chapter contributes to the existed literature by examining the entrepreneurial activities at early and mature stages which makes it possible to reveal how different quality of institutional dimensions have the different effect on a business that has started recently and a business that has existed for several years.

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    Authors: Yabacı, Seyhun Hüseyin;

    Tarımsal üretimde en önemli girdilerden birisi sulamadır. Ülkemizin yıllık tüketilebilir su potansiyeli toplamı 112 milyar m3 'tür. Teknik ve ekonomik olarak ortalama bitki deseni için sulanabilen alanda kullanılan su 96 km3/yıl iken toplam sulanabilir alan için ihtiyaç ise 296,5 km3/yıl olarak belirlenmiştir Bu farktan anlaşılacağı üzere tatlı su kaynakları yetersiz gelmektedir. Mevcut suyun ekonomik olarak kullanılması hassas tarım teknolojilerinden faydalanmayı gerektirmektedir. Çalışmamızda tarımsal sulamanın uygulama tekniklerinden birisi olan Tamburlu tip yağmurlama sulama sistemi incelenerek hassas tarım uygulamaları kapsamında toprak tipine göre bilgisayarla sulama miktarını ayarlandığı bir sistem tasarlanmıştır. Sistemimiz, arazinin önceden hazırlanmış veri tabanlarında belirtilen toprak tipi ve sulama ihtiyacına göre, makineden elde edilen konum, hız ve debi değerlerini kullanarak sulamanın değişken düzeyli olmasını sağlamaktadır. Yapılan yazılım ve donanım eklemeleriyle tekdüze sulama yapan bir Tamburlu tip sulama makinesi, bilgisayar sistemi ile kumanda edilerek makinenin konumu ve sulama hızının tespiti ve kontrolü ile istenilen değişken düzeyli sulama etkinliğini sağlamıştır. Sulamanın yapıldığı noktada bulunan debi ölçme sistemi, konum, hız değerlerinin alındığı ölçme sistemleri ve bu verilerin iletilmesini sağlayan kablosuz iletim sistemi birinci kısmı, bu verilerin işlenerek sulama makinesinin çalışma hızının ayarlandığı sulama makinesinde bulunan kontrol sistemi ikinci kısmı oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada makine, bilgisayar ve kontrol sistemlerinin birbiri ile uyumlu çalışması sağlanmış ve sulama etkinliğinin sağlanması, su kaybının önlenmesinin yanında etkin sulama ile verim artışı ön görülmektedir. Irrigation is the most important inputs in agricultural production. The annual total of consumable water potential of our country is 112 billion m3. Technically and economically, the water used in the irrigable area for the average plant pattern is 96 km3/year, while the need for the total irrigable area is determined as 296.5 km3/year. Therefore, the economical use of existing water requires the use of precision agriculture technologies. In our study, hose reel type irrigation system, which is one of the application techniques of agricultural irrigation, was examined and a system in which the amount of irrigation was adjusted by computer according to the soil type was designed within the scope of precision agriculture applications. Our system provides a variable level of irrigation by using the location, speed and flow values obtained from the machine, according to the soil type and irrigation need specified in the pre-prepared databases of the land. A hose reel machine that performs uniform irrigation with the additions of software and hardware, controlled by a computer system, provided the desired variable level irrigation efficiency by detecting and controlling the location of the machine and the irrigation speed. The first part of the flow measurement system (irrigation part), the position and velocity values are taken, and the wireless transmission system that provides the transmission of these data, the second part of the control system in the irrigation machine where the operating speed of the irrigation machine is adjusted by processing these data. In the study, the machine, computer and control systems work in harmony with each other and it is foreseen that the efficiency of irrigation will increase, the prevention of water loss, as well as the increase in efficiency with effective irrigation.

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    Authors: Meßlinger, Helena Amelie;

    Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Die einzelligen Leishmania-Parasiten, die Erreger der teils tödlich verlaufenden Leishmaniose werden über den Stich von Sandmücken auf viele unter-schiedliche Säugetiere, wie auch den Menschen, übertragen. Durch die fortschreitende Aus-breitung des Vektors und verstärkte Zuwanderung aus Endemiegebieten hat die Leishmaniose auch in Deutschland in den letzten Jahren immer mehr an Bedeutung gewonnen. Leishmanien werden nach der Übertragung passiv über Phagozytose in unterschiedliche Zellen, vor allem Immunzellen, aufgenommen und vermehren sich intrazellulär. Eine effektive Immunantwort gegen Leishmanien ist daher mit der Produktion von leishmanizid wirkenden, reaktiven Sauerstoff- und Stickstoffspezies (z. B. Stickstoffmonoxid [NO]) durch die infizierten Zellen selbst verbunden. Die NO-Produktion wird vor allem durch das Zytokin Interferon (IFN)-gamma induziert, das von T-Lymphozyten und Natürlichen Killer (NK)-Zellen produziert wird. Im Mausmodell der Leishmaniose konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass IFN-gamma von NK-Zellen bei einer Leishmanien-Infektion einen protektiven Effekt hat. Auch beim Menschen gibt es Hinweise darauf, dass NK-Zellen an der Immunabwehr von Leishmanien beteiligt sind. Allerdings sind die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen der NK-Zell-Aktivierung im menschlichen Körper teils noch unklar und die bisher erzielten Ergebnisse kontrovers. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde daher untersucht, ob aus dem Blut isolierte humane NK-Zellen in vitro in einem Zeitraum von 20 h durch Leishmanien aktiviert werden können und welche Faktoren hierfür notwendig sind. Ergebnisse: Die Kokultur von PBMCs mit promastigoten Stadien unterschiedlicher Leishma-nia-Arten führte zu einer gesteigerten Expression des Aktivierungsmarkers CD69 auf NK-Zellen. Die Stärke der Expression war spezies- und dosisabhängig, zeigte jedoch keinen Zusammenhang zum Organtropismus der jeweiligen Parasiten-Stämme. Während T- oder B-Lymphozyten keine Rolle spielten, wurden Leishmania-infizierte Monozyten als Induktoren der NK-Zell-Aktivierung identifiziert. Die Steigerung der CD69-Expression war dabei nicht abhängig von einer bestimmten Monozytensubpopulation. Sie konnte sowohl durch einen löslichen Faktor, der von Leishmania-infizierten Monozyten produziert wurde, als auch durch direkten Kontakt zwischen Monozyten und NK-Zellen ausgelöst werden. Während es in dieser Arbeit nicht möglich war, den löslichen Faktor zu identifizieren, konnte das auf Monozyten präsentierte, membrangebundene IL-18 für die kontaktabhängige Steigerung der CD69-Expression verantwortlich gemacht werden. Es wurden keine Hinweise auf eine direkte Akti-vierung der NK-Zellen durch Leishmanien gefunden. Trotz der CD69-Steigerung auf NK-Zellen wurde weder die Produktion von IFN-gamma noch eine NK-Zell-Zytotoxizität unter den genannten Bedingungen ausgelöst. Unter zusätzlicher Stimulation mit dem Zytokin IL-12 kam es jedoch in IL-18-abhängiger Weise zum Ablauf der genannten Effektormechanismen. Die Anwesenheit von neutrophilen Granulozyten oder unreifen, aus Monozyten generierten dendritischen Zellen (Mo-DCs) in PBMC-Leishmania-Kokulturen hatte allerdings keinen Einfluss auf die Effektorfunktionen der NK-Zellen. Die zelluläre Quelle des für die Aktivierung benötigten IL-12 in einer in vivo-Situation ist daher bisher nicht geklärt. Vielversprechende Kandidaten sind, wie bereits im Mausmodel gezeigt, reife DCs. Neben den indirekten Effekten der Leishmanien auf NK-Zellen konnte auch eine direkte, kon-taktabhängige Interaktion gemessen werden, die zur verminderten Expression des Oberflä-chenmoleküls CD56 auf den NK-Zellen führte. Welche Auswirkungen diese Reaktion auf die allgemeine Funktionalität der NK-Zellen hat, bedarf weiterer Untersuchungen. Schlussfolgerungen: Die vorliegenden Daten zeigen, dass NK-Zellen nicht Leishmania-infizierter Menschen in vitro in sehr kurzer Zeit durch unterschiedliche Leishmania spp. aktiviert werden können und dass hierfür spezifische Signale weiterer Zelltypen, wie z. B. über Monozyten präsentiertes IL-18, notwendig sind. Für die Auslösung NK-Zell-spezifischer Ef-fektorantworten sind jedoch weitere Stimuli wie IL-12 notwendig. Obwohl die Quelle für IL-12 in einer in vivo-Situation noch unklar ist, ist es wahrscheinlich, dass NK-Zellen auch in dieser Situation an der frühen Abwehr einer Leishmania-Infektion beteiligt sind. Background and Hypothesis: Protozoan Leishmania parasites, which are the causative agents of potentially lethal leishmaniasis, are transmitted by the bite of sandflies to a variety of mammals, including humans. Due to progressive spreading of the vector and considerable immigration from endemic countries over the last years, leishmaniasis has also gained en-hanced medical significance in Germany. After transmission, Leishmania parasites are pas-sively taken up via phagocytosis by different cell types, mainly immune cells, and replicate intracellularly. Thus, an effective immune response against Leishmania is associated with the host cell production of leishmanicidal reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (e. g. nitrogen monoxide [NO]). The NO production is mainly induced by the cytokine interferon (IFN)-gamma, which is produced by T-lymphocytes and NK cells. In a murine model of leishmaniasis, it was shown that NK cell-derived IFN-gamma plays a protective role in Leishmania infections. Similarly, in the human system there are some evidences that NK cells contribute to the immune response against Leishmania. However, the underlying mechanisms of NK cell activation in the human context are not entirely known and the data are somewhat controversial, so far. Therefore, this study intended to analyse whether human blood-derived NK cells can be activated by Leishmania in vitro (within a period of 20 hours), and to identify the inducers or stimuli of NK cell activation in this context. Results: The coculture of PBMCs with different Leishmania spp. led to an increased expres-sion of the activation marker CD69 on NK cells. This reaction was species- and dose-dependent but independent of the organotropism of the different parasite strains. Leishmania-infected monocytes were identified as triggers of NK cell activation, whilst neither T- nor B-lymphocytes exhibited any stimulatory effect on NK cells. However, CD69 upregulation revealed as independent on the monocyte subtype. CD69 expression was triggered by both, a soluble factor being produced by Leishmania-infected monocytes, and by direct contact of monocytes and NK cells. In the current study it was not possible to identify the soluble factor but to elucidate monocyte-derived, surface-bound IL-18 as trigger of contact-dependent CD69 induction. Overall, there was no evidence of direct contact-dependent NK cell activation by Leishmania stages themselves or of CD69-induced production of IFN-gamma or NK cell cytotoxicity. For the latter reactions an additional stimulation with the cytokine IL-12 is obviously necessary, which is effective only in the presence of IL-18. However, the addition of neutrophil granulocytes or immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells to PBMC-Leishmania coculture, had no effect on the NK cell effector function. Therefore, the cellular source of the IL-12 needed for activation in an in vivo situation is still unclear. Similar to the mouse model, promising candidates for this function are mature DCs. Besides indirect effects of Leishmania on NK cells, a direct interaction between these cells led to a contact-dependent reduction of surface CD56 expression on NK cells. The consequences of this change on NK cell function will be analysed in future projects. Conclusion: The current study shows that NK cells originating from non-infected humans are activated in vitro by different Leishmania spp. within a very short time span, and that these reactions depend on specific signals of other cell types, such as monocyte-derived surface-expressed IL-18. In addition, to trigger NK cell effector functions, IL-12 is needed as additional stimulus. Although the actual source of IL-12 in an in vivo situation remains unclear, it appears likely that NK cells contribute to the early immune defence in Leishmania-infections.

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