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7,304 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Demir, Ayten;

    Bu araştırma; Brassica türleri arasında melezlemeler yaparak lahana kök uru hastalığına dayanıklı hatlarının geliştirilmesinde embriyo kültür tekniğinin kullanım potansiyelinin belirlenmesi amacıyla, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarla Bitkileri Bölümünde, iklimlendirme ünitesinde, doku kültür odasında, serada ve tarla koşullarında yürütülmüştür.Lahana (B. oleracea L.) türleri içinde yer alan Dürme lahana çeşidi ile şalgam (B. rapa L.) türü içinde yer alan ECD-1, ECD-2, ECD-3 ve ECD-4 şalgam hatlar arasında, sera koşullarında 831 çiçek tomurcuğu melezlenmiştir. Bu melezlemelerden oluşan toplam 284 adet harnuptan, toplam 2663 adet primitif embriyo besi ortamına aktarılmıştır. Besi ortamına aktarılan embriyolardan toplam 15 adet embriyo yaşatılmış ve bunlardan toplam 813 adet haploid bitki elde edilmiştir. Embriyo başına haploid bitki oluşum oranının % 30.5 olduğu saptanmıştır. Elde edilen haploid bitkilerden toplam 688 bitki katlamaya alınmış olup, katlama sonrası 348 sağlıklı double hapolid bitki sera koşullarına aktarılmış olup bu bitkilerden gelişmelerini tamamlayabilen toplam 263 double haploid bitki vernalizasyona alınmıştır. Vernalizasyona alınan double haploid bitkilerden toplam 162 adet double haploid bitki sağlıklı olarak sera koşullarına aktarılmış olup bu bitkilerden çiçeklenme periyoduna gelen bitkilerde yapılan kendilemeler sonucunda sadece DürmeXECD-4 melez kombinasyonuna ait toplam 8 melez bitkiden toplam 148 harnup ve bu harnupların harman edilmesi sonucu toplam 293 adet tohumdan oluşan bir gen havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Oluşturulan gen havuzundaki tohumlar, testlemek amacıyla steril koşullarda ekilerek toplam 210 adet double haploid kendilenmiş bitki yetiştirilmiş ancak bu bitkilerden sadece 95 tanesinde testleme yapılabilmiştir. Testlemeye tabi tutulan bu bitkilerden sadece 33 tanesinde hastalık kaydı yapılabilmiştir. Böylece lahana kök uru hastalığına karşı dayanıklılık geni taşıyan 33 double haploid kendilenmiş bitkiden oluşan bir gen havuzu oluşturulmuştur. This research was carried out at Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, in growth room, tissue culture room, greenhouse and field condition between 2010 and 2014,the possibility of use embryo culture technique in order to improvement resistance lines against clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) via interspecific hybridization between B. oleraceae L. and B. rapa L. Study results: 831 flowers were hybridized between B. oreacea L. var. Dürme and B. rapa L. Line ECD-1, ECD-2, ECD-3 and ECD-4 and 284 bulbs were harvested for embryo culture. 2663 primitif embriyos were transferred to tissue culture medium and 15 of them successfully germinated and produced 813 haploid hybrid plants. So that, the percentage of haploid plant per embryo was found 30.5% 688 haploid plants were treated with colchicine to doubling choromosomes to get double haploid plants and 348 double haploid plants transferred to greenhouse condition for completing their growth. 263 double haploid plants of them were transferred to vernalization rooms. 162 double haploid plants transferred green condition after 3 mounts vernalisation and self-crossing was done in flowering condition. 148 bulbs were harvested from 8 hybrid plants from DurmexECD-4 hybrid combination and a gene poole created after treshing with 293 seeds.210 hybrid double-haploid plants were grown in vitro condition to grown sterile plants for clubroot disease tests but only 95 plants tedted for disease. After Clubroot disease testing, survival 33 plants were transferred to the greenhouse condition for completion their growth. Finally, a gene poole created with this 33 plants. 104

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  • Authors: Devaurs, Didier;

    Planning a path for a robot in a complex environment is a crucial issue in robotics. So-called probabilistic algorithms for path planning are very successful at solving dicult problems and are applied in various domains, such as aerospace, computer animation, and structural biology. However, these methods have traditionally focused on nding paths avoiding collisions, without considering the quality of these paths. In recent years, new approaches have been developed to generate high-quality paths: in robotics, this can mean nding paths maximizing safety or control; in biology, this means nding motions minimizing the energy variation of a molecule. In this thesis, we propose several extensions of these methods to improve their performance and allow them to solve ever more dicult problems. The applications we present stem from robotics (industrial inspection and aerial manipulation) and structural biology (simulation of molecular motions and exploration of energy landscapes).; Planifier le chemin d'un robot dans un environnement complexe est un problème crucial en robotique. Les méthodes de planification probabilistes peuvent résoudre des problèmes complexes aussi bien en robotique, qu'en animation graphique, ou en biologie structurale. En général, ces méthodes produisent un chemin évitant les collisions, sans considérer sa qualité. Récemment, de nouvelles approches ont été créées pour générer des chemins de bonne qualité : en robotique, cela peut être le chemin le plus court ou qui maximise la sécurité ; en biologie, il s'agit du mouvement minimisant la variation énergétique moléculaire. Dans cette thèse, nous proposons plusieurs extensions de ces méthodes, pour améliorer leurs performances et leur permettre de résoudre des problèmes toujours plus dificiles. Les applications que nous présentons viennent de la robotique (inspection industrielle et manipulation aérienne) et de la biologie structurale (mouvement moléculaire et conformations stables).

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    Authors: Laarmann, Diana;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry Doktoritöö käsitleb metsaökosüsteemide taastamist Eestis, hõlmates nii kaevandamisega rikutud alade taasmetsastamist kui ka loodusmetsade struktuurikomponentide tekitamist madala loodusväärtusega aladele ning aladele, kus loodusliku taastumise protsess on aeglane. Intensiivne metsade majandamine on põhjustanud metsade struktuuri ja liigilise koosseisu lihtsustumist ning muutnud looduslike häiringute dünaamikat. Metsi oskuslikult majandades saab vähendada majandamisvõtete negatiivset mõju elurikkusele ja säilitada metsaökosüsteemide looduslikke funktsioone. Samuti tuleks eelkõige kaitsealustes metsades jälgida ja taastada metsade looduslikku funktsionaalsust. Ökoloogilise taastamise eesmärk on kiirendada muudetud, rikutud või hävitatud ökosüsteemides loodusliku taastumise protsesse. Doktoritöös käsitletakse ja analüüsitakse metsade taastamise erinevaid aspekte ja komponente ning otsesteks eesmärkideks on: a) uurida puistute looduslikkuse indikaatoreid ning hinnata puistute looduslikkust, b) määrata puistus üksikpuu suremist mõjutavad faktorid, c) analüüsida looduslikkuse taastamise võtete mõju puistu dünaamikale ja elurikkusele, d) analüüsida kaevandamisjärgsel taasmetsastamisel tekkinud ökosüsteemi. Püstitatud eesmärkide täitmiseks viidi läbi välitööd kokku 640 püsiproovitükil. Doktoritöös leiti, et surnud puidu kogus, surnud puude ruumiline paiknemine puistus, samuti suremise kiirus ja põhjused on tihedas seoses puistu looduslikkusega. Surnud puidu maht looduslikus seisundis ja majandatud metsas erinevad üksteisest oluliselt. Puude suremise hindamine võimaldab paremini aru saada metsaökosüsteemi struktuurist ja seal toimivatest protsessidest. Puu ellujäämine sõltub puu suhtelisest suurusest puistus ning puude suremise põhjused erinevat tüüpi puistutes on erinevad. Suremise põhjuste mitmekesisus on suurem looduslikus seisundis puistutes ning samuti on surnud puude paiknemine sellises puistus rohkem hajutatud. Töös väljatöötatud indeksid pakuvad võimalusi paremini hinnata puistu looduslikkust ja seejuures eristada puistus toimunud hiljutisi häiringuid. Looduslikkuse taastamise võtted olid läbi viidud ühetaolistes keskealistes okaspuupuistutes, kus peale taastamisvõtete tegemist puistustruktuur mitmekesistus, näiteks surnud puidu maht suurenes lagupuidu tekitamise võtte korral kuni 67 m3 ha-1. Loodusliku uuenduse arvukus oli kõrgeim pindalalt suuremas häilus ning ülepõletatud häilu korral. Taastamisvõtted avaldasid erinevatele liigirühmadele erinevat mõju: rohttaimede mitmekesisus suurenes enim ülepõletatud häilu korral, sammalde mitmekesisus lagupuidu tekitamise korral, samblike mitmekesisus suurenes enim häilu tekitamisel, ülepõletatud häilu korral mitmekesisus aga vähenes. Kontrollaladest eristus kõige rohkem rohttaimede, sammalde ja samblike puhul häilu ülepõletamise võte. Mardikaliste suurenenud arvukus ja liigiline mitmekesisus on puistu valgustingimuste muutuse ning elupaikade lisandumise otsene tulemus. Võrreldes ühe taastamisvõtte rakendamisega suurendab erinevate taastamisvõtete üheaegne kasutamine puistu heterogeensust ja tänu sellele suureneb ka elurikkus. Kaevandamisjärgse taasmetsastamise eesmärk on taastada ökosüsteemide kaevandamiseelne olukord. Üldjuhul on võimatu taastada minevikus olnud seisundit, sest kaevandamisega on kasvupinnast täielikult muudetud ning tihtipeale areneb seal välja hoopis uudne ökosüsteem. Taastamisedukuse hindamine põhineb mullanäitajate dünaamika, liigilise mitmekesisuse, taimkatte struktuuri ja ökoloogiliste protsesside uurimisel. Endise kaevandamisala mullad erinesid tüüpilistest metsamuldadest ja seetõttu on seal taimestiku arenguks tekkinud teistsugused tingimused. Samuti erinesid sealsed taimekooslused tüüpilistest metsas esinevatest kooslustest. Puistu takseernäitajad olid sarnaseimad sinilille kasvukohatüübi puistute takseernäitajatega. Ala looduslikule arengule jätmine võib taastamisel olla oluline alternatiiv metsaistutamisele, eriti juhul, kui rikutud ala on väike ja ümbritsetud loodusliku taimkattega ning kui alale pole määratud soovitavat eesmärki ning taastumise tähtaega. This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables managers to reduce the negative impacts of timber harvest on biodiversity and thereafter maintain ecological functions. Restoration is activity which can improve conservation efforts in protected areas in order to enhance quality and quantity, to improve connectivity between fragmented areas and create buffer zones between protected and managed forest areas. The objective of ecological restoration is to re-create a self-supporting ecosystem which existed previously and is resilient to contingent damage and to maintain the system in a desirable state or moving away from an undesirable state. The aims of the thesis are: a) to develop naturalness and structural indicators in forest ecosystems; b) to analyze the effects of restoration treatments for biodiversity and stand development in managed forest ecosystems; c) to analyze the success of reclamation on post-mining restoration site; d) to determine factors influencing tree survival/mortality in forest stands. This thesis based on 640 permanent sample plots all over Estonia. Based on the results of this thesis, deadwood quantity and spatial distribution as well as tree mortality rate and causes are reliable indicators of forest naturalness. Deadwood mingling index and diversity index of mortality reasons as new proposed variables improve the assessment of forest naturalness and clarify the effects of recent disturbances. Tree mortality in a stand is caused by specific agents or by the complex effect of several mortality agents and it is different in semi-natural and managed forest. Determining the cause for a tree death is often difficult; therefore it is sensible to use a process-based multiple-reason method for determining the factors of mortality for a single tree. Survival probability of a tree is dependent on the specific mortality agent and relative size of the tree in a stand. Restoration pre-treatment stands are often homogeneous even-aged monocultures on fertile sites; rehabilitation treatments (gap cuttings, overburning and addition of deadwood) increase their structural heterogeneity and promote differentiation of microclimatic conditions and therefore species richness and abundance increase after treatments. In a gap treatment, the ratio between the gap diameter and the surrounding stand height determines the light availability inside the gap; the larger this ratio is, the greater likelihood of seedling recruitment and successful establishment of light demanding species. Species groups respond differently to treatments: understory vegetation diversity increases in gaps with burning, lichen diversity in gaps without burning, and bryophyte diversity with the addition of dead wood. Increased beetle abundance and greater species diversity is a direct effect of changed light conditions inside the canopy. Gaps with overburning have the greatest recruitment of tree seedlings. Multiple treatments create stand heterogeneity and can increase biodiversity more than one homogenous application of a single treatment. It is not possible to restore historical or natural ecosystems on reclaimed mined areas by simple afforestation. Soil formation and properties and the vegetation on reclaimed sites is different from soils and vegetation on common forest sites, hence this leads to development of novel ecosystems. Spontaneous succession should be considered in forest restoration as an alternative to afforestation practice, especially if reclamation sites are small, surrounded by natural vegetation, and there is no specific production goal or time limit for restoration.

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    EMU DSpace
    Thesis . 2014
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
    Doctoral thesis . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      EMU DSpace
      Thesis . 2014
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
      Doctoral thesis . 2014
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • Authors: Hamrouni, Yousra;

    Cultivated poplar is the most widely planted deciduous species in France. It plays an essential economic role, particularly in producing wood materials, plywood, light packaging and in the paper industry. However, despite the sector's importance, the national surface area of poplar plantations is highly uncertain. Depending on the data source considered (National forest database, land register, forest inventory), the estimates reveal differences of more than 50,000 ha. The updating rate of these data sources is unsuitable for monitoring cultivated poplars due to their short rotation cycle (15-20 years). Satellite Remote Sensing has long been used for mapping forests, both natural and planted. With the continuous improvement of sensor characteristics, including spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions, it becomes possible to consider their application in an operational context for regular monitoring of the resource over large areas. The aim of this thesis is twofold. The first one is to explore the potential of Sentinel-2 optical image time series to automatically distinguish poplar plantations from the other deciduous species while considering the diversity of poplar growing contexts. The second consists of developing a national classification strategy, taking into account the spatial non-stationarity of the spectral response of poplar plantations, the heterogeneity of the acquisitions, and the limited number of reference data. The approach adopted consisted in investigating different domain adaptation techniques drawn from the field of machine learning. The unsupervised or semi-supervised techniques involved have made it possible to meet the large scale challenges while using a limited number of additional reference samples. This study led to the development of an operational processing chain allowing the first map of poplar plantations on a national scale to be produced from satellite images. It is based on a newly proposed spectral index – the Poplar Index (PI) – exploiting the SWIR and Red edge bands of the Sentinel-2 images. Together with its annual evolution, this spectral index has enabled the identification of poplar plantations with a producer's accuracy of around 95%. The result of this work provides the poplar sector with a robust method to produce an annual map of poplar plantations with an appropriate level of reliability.; Le peuplier cultivé constitue la première essence de feuillus plantée en France. Il joue un rôle économique de premier plan, notamment pour la production de bois-matériau, contreplaqués et emballages légers. Il est également valorisé dans l’industrie papetière. Pourtant, malgré l'importance de la filière, les surfaces couvertes en peupleraies à l'échelle nationale sont encore très incertaines. Selon la source de données utilisée (BD Forêt IGN, cadastre, inventaire forestier), les estimations montrent des écarts de plus de 50 000 ha. La fréquence de mise à jour de ces sources est inadaptée pour suivre le peuplier cultivé dont le cycle de rotation est court (15-20 ans). La télédétection satellitaire est utilisée depuis longtemps pour cartographier les milieux forestiers, qu'il s'agisse de forêts naturelles ou de plantations. Avec l'amélioration constante des caractéristiques spatiale, spectrale et temporelle des capteurs, il est possible d'envisager son appropriation dans un contexte opérationnel, pour un suivi régulier de la ressource sur de grandes étendues. L'objectif de cette thèse est double. Le premier est d'explorer le potentiel des séries temporelles d'images optiques Sentinel-2 pour distinguer automatiquement les peupleraies des autres essences de feuillus en tenant compte de la diversité des contextes populicoles. Le second est de proposer une stratégie de classification à l'échelle nationale en tenant compte de la nonstationnarité spatiale de la réponse spectrale des peupleraies, de l’hétérogénéité des acquisitions, et du nombre limité de données de référence. La démarche adoptée a consisté à étudier différentes techniques d'adaptation de domaine disponibles dans le champ de l'apprentissage automatique. Ces techniques, non supervisées ou semi-supervisées, ont permis de répondre aux contraintes de passage à l'échelle avec un nombre limité d'échantillons de référence supplémentaires. Cette étude a débouché sur la création d'une chaîne de traitement opérationnelle permettant de produire la première carte des plantations de peuplier à l'échelle nationale à partir d'images satellitaires. Elle s'appuie sur un nouvel indice spectral proposé -- le Poplar Index (PI) -- qui exploite les bandes du SWIR et du Red edge des données Sentinel-2. Cet indice, et son évolution annuelle, ont permis de reconnaître les peupleraies avec une précision producteur de près de 95%. Le résultat de ce travail offre à la filière populicole une méthode robuste pour assurer une production annuelle d'une carte des peupleraies avec un niveau de fiabilité adapté.

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    Authors: Ritz, Simon;

    Depuis une quinzaine d’années, l’agglomération antique de Senon-Amel fait l’objet de nouvelles recherches pluri¬disciplinaires associant des techniques d’investigation non destructives (prospections pédestres, aériennes, géophysiques, LiDAR) et des opérations de fouilles (préventives et programmées). Ces nouvelles données montrent que le site se déve¬loppe sous la forme de deux pôles de vestiges à caractère urbain, distants de 1,5 km et occupés simultanément pendant la majeure partie de l’Antiquité romaine, du milieu du Ier siècle apr. J.-C. au milieu du IVe siècle apr. J.-C. au moins. Cette configuration bipolaire présente un caractère exceptionnel dans l’urbanisme du nord de la Gaule romaine, qu’il faut ten¬ter d’expliquer. Son expression la plus frappante réside sans doute dans la duplication des édifices publics : chaque pôle urbain est équipé d’une panoplie monumentale complète, comprenant plusieurs temples, des thermes et un théâtre. Dès lors, l’étude des processus qui sont à l’origine de cette composition urbaine particulière, puis des modalités selon lesquelles elle a évolué jusqu’au début du Moyen Âge, s’est imposée comme la problématique structurante de l’enquête. Elle est abordée au travers d’une analyse détaillée des formes et des dynamiques d’occupation de chaque pôle urbain sur le temps long, cherchant à mettre en évidence d’éventuelles spécificités fonctionnelles et à caractériser la nature de leurs relations aux différentes étapes de leur histoire. L’agglomération est également replacée dans son environnement microrégional, entendu au double sens de paysage anthropique et naturel, en partant du principe que les relations qu’entretient la ville avec son « pays d’alentour » participent à la compréhension de l’un et l’autre de ces espaces. Cette approche fondée sur la caractérisation des différentes composantes du système de peuplement microrégional forme le socle de la discussion sur l’origine et l’évolution du schéma urbain bipolaire. Elle met notamment en exergue le rôle de l’intégration politique des cités gauloises au cadre administratif romain, ainsi que l’incidence de l’économie du culte dans la bipolarisation de l’urba¬nisme. La trajectoire très originale de Senon-Amel contribue à enrichir notre connaissance de la diversité des processus de formation et d’évolution du fait urbain dans le nord de Gaule. Cependant, l’intérêt du site va au-delà de l’étude d’une forme urbaine singulière et somme toute anecdotique : la juxtaposition des deux pôles urbains fait ressortir leurs spécificités mieux qu’ailleurs, parce qu’on a ici la possibilité de les comparer dans le détail, en minimisant l’incidence d’états documentaires différents ou de spécificités régionales, qui peuvent biaiser les comparaisons à plus large échelle. On voit ainsi apparaître deux trajectoires urbaines complètement différentes, opposant schématiquement un habitat groupé d’origine laténienne qui a prospéré à l’époque romaine grâce à une économie orientée vers des activités artisanales et commerciales diversifiées, et un grand sanctuaire, plus vraisemblablement fondé au début de l’Empire qu’à La Tène, dont l’attractivité économique n’a que tardivement agrégé un habitat groupé. Si le voisinage de ces deux entités urbaines est très inhabituel, les processus qui président à leur formation et à leur évolution sont sans doute à l’oeuvre dans beaucoup d’autres agglomérations, et peuvent à ce titre être de plus ample enseignement que la seule histoire de Senon-Amel. Interdisciplinary investigations combining prospection techniques (field survey, aerial photography, geophysics, Li¬DAR) and excavations (preventive and university-led excavations) have been carried out for almost 15 years on the ar¬chaeological site of Senon-Amel. They have revealed the bipolarity of this roman town, which is split into two urban cen¬tres located 1.5 km apart, simultaneously inhabited during most of the Antiquity, from the middle of the 1st century A.D. to the middle of the 4th century at least. This urban layout is very unusual among the roman towns of northern Gaul and thus needs to be explained. Its most striking feature is the duplication of public monuments: both urban centres include temples, public baths and a theatre. This thesis discusses the origin and evolution of the bipolar frame. It highlights the role of the integration of Gallic civitates into the roman provincial administration, and the impact of a religious economy in the shap¬ing of the city. These processes obviously have an interest per se – they contribute to illustrate the varied origins of urban features in norther Gaul –, but they also have broader implications. Indeed, the closeness of the two urban centres allows us to study quite precisely their specific features and their origins, thanks to the consistency of the documentation. This comparison reveals two very different urban trajectories: broadly speaking, evidence suggests that Senon was preceded by an Iron Age settlement, which stayed occupied during the roman period and expanded thanks to the existence of a wide range of crafts and trade activities. On the other hand, Amel seems to have been created at the beginning of the Empire as a sanctuary, which only later aggregated dwelling houses and other private facilities. The juxtaposition of these two urban entities is very unusual, but the mechanisms that drove their setting-up and further evolution are certainly common to many other roman towns. As a result, the case study of Senon-Amel evidences processes that are of more general significance.

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  • At the heart of the smart space vision is the idea that devices interoperate with each other autonomously to assist people in their everyday activities. In order to make this vision a reality, it is important to achieve semantic-level interoperability between devices. The goal of this dissertation is to enable Semantic Web technology-based interoperability in smart spaces. There are many challenges that need to be solved before this goal can be achieved. In this dissertation, the focus has been on the following four challenges: The first challenge is that the Semantic Web technologies have neither been designed for sharing real-time data nor large packets of data such as video and audio files. This makes it challenging to apply them in smart spaces, where it is typical that devices produce and consume this type of data. The second challenge is the verbose syntax and encoding formats of Semantic Web technologies that make it difficult to utilise them in resource-constrained devices and networks. The third challenge is the heterogeneity of smart space communication technologies that makes it difficult to achieve interoperability even at the connectivity level. The fourth challenge is to provide users with simple means to interact with and configure smart spaces where device interoperability is based on Semantic Web technologies. Even though autonomous operation of devices is a core idea in smart spaces, this is still important in order to achieve successful end-user adoption. The main result of this dissertation is a semantic interoperability framework, which consists of following individual contributions: 1) a semantic-level interoperability architecture for smart spaces, 2) a knowledge sharing protocol for resource-constrained devices and networks, and 3) an approach to configuring Semantic Web-based smart spaces. The architecture, protocol and smart space configuration approach are evaluated with several reference implementations of the framework components and proof-of-concept smart spaces that are also key contributions of this dissertation.

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    Authors: Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.;

    This PhD study focusses on the use of MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data for reliable and quantitative water-quality assessment of optically-complex waters (lake, brackish and coastal waters). The thesis is divided into two parts: A. intercalibration of reflectance measurements in different optically-complex water bodies (Paper I), and validation of various satellite processing algorithms for the coastal zone (Paper II). B. Applications: the use of MERIS data in integrated coastal zone management mostly using Himmerfjärden bay as an example. Himmerfjärden bay is one of the most frequently monitored coastal areas in the world and it is also the recipient of a large urban sewage treatment plant, where a number of full-scale nutrient management experiments have been conducted to evaluate the ecological changes due to changes in nutrient schemes in the sewage plant. Paper I describes the development and assessment of a new hyperspectral handheld radiometer for in situ sampling and validation of remote sensing reflectance. The instrument is assessed in comparison with readily available radiometers that are commonly used in validation. Paper II has a focus on the validation of level 2 reflectance and water products derived from MERIS data. It highlights the importance of calibration and validation activities, and the current accuracy and limitations of satellite products in the coastal zone. Bio-optical in situ data is highlighted as one of the key components for assessing the reliability of current and future satellite missions. Besides suspended particulate matter (SPM), the standard MERIS products have shown to be insufficient to assure data quality retrieval for Baltic Sea waters. Alternative processors and methods such as those assessed and developed in this thesis therefore will have to be put in place in order to secure the success of future operational missions, such as Sentinel-3. The two presented manuscripts in the applied part B of the thesis (paper III and IV), showed examples on the combined use of in situ measurements with optical remote sensing to support water quality monitoring programs by using turbidity and suspended particulate matter as coastal indicators (manuscript III). The article also provides a new turbidity algorithm for the Baltic Sea and a robust and cost-efficient method for research and management. A novel approach to improve the quality of the satellite-derived products in the coastal zone was demonstrated in manuscript IV. The analysis included, the correction for adjacency effects from land and an improved pixel quality screening. The thesis provides the first detailed spatio-temporal description of the evolution of phytoplankton blooms in Himmerfjärden bay using quality-assured MERIS data, thus forwarding our understanding of ecological processes in in Swedish coastal waters. It must be noted that monitoring from space is not a trivial matter in these optically-complex waters dominated by the absorption of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). These types of coastal waters are especially challenging for quantitative assessment from space due to their low reflectance. Papers III and IV thus also provide tools for a more versatile use in other coastal waters that are not as optically-complex as the highly absorbing Baltic Sea waters. The benefits of the increased spatial-temporal data coverage by optical remote sensing were presented, and also compared to in situ sampling methods (using chlorophyll-a as indicator). Research funders:European Space Agency (ESA, contract no.21524/08/I-OL)NordForsk funding: Nord AquaRemS Ref. no. 80106NordForsk funding: NordBaltRemS Ref.no. 42041At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

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    Authors: Okur, Orhan;

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada, uzaktan eğitim yöntemi ile tarım danışmanlarının güvenli tarım uygulamaları ile ilgili eğitilmesi ve eğitimli tarım danışmanları yoluyla üretici durumunda bulunan çiftçilerin bilgi ve uygulamalarının geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.Gereç-Yöntem: Çalışma Eylül 2013-Aralık 2015 tarihleri arasında Aydın ili sınırları içerisinde gerçekleştirilmiş randomize kontrollü bir müdahale araştırmasıdır. Çalışma daha önce gerçekleştirilen `Aydın ili pestisit farkındalığı` çalışmasına dayanılarak geliştirilmiştir. Çalışma üç aşamalı olarak planlanmıştır. Çalışmanın ilk aşamasında müdahale (10 köy+1 yedek köy) ve kontrol (10 köy+1 yedek köy) grubu köylerinin belirlenmesi (ön çalışma bulgularına göre güvenli pestisit uygulamaları konusunda sorunlu olan köyler), konu ile ilgili uzman hocaların katılımıyla uzaktan eğitim müfredatının oluşturulması ve öğretim yönetim sistemi (LMS)'ne uzmanların ders kayıt video ve sorularının modüler olarak yüklenerek özgün bir E-Eğitim Modelinin geliştirilmesi; ikinci aşamada LMS sistemi ile uzaktan müdahale grubundaki 11 Tarım Danışmanının Eğitilmesi ve ÖnTest-SonTest yapılarak eğitimin etkinliğinin belirlenmesi, üçüncü aşamada; web yoluyla eğitilen danışmanların üreticileri eğitmesi ve sonrasında gerek müdahale gerek kontrol gruplarına üreticilerin güvenli tarım uygulamaları yüz yüze anket yöntemi yoluyla değerlendirilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak 5 bölümden oluşan (1-katılımcıların tanımlayıcı bilgileri, 2-yetiştirilen ürün, kulanılan pestisitler ile pestisit tercihini etkileyen faktörler, 3-pestisitlerin çevreye ve canlı sağlığı üzerine etkileri ile ilgili bilgi düzeyi, 4-pestisit hazırlama ve uygulama aşamalarında dikkat edilen unsurlar, 5-pestisit etkilenimine bağlı sağlık sorunları ve semptomlar) anket formu; `Bitki Koruma Ürünlerinin Uygulama Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik` maddeleri ve T.C. Gıda,Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı, `2011 Yılı Bitki Sağlığı ve Karantina Çalışma Program ve Prensipleri` kitabındaki `İlaç-Alet` bölümünden yararlanarak oluşturulmuştur. İlaç uygulama ve hazırlamaya ilişkin sorular için her bir doğru cevap yada uygulama `1 puan`, yanlış veya cevapsiz yanıtlar `0 puan` olarak kodlanmış ve tarım ilacı hazırlama, uygulama ve ilacın etkileri ile ilgili verilen yanıtlar için toplam puanlar hesaplanmıştır. Müdahale grubunda 340 , kontrol grubunda 378 üreticiyle görüşülmüştür. Çalışmanın belirlenen köylerde gerçekleştirilebilmesi için Aydın Valiliği'nden ve Aydın Tarım Hayvancılık ve Gıda Müdürlüğünden ve ADÜ Tıp Fakültesi Etik Kurulundan Protokol No:2013/254 ile onay alınmıştır. Veriler SPSS 23 paket programı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Tanımlayıcı istatistiklerde sayı ve yüzde dağılımlar gösterilmiş, ortalama±standart sapma verilmiştir. Normal dağılıma uygunluk için Kolmogorov –Smirnow testi yapılmıştır. Analitik analizlerde ki-kare testi, Student-t testi, bağımlı gruplarda ki-kare testi, iki eş arasındaki farkın önemlilik testi ve Wilcoxon testleri kullanılmıştır.Tip 1 hata düzeyi=0,05 olarak alınmıştır.Bulgular: Müdahale ve kontrol grupları sosyo-demografik özellikler (yaş, cinsiyet, medeni durum, eğitim durumu, sosyal güvence) ve güvenli pestisit uygulamaları konusunda (ilaç hazırlarken ve uygularken dikkat edilen hususlar, risk durumu) bakımından benzerdir (p>0.05). Tarım danışmanlarının öntest puan ortalamaları (64,00±14,05), eğitim sonrasında (78,12±11,19) anlamlı olarak artmıştır (p=0.42). Üretici eğitimleri öncesi ilaçların hazırlanması, uygulanması ve saklanmasında dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlara uyumun (en düşük %16,9 -en yüksek %98,5 ) arasında değiştiği; eğitim sonrasında (%47,2 -%100) arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Eğitim öncesi, ilaç hazırlamada dikkat edilecek konulara uyumunun (%10,5-%66,1) arasında değiştiği; eğitim sonrasında (%37,5-%98,4) arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Müdahale grubunda eğitim sonrası ilaç hazırlamada tüm önlemlerin alınmasında anlamlı artış tespit edilmiştir (p<0,001). İlaç uygulama boyutunda da, eğitim öncesi ilaçları uygularken dikkat ettikleri hususlara uyumun (%11,4-%74,6 ) arasında değiştiği, eğitim sonrasında (%70-%100) arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Müdahale grubunda eğitim sonrasında tarım ilaçlarının etkileri ile ilgili bilgi puanı, tarım ilacı uygulamaları ile ilgili toplam puan, tarım ilacı hazırlama ile ilgili toplam puanlarda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı artış saptanmıştır (p<0,001).Sonuç: Araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilip tarım danışmanlarının eğitiminde kullanılan modül ile tarım danışmanlarının bilgi düzeyi artırılmıştır. Tarım danışmanları aracılığı ile uygulanan eğitimin güvenli tarım uygulamaları hususunda üretici bilgi ve uygulamalarını iyileştirdiği tespit edilmiştir. Eğitimlerin sürekliliğinin sağlanması, güncel bilgilerin en kısa süre içinde tarım danışmanları ve dolayısı ile üreticilerle paylaşılması için uzaktan eğitim yöntemlerinin başarı ile uygulanabileceği söylenebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: uzaktan eğitim, pestisitler, güvenli tarım Objective: In this study, we aimed to train agricultural consultants with agricultural practices by distance education, and to improve the knowledge and practice of farmers who have manufacturer status through the educated agricultural consultants. Material & Methods: The study is a randomized controlled interference study that was performed between September 2013 and December 2015, in city of Aydın. It was performed based on a previous study titled `Pesticide Awareness in Aydın city`. The study was scheduled in three stages. The first phase of the study was for determining of the villages (problematic villages about safe pesticide practices according to the preliminary results) that includes in the interference group (10 villages + a village for backup) and the control group (10 villages + a village for backup); and for establishing a distance education curriculum related to the subjects with supports of specialist consultants, and improving an unique e-learning model by loading questions and lecture record videos of agriculture experts into the education management system (LMS) as modules. At the second stage, we aimed to train 11 agricultural consultants in distance interference group via LMS system and to determine educational efficiency by performing both pre-test and post-test. At the third stage, we aimed to educate the consultants through WEB, and afterwards we evaluated safe agricultural practice of manufacturers through face to face questionnaire of both the interference and control group. As a data collection instrument, questionnaire were consisted with 5 parts (1-identifying information of the participants, 2-grown product, pesticides and the factors affecting choice of pesticide, 3-knowledge related pesticide effects on the environment and people's health, 4-elements to be considered at pesticide preparation and implementation phase, 5-health problems and symptoms depending on influence of pesticide) through law explanations of `Regulations about Application Procedures and Principles of Plant Protection Products` and in 2011 `Drug-tool` book section of T.C. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, titled ` Programmes and Principles of Phytosanitary and Quarantine Work`. The total scores were calculated, after each correct answer for questions of pesticide preparation and applications or practice was scored as `1 point`, while the incorrect or missed answers were scored as `0 point`. We interviewed to 340 manufacturers in the intervention group, while to 378 in the control group. In order to conduct the study in the specified villages, the approval was obtained from Governor of Aydın, Aydın Agriculture Livestock and Food Directorate, and the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine with the Protocol No.2013/254. All study data were analyzed with SPSS v23 software package. Numbers and percentage distribution are shown in descriptive statistics and mean±standard deviation is also given. A Kolmogorov-Smirnow test was done to check variables for normal distribution. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, chi-square test for dependent groups, Paired t-test and Wilcoxon tests were used in analytical analysis. Type 1 error level was considered as 0,05. Results: Both the interference and control groups were similar in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, education, social security) and safe pesticide practices (attention issues when preparing and implementing drug, and risk status)(p>0.05). Pre-test mean score of agricultural consultants (64.00 ± 14,05) significantly increased after education (78.12± 11.19) (p=0.42). Before manufacturer training, adaptation to the points that should be considered for preparation, applying and storing of medicine varied between minimum 16.9% and maximum 98.5%; while after training varied from 47,2% to 100%. Before training, adaptation ranged between 66.1% and 10,5% for drug self-preparation and points that should be considered; as ranged from 98.4% to 37,5% after the training. There was significant increase at taking all measures of preparation medicine in the interference group after the training (p<0,001). During drug administration, compliance with issues they care when pre-applied drug itself ranged between 74.6% and 11,4% for those; as it was found to vary between 70% and 100% after the training. There was a statistically significant increase at knowledge scores related the effects of pesticides after training in the intervention group, at total score for pesticide applications, and at total score related preparing pesticides (p<0,001).Conclusion: Knowledge level of agricultural consultants increased with module that was improved by researchers and used in training of agricultural consultants. We experienced that the training which is applied through agricultural consultants improved knowledge and practices of manufacturer regarding safe agricultural practice. Distance education methods should be applied with success for ensuring sustainability of the training and for sharing the updated information with agricultural consultants and manufacturers as soon as possible. Keywords: distance education, pesticides, safe agriculture 196

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    Authors: Imran, Muhammad;

    Seed reserves are the primary source of mineral nutrients for early seedling development. ?Nutrient seed priming? is a technique in which seeds are soaked in nutrient solution and subsequently dried back to initial moisture content for storage. It is an efficient approach to increase seed nutrient contents along with priming effects to improve seed quality, germination speed and seedling establishment. Various abiotic stresses, such as sub-optimal temperature, drought, submergence and soil pH extremes can seriously affect seedling establishment and nutrient acquisition at early growth stages. This thesis focused on the role and contribution of nutrient seed priming in plant growth and nutritional status in maize and soybean under conditions of limited nutrient availability and low root-zone temperature. Protocols for nutrient seed priming with Zn, Mn, Zn+Mn, B and P were optimised for application in maize and soybean seeds (B and P priming in maize only). Optimum priming durations of 24 h (maize) and 12 h (soybean) were identified for both plant species but in instead of submerging seeds in priming solutions slow imbibition between filter papers was essential for soybean to minimise development of abnormal seedlings to avoid imbibition damage. Nutrient concentrations were calculated according to water uptake to double the natural seed reserves of the respective micronutrients and 50% increase in phosphorus. However, final uptake of the micronutrients was generally much higher (+500-1000%) while it was lower for P (+20%). In case of soybean this could be attributed to a high Zn and Mn binding capacity of the seed coat, which adsorbed up to 60% of the primed nutrients. Particularly, Zn and Zn+Mn priming stimulated plant growth in hydroponic culture systems and to a lower extent also on a soil with low availability of P, Zn and Fe. This was associated with a high shoot translocation of the primed nutrients (Zn and Mn), which was most expressed in the hydroponic culture system. Combined priming treatments with Zn and Mn were usually less effective than Zn priming alone, suggesting an antagonistic interaction. By contrast, mobility of primed B was extremely low and B priming was completely ineffective. In soil culture also P priming moderately increased shoot biomass production by 10-20 %. However the efficiency of P priming was largely limited by the high P demand of the plants. Low root zone temperature (RZT) at early spring is a limiting factor for maize production in Central and Northern Europe. Nutrient acquisition, nutrient uptake and particularly root growth are severely affected at low RZT and the consequences of these growth depressions are often not completely compensated until final harvest. Model experiments in hydroponics and soil culture revealed that maize nutrient seed priming with Zn, Mn and Fe is a promising strategy to diminish the deficiency of specific nutrients, such as Zn, Mn and also P and to maintain plant growth under low RZT stress. This was mainly attributed to significantly increased root growth and particularly fine root production in plants grown from nutrient-primed seeds. Improved net photosynthesis of primed plants was mainly related with increased leaf area and preliminary results suggest a higher tolerance to oxidative damage due to increased production of protective phenolics. Two independent field experiments under conditions of suboptimal temperatures during germination and early growth revealed an increase in grain yield of 10 ? 15 % for plants derived from Zn+Mn and Fe primed seeds. This finding demonstrates long-lasting persistence of priming effects. The molecular and physiological mechanisms behind require further investigation. Samenreserven sind die primäre Quelle für die Mineralstoffversorgung während der frühen Keimlingsentwicklung. Nährstoffpriming ist ein methodischer Ansatz, bei dem Saatgut in Mineralstofflösungen vorgequollen und anschließend zur weiteren Lagerung auf Ausgangsfeuchte zurückgetrocknet wird. Hierdurch ist es möglich, neben vorquellungsbedingten Primingeffekten auch die Mineralstoffreserven zur Verbesserung der Saatgutqualität zu erhöhen sowie die Auflauf-Geschwindigkeit und die Keimlingsentwicklung zu verbessern, die durch verschiedenste Stressfaktoren, wie suboptimale Temperaturbedingungen, Trockenheit, Staunässe und pH-Extreme beeinträchtigt werden kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Wirkung von Nährstoffpriming auf das Wachstum und den Ernährungsstatus von Mais und Soja unter Bedingungen eingeschränkter Nährstoffverfügbarkeit und niedriger Wurzelraumtemperatur. Für die Saatgutapplikation von Zink (Zn), Mangan (Mn), Mn+Zn, Bor (B), Eisen (Fe) und Phosphat (P) bei Mais und Soja wurden Primingprotokolle entwickelt. Bei beiden Pflanzenarten ergab sich eine optimale Behandlungsdauer von 24 h. Jedoch war es notwendig, das Soja-Saatgut anstelle von submerser Inkubation in den Nährlösungen, langsam in Nährlösungsgetränktem Filterpapier einzuquellen, um die Entwicklung abnormaler Keimlinge aufgrund von Quellungsschäden zu vermeiden. Anhand der Wasseraufnahme der Keinlinge wurden die Nährlösungskonzentrationen so berechnet, das sich nach Einquellen eine Verdopplung der natürlichen Mineralstoffreserven im Samen ergeben sollte. Jedoch wurden für die Mikronährstoffe erheblich höhere Aufnahmeraten gemessen (+500 - 1000%), während die Aufnahme von P geringer war (+ 20%). Bei Soja konnte gezeigt werden, das die erhöhten Mikronährstoffgehalte auf eine hohe Bindungskapazität der Zwei unabhängige Feldversuche bei suboptimaler Temperatur während der Keimphase und des Jugendwachstums ergaben Kornertragssteigerungen von 10-15 % bei Mais nach Saatgutpriming mit Zn+Mn oder Fe. Diese Ergebnisse belegen die Langzeitwirkung der Primingeffekte. Die molekularen und physiologischen Grundlagen erfordern allerdings noch weitere Untersuchungen.

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    Authors: Kocabaş Oğuz, Işin;

    Bu proje, tarla denemesi ve saha çalışması olarak iki bölümden oluşmaktadır. Antalya ekolojik koşullarında yürütülen tarla denemesinde, İzmir kekiği (O. onites L.) yetiştiriciliği yapılmış ve üç dönem hasat edilmiştir. Yetiştiricilik sırasında her dönemde altı farklı gübre oranı (Kontrol, K2O, 5K2O/N, 3K2O/N, K2O/N ve N) iki farklı gübre düzeyinde (10 kg/da ve 20 kg/da) uygulanmış ve deneme konularının bitki verimine, kalitesine ve toprak özellikleri üzerine etkileri araştırılmıştır. Deneme, faktöriyel düzende tesadüf bloklarına göre, 4 tekrarlamalı olarak kurulmuştur. Farklı oranlarda uygulanan gübreler içinde N uygulamalarının, her üç hasat döneminde bitki boyunu, herba verimini, toplam klorofil, klorofil a, klorofil b ve NO3-N içeriklerini ve uçucu yağ verimini diğer uygulamalara göre artırdığı gözlenmiştir. Bitkinin yetiştiriciliğinde azotlu gübrelemenin özellikle herba ve uçucu yağ verimi için önemli bir yere sahip olduğu düşünülmektedir. Her üç hasat döneminde farklı oranlarda uygulanan gübre karışımları içinde 5K2O/N gibi potasyum oranı yüksek gübre karışımlarının bitkilerin toplam fenolik madde, toplam flavonoid madde, antioksidan ve vitamin C içeriklerini arttırdığı belirlenmiştir. Bu nedenle İzmir kekiği (O. onites L.) yetiştiriciliğinde bitkinin bazı kalite özelliklerinin artışı için potasyum ve azot karışımlı gübrelerin dikkate alınması gerekmektedir. Deneme konularından gübre düzeyleri incelendiğinde, her üç hasatta da 20 kg/da gübre uygulamaları ile bitki boyu, spad klorofil değerleri, ve NO3-N içerikleri artarken, bitkilerin toplam fenol ve flavonoid içerikleri azaldığı gözlenmiştir. Bitkilerin verimi ve birçok kalite özellikleri üzerine farklı gübre oranlarının, gübre düzeylerinden daha etkili olduğu görülmektedir. Azotlu gübrelemenin verimi arttırıcı etkisi önemli iken potasyumlu gübrelemenin ise kaliteyi arttırıcı etkisi önemlidir. Farklı oranlarda uygulanan gübreler İzmir kekiği (O. onites L.)'nin uçucu yağındaki ana bileşen olan karvakrol içeriğini kontrollere göre arttırmıştır. Bitkilerde en yüksek karvakrol içeriği, birinci hasat döneminde 3K2O/N gübre uygulamasından, ikinci hasat döneminde K2O gübre uygulamasından ve üçüncü hasat döneminde kontrol hariç diğer gübre uygulamalarından elde edilmiştir. Projenin saha çalışmasında, Antalya'nın Kaş, Demre ve Serik-Aksu ilçelerinde 0-100 m rakım aralığında doğal olarak yetişen İzmir kekiği (O. onites L.)'ne ait toprak ve bitki özellikleri ortaya konmuştur. Her üç ilçe karşılaştırıldığında Kaş ilçesi diğer ilçelere göre bitki besin içerikleri ve toprak özellikleri bakımından daha iyi durumda olmasına rağmen bitkilerin fenol, flavonoid ve antioksidan gibi kalite içerikleri düşük bulunmuştur. Serik-Aksu ilçelerinde ise bitkilerin fenol, flavonoid ve antioksidan gibi kalite içeriklerinin diğer ilçelere göre yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Tarladaki ve doğadaki bitkilerin nitrat içerikleri karşılaştırıldıklarında, tarlada yetişen bitkilere gübre uygulanmasına rağmen nitrat içeriklerinin Serik-Aksu ilçelerinden toplanan bitkilerin nitrat içerikleri ile benzer olduğu ve gübre uygulamalarının bitkilerin nitrat içerikleri üzerine risk yaratacak bir etkisinin olmadığı belirlenmiştir. This project consists of two parts, namely the field experiment, and the area survey. In the field experiment, having beetarlan conducted under the ecologic conditions of Antalya, Oregano (O. onites L.) farming was made and harvested for three terms. Six different fertilizer ratios (Control, K2O, 5K2O/N,3K2O/N,K2O/N, and N) were applied in two different fertilizer levels (at 10 kg/decare and 20 kg/decare) throughout each farming period, and the influence of the trial subjects on the plant yield and soil properties was thereby investigated. The trial was constituted with 4 repetitions according to randomized blocks in factorial order. Among the fertilizers having been applied in different ratios, N applications were found as having increased the plant lengths, herbal yield, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and NO3-N contents, and the essential oil yield as well more than the other applications. In the farming of the said plant, nitrogenous fertilization was deemed important particularly for the herbal and essential oil yields. Among the fertilizer mixes having been applied in different ratios in all three harvest terms, those with higher potassium content, such as 5K2O/N, was found as having increased the total phenolic substance, total flavonoid substance, antioxidant, and vitamin C contents of the plants. That is why fertilizers with potassium and nitrogen mixes should be taken into consideration for the increase of particular herbal quality features in the Oregano (O. onites L.) farming. Having the fertilizers levels examined among the trial subjects, it was found out that, 20 kg/decare fertilizer applications had made the plant length, spad chlorophyll values and NO3-N contents increased in all three harvests, while total phenolic and flavonoid contents had decreased in the meantime. In terms of the plant yields, and many other quality features, different fertilizer ratios were found to be effective more than the fertilizer levels. While the nitrogenous fertilization was important in terms of its yield increasing feature, potassium fertilization was important in terms of its quality increasing feature. In comparison to controls, different fertilizer ratios had increased the carvacrol content (as being the main constituent) of the essential oil of the Oregano (O. onites L.). While the highest carvacrol content in the plants had been attained from the 3K2O/N fertilizer application in the first harvest term, from the K2O fertilizer application in the second harvest term, and from the other fertilizer applications other than control in the third harvest term. Elevation of 0-100 m in Kaş, Demre and Serik-Aksu Districts of the City of Antalya in comparison of all three districts, despite Kaş District had been found in much better condition in terms of both plant nutrient contents, and soil features, such quality contents as phenol, flavonoid, antioxidant, etc. had been found to be low. On the other hand, the aforesaid quality contents, namely as phenol, flavonoid, antioxidant, etc. had been found higher in the Serik-Aksu Districts in comparison to the other districts. Upon examining the nitrate contents of the plants both from the field, and from the nature as well, despite the fertilizer application on the plants in the field, it was found out that, the plants from the field had been possessing nitrate contents similar to those of the plants collected from Serik-Aksu Districts, and that the fertilizer applications had no risky effect on the nitrate contents of the plants. 177

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    Authors: Demir, Ayten;

    Bu araştırma; Brassica türleri arasında melezlemeler yaparak lahana kök uru hastalığına dayanıklı hatlarının geliştirilmesinde embriyo kültür tekniğinin kullanım potansiyelinin belirlenmesi amacıyla, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarla Bitkileri Bölümünde, iklimlendirme ünitesinde, doku kültür odasında, serada ve tarla koşullarında yürütülmüştür.Lahana (B. oleracea L.) türleri içinde yer alan Dürme lahana çeşidi ile şalgam (B. rapa L.) türü içinde yer alan ECD-1, ECD-2, ECD-3 ve ECD-4 şalgam hatlar arasında, sera koşullarında 831 çiçek tomurcuğu melezlenmiştir. Bu melezlemelerden oluşan toplam 284 adet harnuptan, toplam 2663 adet primitif embriyo besi ortamına aktarılmıştır. Besi ortamına aktarılan embriyolardan toplam 15 adet embriyo yaşatılmış ve bunlardan toplam 813 adet haploid bitki elde edilmiştir. Embriyo başına haploid bitki oluşum oranının % 30.5 olduğu saptanmıştır. Elde edilen haploid bitkilerden toplam 688 bitki katlamaya alınmış olup, katlama sonrası 348 sağlıklı double hapolid bitki sera koşullarına aktarılmış olup bu bitkilerden gelişmelerini tamamlayabilen toplam 263 double haploid bitki vernalizasyona alınmıştır. Vernalizasyona alınan double haploid bitkilerden toplam 162 adet double haploid bitki sağlıklı olarak sera koşullarına aktarılmış olup bu bitkilerden çiçeklenme periyoduna gelen bitkilerde yapılan kendilemeler sonucunda sadece DürmeXECD-4 melez kombinasyonuna ait toplam 8 melez bitkiden toplam 148 harnup ve bu harnupların harman edilmesi sonucu toplam 293 adet tohumdan oluşan bir gen havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Oluşturulan gen havuzundaki tohumlar, testlemek amacıyla steril koşullarda ekilerek toplam 210 adet double haploid kendilenmiş bitki yetiştirilmiş ancak bu bitkilerden sadece 95 tanesinde testleme yapılabilmiştir. Testlemeye tabi tutulan bu bitkilerden sadece 33 tanesinde hastalık kaydı yapılabilmiştir. Böylece lahana kök uru hastalığına karşı dayanıklılık geni taşıyan 33 double haploid kendilenmiş bitkiden oluşan bir gen havuzu oluşturulmuştur. This research was carried out at Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, in growth room, tissue culture room, greenhouse and field condition between 2010 and 2014,the possibility of use embryo culture technique in order to improvement resistance lines against clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) via interspecific hybridization between B. oleraceae L. and B. rapa L. Study results: 831 flowers were hybridized between B. oreacea L. var. Dürme and B. rapa L. Line ECD-1, ECD-2, ECD-3 and ECD-4 and 284 bulbs were harvested for embryo culture. 2663 primitif embriyos were transferred to tissue culture medium and 15 of them successfully germinated and produced 813 haploid hybrid plants. So that, the percentage of haploid plant per embryo was found 30.5% 688 haploid plants were treated with colchicine to doubling choromosomes to get double haploid plants and 348 double haploid plants transferred to greenhouse condition for completing their growth. 263 double haploid plants of them were transferred to vernalization rooms. 162 double haploid plants transferred green condition after 3 mounts vernalisation and self-crossing was done in flowering condition. 148 bulbs were harvested from 8 hybrid plants from DurmexECD-4 hybrid combination and a gene poole created after treshing with 293 seeds.210 hybrid double-haploid plants were grown in vitro condition to grown sterile plants for clubroot disease tests but only 95 plants tedted for disease. After Clubroot disease testing, survival 33 plants were transferred to the greenhouse condition for completion their growth. Finally, a gene poole created with this 33 plants. 104

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  • Authors: Devaurs, Didier;

    Planning a path for a robot in a complex environment is a crucial issue in robotics. So-called probabilistic algorithms for path planning are very successful at solving dicult problems and are applied in various domains, such as aerospace, computer animation, and structural biology. However, these methods have traditionally focused on nding paths avoiding collisions, without considering the quality of these paths. In recent years, new approaches have been developed to generate high-quality paths: in robotics, this can mean nding paths maximizing safety or control; in biology, this means nding motions minimizing the energy variation of a molecule. In this thesis, we propose several extensions of these methods to improve their performance and allow them to solve ever more dicult problems. The applications we present stem from robotics (industrial inspection and aerial manipulation) and structural biology (simulation of molecular motions and exploration of energy landscapes).; Planifier le chemin d'un robot dans un environnement complexe est un problème crucial en robotique. Les méthodes de planification probabilistes peuvent résoudre des problèmes complexes aussi bien en robotique, qu'en animation graphique, ou en biologie structurale. En général, ces méthodes produisent un chemin évitant les collisions, sans considérer sa qualité. Récemment, de nouvelles approches ont été créées pour générer des chemins de bonne qualité : en robotique, cela peut être le chemin le plus court ou qui maximise la sécurité ; en biologie, il s'agit du mouvement minimisant la variation énergétique moléculaire. Dans cette thèse, nous proposons plusieurs extensions de ces méthodes, pour améliorer leurs performances et leur permettre de résoudre des problèmes toujours plus dificiles. Les applications que nous présentons viennent de la robotique (inspection industrielle et manipulation aérienne) et de la biologie structurale (mouvement moléculaire et conformations stables).

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    Authors: Laarmann, Diana;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry Doktoritöö käsitleb metsaökosüsteemide taastamist Eestis, hõlmates nii kaevandamisega rikutud alade taasmetsastamist kui ka loodusmetsade struktuurikomponentide tekitamist madala loodusväärtusega aladele ning aladele, kus loodusliku taastumise protsess on aeglane. Intensiivne metsade majandamine on põhjustanud metsade struktuuri ja liigilise koosseisu lihtsustumist ning muutnud looduslike häiringute dünaamikat. Metsi oskuslikult majandades saab vähendada majandamisvõtete negatiivset mõju elurikkusele ja säilitada metsaökosüsteemide looduslikke funktsioone. Samuti tuleks eelkõige kaitsealustes metsades jälgida ja taastada metsade looduslikku funktsionaalsust. Ökoloogilise taastamise eesmärk on kiirendada muudetud, rikutud või hävitatud ökosüsteemides loodusliku taastumise protsesse. Doktoritöös käsitletakse ja analüüsitakse metsade taastamise erinevaid aspekte ja komponente ning otsesteks eesmärkideks on: a) uurida puistute looduslikkuse indikaatoreid ning hinnata puistute looduslikkust, b) määrata puistus üksikpuu suremist mõjutavad faktorid, c) analüüsida looduslikkuse taastamise võtete mõju puistu dünaamikale ja elurikkusele, d) analüüsida kaevandamisjärgsel taasmetsastamisel tekkinud ökosüsteemi. Püstitatud eesmärkide täitmiseks viidi läbi välitööd kokku 640 püsiproovitükil. Doktoritöös leiti, et surnud puidu kogus, surnud puude ruumiline paiknemine puistus, samuti suremise kiirus ja põhjused on tihedas seoses puistu looduslikkusega. Surnud puidu maht looduslikus seisundis ja majandatud metsas erinevad üksteisest oluliselt. Puude suremise hindamine võimaldab paremini aru saada metsaökosüsteemi struktuurist ja seal toimivatest protsessidest. Puu ellujäämine sõltub puu suhtelisest suurusest puistus ning puude suremise põhjused erinevat tüüpi puistutes on erinevad. Suremise põhjuste mitmekesisus on suurem looduslikus seisundis puistutes ning samuti on surnud puude paiknemine sellises puistus rohkem hajutatud. Töös väljatöötatud indeksid pakuvad võimalusi paremini hinnata puistu looduslikkust ja seejuures eristada puistus toimunud hiljutisi häiringuid. Looduslikkuse taastamise võtted olid läbi viidud ühetaolistes keskealistes okaspuupuistutes, kus peale taastamisvõtete tegemist puistustruktuur mitmekesistus, näiteks surnud puidu maht suurenes lagupuidu tekitamise võtte korral kuni 67 m3 ha-1. Loodusliku uuenduse arvukus oli kõrgeim pindalalt suuremas häilus ning ülepõletatud häilu korral. Taastamisvõtted avaldasid erinevatele liigirühmadele erinevat mõju: rohttaimede mitmekesisus suurenes enim ülepõletatud häilu korral, sammalde mitmekesisus lagupuidu tekitamise korral, samblike mitmekesisus suurenes enim häilu tekitamisel, ülepõletatud häilu korral mitmekesisus aga vähenes. Kontrollaladest eristus kõige rohkem rohttaimede, sammalde ja samblike puhul häilu ülepõletamise võte. Mardikaliste suurenenud arvukus ja liigiline mitmekesisus on puistu valgustingimuste muutuse ning elupaikade lisandumise otsene tulemus. Võrreldes ühe taastamisvõtte rakendamisega suurendab erinevate taastamisvõtete üheaegne kasutamine puistu heterogeensust ja tänu sellele suureneb ka elurikkus. Kaevandamisjärgse taasmetsastamise eesmärk on taastada ökosüsteemide kaevandamiseelne olukord. Üldjuhul on võimatu taastada minevikus olnud seisundit, sest kaevandamisega on kasvupinnast täielikult muudetud ning tihtipeale areneb seal välja hoopis uudne ökosüsteem. Taastamisedukuse hindamine põhineb mullanäitajate dünaamika, liigilise mitmekesisuse, taimkatte struktuuri ja ökoloogiliste protsesside uurimisel. Endise kaevandamisala mullad erinesid tüüpilistest metsamuldadest ja seetõttu on seal taimestiku arenguks tekkinud teistsugused tingimused. Samuti erinesid sealsed taimekooslused tüüpilistest metsas esinevatest kooslustest. Puistu takseernäitajad olid sarnaseimad sinilille kasvukohatüübi puistute takseernäitajatega. Ala looduslikule arengule jätmine võib taastamisel olla oluline alternatiiv metsaistutamisele, eriti juhul, kui rikutud ala on väike ja ümbritsetud loodusliku taimkattega ning kui alale pole määratud soovitavat eesmärki ning taastumise tähtaega. This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables managers to reduce the negative impacts of timber harvest on biodiversity and thereafter maintain ecological functions. Restoration is activity which can improve conservation efforts in protected areas in order to enhance quality and quantity, to improve connectivity between fragmented areas and create buffer zones between protected and managed forest areas. The objective of ecological restoration is to re-create a self-supporting ecosystem which existed previously and is resilient to contingent damage and to maintain the system in a desirable state or moving away from an undesirable state. The aims of the thesis are: a) to develop naturalness and structural indicators in forest ecosystems; b) to analyze the effects of restoration treatments for biodiversity and stand development in managed forest ecosystems; c) to analyze the success of reclamation on post-mining restoration site; d) to determine factors influencing tree survival/mortality in forest stands. This thesis based on 640 permanent sample plots all over Estonia. Based on the results of this thesis, deadwood quantity and spatial distribution as well as tree mortality rate and causes are reliable indicators of forest naturalness. Deadwood mingling index and diversity index of mortality reasons as new proposed variables improve the assessment of forest naturalness and clarify the effects of recent disturbances. Tree mortality in a stand is caused by specific agents or by the complex effect of several mortality agents and it is different in semi-natural and managed forest. Determining the cause for a tree death is often difficult; therefore it is sensible to use a process-based multiple-reason method for determining the factors of mortality for a single tree. Survival probability of a tree is dependent on the specific mortality agent and relative size of the tree in a stand. Restoration pre-treatment stands are often homogeneous even-aged monocultures on fertile sites; rehabilitation treatments (gap cuttings, overburning and addition of deadwood) increase their structural heterogeneity and promote differentiation of microclimatic conditions and therefore species richness and abundance increase after treatments. In a gap treatment, the ratio between the gap diameter and the surrounding stand height determines the light availability inside the gap; the larger this ratio is, the greater likelihood of seedling recruitment and successful establishment of light demanding species. Species groups respond differently to treatments: understory vegetation diversity increases in gaps with burning, lichen diversity in gaps without burning, and bryophyte diversity with the addition of dead wood. Increased beetle abundance and greater species diversity is a direct effect of changed light conditions inside the canopy. Gaps with overburning have the greatest recruitment of tree seedlings. Multiple treatments create stand heterogeneity and can increase biodiversity more than one homogenous application of a single treatment. It is not possible to restore historical or natural ecosystems on reclaimed mined areas by simple afforestation. Soil formation and properties and the vegetation on reclaimed sites is different from soils and vegetation on common forest sites, hence this leads to development of novel ecosystems. Spontaneous succession should be considered in forest restoration as an alternative to afforestation practice, especially if reclamation sites are small, surrounded by natural vegetation, and there is no specific production goal or time limit for restoration.

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    EMU DSpace
    Thesis . 2014
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
    Doctoral thesis . 2014
    License: CC BY
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      Doctoral thesis . 2014
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  • Authors: Hamrouni, Yousra;

    Cultivated poplar is the most widely planted deciduous species in France. It plays an essential economic role, particularly in producing wood materials, plywood, light packaging and in the paper industry. However, despite the sector's importance, the national surface area of poplar plantations is highly uncertain. Depending on the data source considered (National forest database, land register, forest inventory), the estimates reveal differences of more than 50,000 ha. The updating rate of these data sources is unsuitable for monitoring cultivated poplars due to their short rotation cycle (15-20 years). Satellite Remote Sensing has long been used for mapping forests, both natural and planted. With the continuous improvement of sensor characteristics, including spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions, it becomes possible to consider their application in an operational context for regular monitoring of the resource over large areas. The aim of this thesis is twofold. The first one is to explore the potential of Sentinel-2 optical image time series to automatically distinguish poplar plantations from the other deciduous species while considering the diversity of poplar growing contexts. The second consists of developing a national classification strategy, taking into account the spatial non-stationarity of the spectral response of poplar plantations, the heterogeneity of the acquisitions, and the limited number of reference data. The approach adopted consisted in investigating different domain adaptation techniques drawn from the field of machine learning. The unsupervised or semi-supervised techniques involved have made it possible to meet the large scale challenges while using a limited number of additional reference samples. This study led to the development of an operational processing chain allowing the first map of poplar plantations on a national scale to be produced from satellite images. It is based on a newly proposed spectral index – the Poplar Index (PI) – exploiting the SWIR and Red edge bands of the Sentinel-2 images. Together with its annual evolution, this spectral index has enabled the identification of poplar plantations with a producer's accuracy of around 95%. The result of this work provides the poplar sector with a robust method to produce an annual map of poplar plantations with an appropriate level of reliability.; Le peuplier cultivé constitue la première essence de feuillus plantée en France. Il joue un rôle économique de premier plan, notamment pour la production de bois-matériau, contreplaqués et emballages légers. Il est également valorisé dans l’industrie papetière. Pourtant, malgré l'importance de la filière, les surfaces couvertes en peupleraies à l'échelle nationale sont encore très incertaines. Selon la source de données utilisée (BD Forêt IGN, cadastre, inventaire forestier), les estimations montrent des écarts de plus de 50 000 ha. La fréquence de mise à jour de ces sources est inadaptée pour suivre le peuplier cultivé dont le cycle de rotation est court (15-20 ans). La télédétection satellitaire est utilisée depuis longtemps pour cartographier les milieux forestiers, qu'il s'agisse de forêts naturelles ou de plantations. Avec l'amélioration constante des caractéristiques spatiale, spectrale et temporelle des capteurs, il est possible d'envisager son appropriation dans un contexte opérationnel, pour un suivi régulier de la ressource sur de grandes étendues. L'objectif de cette thèse est double. Le premier est d'explorer le potentiel des séries temporelles d'images optiques Sentinel-2 pour distinguer automatiquement les peupleraies des autres essences de feuillus en tenant compte de la diversité des contextes populicoles. Le second est de proposer une stratégie de classification à l'échelle nationale en tenant compte de la nonstationnarité spatiale de la réponse spectrale des peupleraies, de l’hétérogénéité des acquisitions, et du nombre limité de données de référence. La démarche adoptée a consisté à étudier différentes techniques d'adaptation de domaine disponibles dans le champ de l'apprentissage automatique. Ces techniques, non supervisées ou semi-supervisées, ont permis de répondre aux contraintes de passage à l'échelle avec un nombre limité d'échantillons de référence supplémentaires. Cette étude a débouché sur la création d'une chaîne de traitement opérationnelle permettant de produire la première carte des plantations de peuplier à l'échelle nationale à partir d'images satellitaires. Elle s'appuie sur un nouvel indice spectral proposé -- le Poplar Index (PI) -- qui exploite les bandes du SWIR et du Red edge des données Sentinel-2. Cet indice, et son évolution annuelle, ont permis de reconnaître les peupleraies avec une précision producteur de près de 95%. Le résultat de ce travail offre à la filière populicole une méthode robuste pour assurer une production annuelle d'une carte des peupleraies avec un niveau de fiabilité adapté.

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    Authors: Ritz, Simon;

    Depuis une quinzaine d’années, l’agglomération antique de Senon-Amel fait l’objet de nouvelles recherches pluri¬disciplinaires associant des techniques d’investigation non destructives (prospections pédestres, aériennes, géophysiques, LiDAR) et des opérations de fouilles (préventives et programmées). Ces nouvelles données montrent que le site se déve¬loppe sous la forme de deux pôles de vestiges à caractère urbain, distants de 1,5 km et occupés simultanément pendant la majeure partie de l’Antiquité romaine, du milieu du Ier siècle apr. J.-C. au milieu du IVe siècle apr. J.-C. au moins. Cette configuration bipolaire présente un caractère exceptionnel dans l’urbanisme du nord de la Gaule romaine, qu’il faut ten¬ter d’expliquer. Son expression la plus frappante réside sans doute dans la duplication des édifices publics : chaque pôle urbain est équipé d’une panoplie monumentale complète, comprenant plusieurs temples, des thermes et un théâtre. Dès lors, l’étude des processus qui sont à l’origine de cette composition urbaine particulière, puis des modalités selon lesquelles elle a évolué jusqu’au début du Moyen Âge, s’est imposée comme la problématique structurante de l’enquête. Elle est abordée au travers d’une analyse détaillée des formes et des dynamiques d’occupation de chaque pôle urbain sur le temps long, cherchant à mettre en évidence d’éventuelles spécificités fonctionnelles et à caractériser la nature de leurs relations aux différentes étapes de leur histoire. L’agglomération est également replacée dans son environnement microrégional, entendu au double sens de paysage anthropique et naturel, en partant du principe que les relations qu’entretient la ville avec son « pays d’alentour » participent à la compréhension de l’un et l’autre de ces espaces. Cette approche fondée sur la caractérisation des différentes composantes du système de peuplement microrégional forme le socle de la discussion sur l’origine et l’évolution du schéma urbain bipolaire. Elle met notamment en exergue le rôle de l’intégration politique des cités gauloises au cadre administratif romain, ainsi que l’incidence de l’économie du culte dans la bipolarisation de l’urba¬nisme. La trajectoire très originale de Senon-Amel contribue à enrichir notre connaissance de la diversité des processus de formation et d’évolution du fait urbain dans le nord de Gaule. Cependant, l’intérêt du site va au-delà de l’étude d’une forme urbaine singulière et somme toute anecdotique : la juxtaposition des deux pôles urbains fait ressortir leurs spécificités mieux qu’ailleurs, parce qu’on a ici la possibilité de les comparer dans le détail, en minimisant l’incidence d’états documentaires différents ou de spécificités régionales, qui peuvent biaiser les comparaisons à plus large échelle. On voit ainsi apparaître deux trajectoires urbaines complètement différentes, opposant schématiquement un habitat groupé d’origine laténienne qui a prospéré à l’époque romaine grâce à une économie orientée vers des activités artisanales et commerciales diversifiées, et un grand sanctuaire, plus vraisemblablement fondé au début de l’Empire qu’à La Tène, dont l’attractivité économique n’a que tardivement agrégé un habitat groupé. Si le voisinage de ces deux entités urbaines est très inhabituel, les processus qui président à leur formation et à leur évolution sont sans doute à l’oeuvre dans beaucoup d’autres agglomérations, et peuvent à ce titre être de plus ample enseignement que la seule histoire de Senon-Amel. Interdisciplinary investigations combining prospection techniques (field survey, aerial photography, geophysics, Li¬DAR) and excavations (preventive and university-led excavations) have been carried out for almost 15 years on the ar¬chaeological site of Senon-Amel. They have revealed the bipolarity of this roman town, which is split into two urban cen¬tres located 1.5 km apart, simultaneously inhabited during most of the Antiquity, from the middle of the 1st century A.D. to the middle of the 4th century at least. This urban layout is very unusual among the roman towns of northern Gaul and thus needs to be explained. Its most striking feature is the duplication of public monuments: both urban centres include temples, public baths and a theatre. This thesis discusses the origin and evolution of the bipolar frame. It highlights the role of the integration of Gallic civitates into the roman provincial administration, and the impact of a religious economy in the shap¬ing of the city. These processes obviously have an interest per se – they contribute to illustrate the varied origins of urban features in norther Gaul –, but they also have broader implications. Indeed, the closeness of the two urban centres allows us to study quite precisely their specific features and their origins, thanks to the consistency of the documentation. This comparison reveals two very different urban trajectories: broadly speaking, evidence suggests that Senon was preceded by an Iron Age settlement, which stayed occupied during the roman period and expanded thanks to the existence of a wide range of crafts and trade activities. On the other hand, Amel seems to have been created at the beginning of the Empire as a sanctuary, which only later aggregated dwelling houses and other private facilities. The juxtaposition of these two urban entities is very unusual, but the mechanisms that drove their setting-up and further evolution are certainly common to many other roman towns. As a result, the case study of Senon-Amel evidences processes that are of more general significance.

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  • At the heart of the smart space vision is the idea that devices interoperate with each other autonomously to assist people in their everyday activities. In order to make this vision a reality, it is important to achieve semantic-level interoperability between devices. The goal of this dissertation is to enable Semantic Web technology-based interoperability in smart spaces. There are many challenges that need to be solved before this goal can be achieved. In this dissertation, the focus has been on the following four challenges: The first challenge is that the Semantic Web technologies have neither been designed for sharing real-time data nor large packets of data such as video and audio files. This makes it challenging to apply them in smart spaces, where it is typical that devices produce and consume this type of data. The second challenge is the verbose syntax and encoding formats of Semantic Web technologies that make it difficult to utilise them in resource-constrained devices and networks. The third challenge is the heterogeneity of smart space communication technologies that makes it difficult to achieve interoperability even at the connectivity level. The fourth challenge is to provide users with simple means to interact with and configure smart spaces where device interoperability is based on Semantic Web technologies. Even though autonomous operation of devices is a core idea in smart spaces, this is still important in order to achieve successful end-user adoption. The main result of this dissertation is a semantic interoperability framework, which consists of following individual contributions: 1) a semantic-level interoperability architecture for smart spaces, 2) a knowledge sharing protocol for resource-constrained devices and networks, and 3) an approach to configuring Semantic Web-based smart spaces. The architecture, protocol and smart space configuration approach are evaluated with several reference implementations of the framework components and proof-of-concept smart spaces that are also key contributions of this dissertation.

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    Authors: Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.;

    This PhD study focusses on the use of MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data for reliable and quantitative water-quality assessment of optically-complex waters (lake, brackish and coastal waters). The thesis is divided into two parts: A. intercalibration of reflectance measurements in different optically-complex water bodies (Paper I), and validation of various satellite processing algorithms for the coastal zone (Paper II). B. Applications: the use of MERIS data in integrated coastal zone management mostly using Himmerfjärden bay as an example. Himmerfjärden bay is one of the most frequently monitored coastal areas in the world and it is also the recipient of a large urban sewage treatment plant, where a number of full-scale nutrient management experiments have been conducted to evaluate the ecological changes due to changes in nutrient schemes in the sewage plant. Paper I describes the development and assessment of a new hyperspectral handheld radiometer for in situ sampling and validation of remote sensing reflectance. The instrument is assessed in comparison with readily available radiometers that are commonly used in validation. Paper II has a focus on the validation of level 2 reflectance and water products derived from MERIS data. It highlights the importance of calibration and validation activities, and the current accuracy and limitations of satellite products in the coastal zone. Bio-optical in situ data is highlighted as one of the key components for assessing the reliability of current and future satellite missions. Besides suspended particulate matter (SPM), the standard MERIS products have shown to be insufficient to assure data quality retrieval for Baltic Sea waters. Alternative processors and methods such as those assessed and developed in this thesis therefore will have to be put in place in order to secure the success of future operational missions, such as Sentinel-3. The two presented manuscripts in the applied part B of the thesis (paper III and IV), showed examples on the combined use of in situ measurements with optical remote sensing to support water quality monitoring programs by using turbidity and suspended particulate matter as coastal indicators (manuscript III). The article also provides a new turbidity algorithm for the Baltic Sea and a robust and cost-efficient method for research and management. A novel approach to improve the quality of the satellite-derived products in the coastal zone was demonstrated in manuscript IV. The analysis included, the correction for adjacency effects from land and an improved pixel quality screening. The thesis provides the first detailed spatio-temporal description of the evolution of phytoplankton blooms in Himmerfjärden bay using quality-assured MERIS data, thus forwarding our understanding of ecological processes in in Swedish coastal waters. It must be noted that monitoring from space is not a trivial matter in these optically-complex waters dominated by the absorption of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). These types of coastal waters are especially challenging for quantitative assessment from space due to their low reflectance. Papers III and IV thus also provide tools for a more versatile use in other coastal waters that are not as optically-complex as the highly absorbing Baltic Sea waters. The benefits of the increased spatial-temporal data coverage by optical remote sensing were presented, and also compared to in situ sampling methods (using chlorophyll-a as indicator). Research funders:European Space Agency (ESA, contract no.21524/08/I-OL)NordForsk funding: Nord AquaRemS Ref. no. 80106NordForsk funding: NordBaltRemS Ref.no. 42041At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

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    Authors: Okur, Orhan;

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada, uzaktan eğitim yöntemi ile tarım danışmanlarının güvenli tarım uygulamaları ile ilgili eğitilmesi ve eğitimli tarım danışmanları yoluyla üretici durumunda bulunan çiftçilerin bilgi ve uygulamalarının geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.Gereç-Yöntem: Çalışma Eylül 2013-Aralık 2015 tarihleri arasında Aydın ili sınırları içerisinde gerçekleştirilmiş randomize kontrollü bir müdahale araştırmasıdır. Çalışma daha önce gerçekleştirilen `Aydın ili pestisit farkındalığı` çalışmasına dayanılarak geliştirilmiştir. Çalışma üç aşamalı olarak planlanmıştır. Çalışmanın ilk aşamasında müdahale (10 köy+1 yedek köy) ve kontrol (10 köy+1 yedek köy) grubu köylerinin belirlenmesi (ön çalışma bulgularına göre güvenli pestisit uygulamaları konusunda sorunlu olan köyler), konu ile ilgili uzman hocaların katılımıyla uzaktan eğitim müfredatının oluşturulması ve öğretim yönetim sistemi (LMS)'ne uzmanların ders kayıt video ve sorularının modüler olarak yüklenerek özgün bir E-Eğitim Modelinin geliştirilmesi; ikinci aşamada LMS sistemi ile uzaktan müdahale grubundaki 11 Tarım Danışmanının Eğitilmesi ve ÖnTest-SonTest yapılarak eğitimin etkinliğinin belirlenmesi, üçüncü aşamada; web yoluyla eğitilen danışmanların üreticileri eğitmesi ve sonrasında gerek müdahale gerek kontrol gruplarına üreticilerin güvenli tarım uygulamaları yüz yüze anket yöntemi yoluyla değerlendirilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak 5 bölümden oluşan (1-katılımcıların tanımlayıcı bilgileri, 2-yetiştirilen ürün, kulanılan pestisitler ile pestisit tercihini etkileyen faktörler, 3-pestisitlerin çevreye ve canlı sağlığı üzerine etkileri ile ilgili bilgi düzeyi, 4-pestisit hazırlama ve uygulama aşamalarında dikkat edilen unsurlar, 5-pestisit etkilenimine bağlı sağlık sorunları ve semptomlar) anket formu; `Bitki Koruma Ürünlerinin Uygulama Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik` maddeleri ve T.C. Gıda,Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı, `2011 Yılı Bitki Sağlığı ve Karantina Çalışma Program ve Prensipleri` kitabındaki `İlaç-Alet` bölümünden yararlanarak oluşturulmuştur. İlaç uygulama ve hazırlamaya ilişkin sorular için her bir doğru cevap yada uygulama `1 puan`, yanlış veya cevapsiz yanıtlar `0 puan` olarak kodlanmış ve tarım ilacı hazırlama, uygulama ve ilacın etkileri ile ilgili verilen yanıtlar için toplam puanlar hesaplanmıştır. Müdahale grubunda 340 , kontrol grubunda 378 üreticiyle görüşülmüştür. Çalışmanın belirlenen köylerde gerçekleştirilebilmesi için Aydın Valiliği'nden ve Aydın Tarım Hayvancılık ve Gıda Müdürlüğünden ve ADÜ Tıp Fakültesi Etik Kurulundan Protokol No:2013/254 ile onay alınmıştır. Veriler SPSS 23 paket programı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Tanımlayıcı istatistiklerde sayı ve yüzde dağılımlar gösterilmiş, ortalama±standart sapma verilmiştir. Normal dağılıma uygunluk için Kolmogorov –Smirnow testi yapılmıştır. Analitik analizlerde ki-kare testi, Student-t testi, bağımlı gruplarda ki-kare testi, iki eş arasındaki farkın önemlilik testi ve Wilcoxon testleri kullanılmıştır.Tip 1 hata düzeyi=0,05 olarak alınmıştır.Bulgular: Müdahale ve kontrol grupları sosyo-demografik özellikler (yaş, cinsiyet, medeni durum, eğitim durumu, sosyal güvence) ve güvenli pestisit uygulamaları konusunda (ilaç hazırlarken ve uygularken dikkat edilen hususlar, risk durumu) bakımından benzerdir (p>0.05). Tarım danışmanlarının öntest puan ortalamaları (64,00±14,05), eğitim sonrasında (78,12±11,19) anlamlı olarak artmıştır (p=0.42). Üretici eğitimleri öncesi ilaçların hazırlanması, uygulanması ve saklanmasında dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlara uyumun (en düşük %16,9 -en yüksek %98,5 ) arasında değiştiği; eğitim sonrasında (%47,2 -%100) arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Eğitim öncesi, ilaç hazırlamada dikkat edilecek konulara uyumunun (%10,5-%66,1) arasında değiştiği; eğitim sonrasında (%37,5-%98,4) arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Müdahale grubunda eğitim sonrası ilaç hazırlamada tüm önlemlerin alınmasında anlamlı artış tespit edilmiştir (p<0,001). İlaç uygulama boyutunda da, eğitim öncesi ilaçları uygularken dikkat ettikleri hususlara uyumun (%11,4-%74,6 ) arasında değiştiği, eğitim sonrasında (%70-%100) arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Müdahale grubunda eğitim sonrasında tarım ilaçlarının etkileri ile ilgili bilgi puanı, tarım ilacı uygulamaları ile ilgili toplam puan, tarım ilacı hazırlama ile ilgili toplam puanlarda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı artış saptanmıştır (p<0,001).Sonuç: Araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilip tarım danışmanlarının eğitiminde kullanılan modül ile tarım danışmanlarının bilgi düzeyi artırılmıştır. Tarım danışmanları aracılığı ile uygulanan eğitimin güvenli tarım uygulamaları hususunda üretici bilgi ve uygulamalarını iyileştirdiği tespit edilmiştir. Eğitimlerin sürekliliğinin sağlanması, güncel bilgilerin en kısa süre içinde tarım danışmanları ve dolayısı ile üreticilerle paylaşılması için uzaktan eğitim yöntemlerinin başarı ile uygulanabileceği söylenebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: uzaktan eğitim, pestisitler, güvenli tarım Objective: In this study, we aimed to train agricultural consultants with agricultural practices by distance education, and to improve the knowledge and practice of farmers who have manufacturer status through the educated agricultural consultants. Material & Methods: The study is a randomized controlled interference study that was performed between September 2013 and December 2015, in city of Aydın. It was performed based on a previous study titled `Pesticide Awareness in Aydın city`. The study was scheduled in three stages. The first phase of the study was for determining of the villages (problematic villages about safe pesticide practices according to the preliminary results) that includes in the interference group (10 villages + a village for backup) and the control group (10 villages + a village for backup); and for establishing a distance education curriculum related to the subjects with supports of specialist consultants, and improving an unique e-learning model by loading questions and lecture record videos of agriculture experts into the education management system (LMS) as modules. At the second stage, we aimed to train 11 agricultural consultants in distance interference group via LMS system and to determine educational efficiency by performing both pre-test and post-test. At the third stage, we aimed to educate the consultants through WEB, and afterwards we evaluated safe agricultural practice of manufacturers through face to face questionnaire of both the interference and control group. As a data collection instrument, questionnaire were consisted with 5 parts (1-identifying information of the participants, 2-grown product, pesticides and the factors affecting choice of pesticide, 3-knowledge related pesticide effects on the environment and people's health, 4-elements to be considered at pesticide preparation and implementation phase, 5-health problems and symptoms depending on influence of pesticide) through law explanations of `Regulations about Application Procedures and Principles of Plant Protection Products` and in 2011 `Drug-tool` book section of T.C. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, titled ` Programmes and Principles of Phytosanitary and Quarantine Work`. The total scores were calculated, after each correct answer for questions of pesticide preparation and applications or practice was scored as `1 point`, while the incorrect or missed answers were scored as `0 point`. We interviewed to 340 manufacturers in the intervention group, while to 378 in the control group. In order to conduct the study in the specified villages, the approval was obtained from Governor of Aydın, Aydın Agriculture Livestock and Food Directorate, and the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine with the Protocol No.2013/254. All study data were analyzed with SPSS v23 software package. Numbers and percentage distribution are shown in descriptive statistics and mean±standard deviation is also given. A Kolmogorov-Smirnow test was done to check variables for normal distribution. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, chi-square test for dependent groups, Paired t-test and Wilcoxon tests were used in analytical analysis. Type 1 error level was considered as 0,05. Results: Both the interference and control groups were similar in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, education, social security) and safe pesticide practices (attention issues when preparing and implementing drug, and risk status)(p>0.05). Pre-test mean score of agricultural consultants (64.00 ± 14,05) significantly increased after education (78.12± 11.19) (p=0.42). Before manufacturer training, adaptation to the points that should be considered for preparation, applying and storing of medicine varied between minimum 16.9% and maximum 98.5%; while after training varied from 47,2% to 100%. Before training, adaptation ranged between 66.1% and 10,5% for drug self-preparation and points that should be considered; as ranged from 98.4% to 37,5% after the training. There was significant increase at taking all measures of preparation medicine in the interference group after the training (p<0,001). During drug administration, compliance with issues they care when pre-applied drug itself ranged between 74.6% and 11,4% for those; as it was found to vary between 70% and 100% after the training. There was a statistically significant increase at knowledge scores related the effects of pesticides after training in the intervention group, at total score for pesticide applications, and at total score related preparing pesticides (p<0,001).Conclusion: Knowledge level of agricultural consultants increased with module that was improved by researchers and used in training of agricultural consultants. We experienced that the training which is applied through agricultural consultants improved knowledge and practices of manufacturer regarding safe agricultural practice. Distance education methods should be applied with success for ensuring sustainability of the training and for sharing the updated information with agricultural consultants and manufacturers as soon as possible. Keywords: distance education, pesticides, safe agriculture 196

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