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263 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis
  • ES

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Romero, Adriana;

    [eng] Deep learning has recently been enjoying an increasing popularity due to its success in solving challenging tasks. In particular, deep learning has proven to be effective in a large variety of computer vision tasks, such as image classification, object recognition and image parsing. Contrary to previous research, which required engineered feature representations, designed by experts, in order to succeed, deep learning attempts to learn representation hierarchies automatically from data. More recently, the trend has been to go deeper with representation hierarchies. Learning (very) deep representation hierarchies is a challenging task, which involves the optimization of highly non- convex functions. Therefore, the search for algorithms to ease the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies from data is extensive and ongoing. In this thesis, we tackle the challenging problem of easing the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies. We present a hyper-parameter free, off-the-shelf, simple and fast unsupervised algorithm to discover hidden structure from the input data by enforcing a very strong form of sparsity. We study the applicability and potential of the algorithm to learn representations of varying depth in a handful of applications and domains, highlighting the ability of the algorithm to provide discriminative feature representations that are able to achieve top performance. Yet, while emphasizing the great value of unsupervised learning methods when labeled data is scarce, the recent industrial success of deep learning has revolved around supervised learning. Supervised learning is currently the focus of many recent research advances, which have shown to excel at many computer vision tasks. Top performing systems often involve very large and deep models, which are not well suited for applications with time or memory limitations. More in line with the current trends, we engage in making top performing models more efficient, by designing very deep and thin models. Since training such very deep models still appears to be a challenging task, we introduce a novel algorithm that guides the training of very thin and deep models by hinting their intermediate representations. Very deep and thin models trained by the proposed algorithm end up extracting feature representations that are comparable or even better performing than the ones extracted by large state-of-the-art models, while compellingly reducing the time and memory consumption of the model.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Férriz Núñez, Macarena;

    El aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico [CO2] como consecuencia de las emisiones antropogénicas lleva asociado un aumento en la temperatura media del planeta. La cuenca mediterránea es particularmente sensible a perturbaciones más intensas debido a una mayor aridez y al legado de usos de suelo que ha modificado notablemente los paisajes actuales. En este contexto de cambio global, estudiamos el decaimiento y las dinámicas de regeneración de tres especies de coníferas mediterráneas con diferente tolerancia a la sequía Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Capítulo 2). Comparamos los patrones de crecimiento y la respuesta al clima de individuos con diferente estado de salud: sanos (las tres especies), en decaimiento (sólo P. pinaster) y muertos (P. pinaster y P. pinea). La actual especie dominante, P. pinaster, muestra claros signos de decaimiento -definido por alta defoliación e infección de muérdago- y mortalidad, con escasa regeneración, siendo reemplazada por regeneración de otras especies más tolerantes a la sequía como Quercus ilex, P. pinea y J, oxycedrus. Desde los años 80, los eventos de sequía han sido más frecuentes y severos en la zona, habiendo incitado el decaimiento en P. pinaster pero no en las otras especies acompañantes. Los individuos no-sanos de P. pinaster mostraron una reducción en el crecimiento desde 1995, mientras que en los individuos muertos de P. pinea este declive comenzó en 2005. La supervivencia de P. pinaster en la zona estaba relacionada con una mayor sensibilidad a la precipitación de primavera y a sitios con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que la supervivencia de P. pinea estaba principalmente relacionada con un mayor diámetro del árbol. En el Capítulo 3, seleccionamos 5 árboles de cada estado de salud y especie y estudiamos la anatomía del xilema y la discriminación isotópica de carbono (13C) en anillos de crecimiento. Las dos especies de pinos mostraron traqueidas más grandes y una mayor plasticidad del xilema en respuesta a la variabilidad climática que J. oxycedrus. Los caracteres anatómicos se diferenciaron entre estados de salud en P. pinaster y P. pinea. Los individuos sanos tenían mayor área de lumen en la madera temprana y paredes celulares más gruesas en la madera tardía que los individuos no-sanos, junto con mayor plasticidad en el xilema frente al clima, lo que les permitió ajustar sus caracteres anatómicos para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema durante eventos de sequía. La habilidad de mantener un xilema competitivo y plástico es crucial para conseguir ratios productivos en escenarios de cambio climático. Nuestro estudio reveló que los pinos muertos y en decaimiento tenían valores similares de 13C que los árboles sanos, lo que sugiere que los pinos no-sanos ejercen un menor control estomático que debería maximizar la tasa fotosintética y aumentar el transporte de agua hacia la copa para compensar por la pérdida excesiva de agua. Los resultados de los Capítulos 2 y 3 sugieren que a pesar del decaimiento general observado en P. pinaster en el área, los individuos sanos de esta especie pueden sobrevivir en áreas con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que en el resto del paisaje serán eventualmente sustituidos por especies más tolerantes a la sequía como P. pinea y J. oxycedrus. Además, los patrones de regeneración en la zona revelaron que tanto el estrés hídrico como el legado de usos de suelo limitan el establecimiento de regenerado de P. pinaster en comparación con la más abundante regeneración que presentan P. pinea, J, oxycedrus y Q. ilex. Debido a que los cambios de distribución de las especies están determinados en última instancia por el regenerado, comprender el efecto combinado de altas concentraciones de [CO2] y el estrés hídrico es fundamental para pronosticar futuros cambios en el paisaje e identificar qué especies prevalecerán en estos nuevos escenarios. Por ello en el Capítulo 4, analizamos cómo el enriquecimiento con [CO2] puede mitigar los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico en plántulas de dos especies de pino mediterráneas P. pinaster y P. pinea. En cámaras de crecimiento, testamos los efectos de dos concentraciones de [CO2]: a[CO2] (380 ppm) y e[CO2] (800 ppm) y dos regímenes de riego. En condiciones de e[CO2], ambas especies aumentaron la biomasa total, WUE (el uso en la eficiencia del agua a nivel de toda la planta) y WUEi (uso en la eficiencia del agua intrínseco) en comparación con valores medidos en condiciones de a[CO2]. El aumento de WUEi bajo condiciones de alto [CO2] se debió a una reducción en la conductancia estomática y a un aumento de la tasa fotosintética. Sin embargo, encontramos diferencias en los ajustes funcionales al e[CO2] y estrés hídrico en las dos especies. P. pinea mostró una mayor tasa fotosintética y menores potenciales hídricos al amanecer (amanecer) y al mediodía (mediodía,) mostrando que esta especie tiene un comportamiento más anisohídrico que P. pinaster, el cual mantuvo una estrategia más isohídrica y de mayor ahorro de agua mediante un mayor control estomático, invirtiendo más en el desarrollo de la raíz que P. pinea. Además, en el Capítulo 5 estudiamos los ajustes en la anatomía del xilema y en el sistema hidráulico de las plántulas en estas condiciones de e[CO2] alto y estrés hídrico. El estrés hídrico indujo una menor producción de acículas en P. pinaster para minimizar la pérdida de agua. Por otro lado P. pinea mostró una mayor plasticidad en el xilema mediante la reducción del tamaño del lumen para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema ante estrés hídrico. Aunque ambas estrategias pueden ser efectivas a la hora de minimizar transpiración y mantener la seguridad en el xilema, reducir el área foliar puede comprometer la tasa fotosintética a largo plazo, perjudicando la habilidad del individuo para competir. Por el contrario, una mayor plasticidad en el xilema en P. pinea permitiría a los árboles adaptar su crecimiento y estructura a las condiciones ambientales y optimizar el uso de recursos disponibles manteniendo una mayor área foliar activa (es decir, el aparato fotosintético). Altas concentraciones de [CO2] redujeron la conductancia específica de la hoja en ambas especies de pino, probablemente mediante menor conductancia estomática. El aumento en el número de traqueidas en el xilema P. pinea le permite construir un xilema más seguro a la vez que compensa un menor tamaño de traqueidas bajo estrés hídrico. Por tanto, nuestros resultados sugieren que un aumento de [CO2] beneficiará de forma diferente a las dos especies estudiadas, aun asumiendo que ambas pertenecen al mismo grupo funcional. El enriquecimiento en [CO2] beneficiará más a P. pinea que a P. pinaster bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, debido a que P. pinea puede mantener la conductividad hidráulica con un xilema más resistente a la cavitación. Si extrapolamos nuestros resultados a condiciones naturales y en particular a los escenarios climáticos esperados en el futuro, podemos concluir que la mayor tolerancia a la sequía expresada por P. pinea hará que esta especie prevalezca frente a P. pinaster en ambientes futuros con mayor aridez y mayor concentración de [CO2]. ----------ABSTRACT---------- Rising CO2 atmospheric concentration ([CO2]) as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions is driving an increase in the average temperature of the planet. The Mediterranean basin is particularly sensitive to more intense disturbances due to aridification and land-use legacies that have strongly shaped the current landscapes in the Region. In this context of global change, we studied the decline and regeneration dynamics of three co-occurring Mediterranean coniferous species of different drought tolerance: Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Chapter 2). We compared the growth patterns and climatic response of trees with different health status: healthy (for the three species), declining (only P. pinaster) and dead (P. pinaster and P. pinea). The currently dominant species, P. pinaster, shows extensive signs of decline -assessed by high canopy defoliation and mistletoe infection- and mortality. In addition, the species presents scarce regeneration, whereas it is being replaced by Quercus ilex, P. pinea and J. oxycedrus, with more abundant regeneration and abundance in juvenile stages. Since the 1980s, more frequent and severe drought events have occurred, inciting tree growth decline in dead and non-healthy pine trees, but with differences between species. Non-healthy individuals of P. pinaster exhibited negative growth trends since 1995. In dead P. pinea trees, the growth decline started later since 2005. P. pinaster survival in the study area was linked to a higher sensitivity to spring precipitation and was concentrated in sites with higher moisture availability, while P. pinea survival was higher in trees with larger diameters. In Chapter 3, we selected 5 individuals from each status and species and studied the xylem anatomical traits and carbon isotopic discrimination (13C) in annual tree-rings. Pine trees exhibited larger tracheids and higher xylem plasticity to climate variability than J. oxycedrus. Xylem traits differed between different health status in Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea. Healthy pine trees had bigger lumen sizes in the earlywood and thicker cell walls in the latewood than non-healthy trees, along with expressing a higher xylem plasticity to climate. This xylem plasticity allowed P. pinea to adjust their xylem characteristics to increase cell safety during drought events. The ability to maintain a competitive yet plastic xylem structure is crucial to sustain productivity rates under more xeric, climate change scenarios. Our study revealed that non-healthy pines (i.e. declining and dead pine trees) and healthy trees exhibited similar 13C, which suggests that non-healthy pine trees had low stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis and increase water transport to the crown to compensate for the excessive water loss. Results from Chapters 2 and 3 suggest that despite the general species decline (i.e. high mortality, canopy defoliation, mistletoe infection) observed in P. pinaster in the area, healthy individuals of this species are performing well in sites with higher moisture availability, while in soils with less moisture availability in the area it can be eventually replaced by more drought-tolerant P. pinea, J. oxycedrus and Q. ilex. Regeneration patterns in the area revealed that water stress along with land-use legacies are limiting P. pinaster establishment in comparison to more abundant regeneration of these three more drought-tolerant co-occurring taxa. Since species distribution shift is ultimately driven by regeneration success, understanding the combined effect of enriched [CO2] and water stress on seedlings is crucial to forecast future changes in the landscape and identify which species will prevail in these new scenarios. Therefore, in Chapter 4, we characterized how elevated [CO2] can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on seedlings of the two Mediterranean pine species P. pinaster and P. pinea. In growth chambers, we tested the effects of two [CO2] treatments: a[CO2] (380 ppm) and e[CO2] (800 ppm) and two water regimes. Under e[CO2], both species increased total biomass, WUE (whole-plant water use efficiency) and WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) in comparison to measured values in a[CO2]. Increases in WUEi under high [CO2] were both due to reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic rates. However, we also found differences in the functional adjustment to elevated [CO2] and water stress of the two species. P. pinea exhibited higher photosynthetic rates and lower water potential, both predawn and midday, suggesting that this species follows a more anisohydric behaviour than P. pinaster, which in contrast maintained a more isohydric, water-saving strategy and invested more in root development than P. pinea. In addition, in Chapter 5 we studied the xylem anatomical adjustments and hydraulic performance of seedlings under e[CO2] and water stress. Water shortage induced a reduction in P. pinaster leaf production to minimise water loss, while P. pinea exhibited a higher xylem plasticity, particularly by reducing lumen size to increase xylem safety. Although both strategies can be effective in minimising transpiration and maintaining xylem safety, reducing leaf area may compromise photosynthetic rates in the long-term, worsening plant ability to compete. In contrast, higher xylem plasticity in P. pinea would allow trees to adapt growth and structure to environmental conditions and to optimise the use of available resources by keeping a greater active leaf area (i.e., photosynthetic apparatus) under water stress. Elevated [CO2] reduced leaf specific conductivity in both pine species, which was probably linked to lower stomatal conductance. The increased in the number of tracheids in P. pinea xylem allowed it to develop a safer xylem that compensated for smaller tracheids under water stress. Thus, our results suggest that rising [CO2] will differently benefit the two studied species, even if they are assumed to belong to the same functional type. [CO2] enrichment will benefit more P. pinea under water stress than P. pinaster, since P. pinea can maintain hydraulic conductivity with a greater xylem resistance to cavitation. If our results hold for natural conditions, we can conclude that due to the higher drought tolerance expressed by P. pinea in comparison to P. pinaster, the former species will prevail under future more xeric and enriched [CO2] environments, particularly where these two species form mixed stands today.

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    https://doi.org/10.20868/upm.t...
    Thesis . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      https://doi.org/10.20868/upm.t...
      Thesis . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Becerra Ortiz, Jairo Andrés;

    La Teledetecció de la Terra des de l'espai exterior ofereix grans possibilitats de desenvolupament per a la humanitat. Les dades obtingudes per satèl·lits són decisives en la predicció del clima, la prevenció de desastres naturals o l'ordenament territorial de les ciutats. És per això que tots els Estats haurien de tenir un marc legal que permeti desenvolupar aquests avenços tecnològics que impacten de manera directa el seu progrés. Aquesta investigació fa un estudi de la regulació a nivell internacional i nacional de la teledetecció de la Terra; la investigació aporta, així mateix, una anàlisi dels drets d'obtenció, accés i ús de dades espacials; a més, pot servir d'orientació a l'hora de desenvolupar polítiques que facilitin el desenvolupament espacial en països emergents. Finalment, fa una proposta que pot afavorir la implementació de la teledetecció de la Terra a Colòmbia, amb la creació d'una llei d'Activitats Espacials. La Teleobservación de la Tierra desde el espacio exterior ofrece grandes posibilidades de desarrollo para la humanidad. Los datos obtenidos por satélites son decisivos en la predicción del clima, la prevención de desastres naturales o el ordenamiento territorial de las ciudades. Es por esto, que todos los Estados deberían poseer un marco legal que permita desarrollar estos adelantos tecnológicos que impactan de manera directa su progreso. Esta investigación realiza un estudio de la regulación a nivel internacional y nacional de la Teleobservación de la Tierra; un análisis de los derechos de obtención, acceso y uso de datos espaciales; y las políticas que hacen posible el desarrollo espacial en países emergentes. Finalmente, hace una propuesta que puede hacer posible la implementación de la Teleobservación de la Tierra en Colombia, con la creación de una ley de Actividades Espaciales. Remote sensing of earth from outer space offers grand development possibilities for humankind. The data obtained by satellites provide decisive information with respect to weather prediction, natural disaster prevention, and urban planning. For these reasons, each state should possess a legal framework that allows the development of these technological advances, which in turn will directly impact the progress of such state. This research constitutes a study of the regulation, on both an international and national level, regarding remote sensing of earth, including an analysis of (i) the rights to gather, access and use such data collected from space and (ii) the policies that encourage space development in emerging countries. Finally, this article proposes a framework through which to implement remote sensing of Colombia: the creation of the Space Activities Act. Programa de Doctorat en Dret i Ciència Política

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    Authors: Lebuy Castillo, Roxana del Carmen;

    Esta investigación estudia la evolución del paisaje bajo un enfoque geosistémico, lo que representa una visión integral que entiende el paisaje como un todo, e incluye los principales los elementos que lo componen, tales como físicos, biológicos y culturales, además de las relaciones e interacciones entre de cada uno de estos elementos, y su dinámica evolutiva, que en combinación dan como resultado el paisaje actual. El paisaje en estudio correspondió al Parque Nacional La Campana (PNLC), y además incluyó al poblado de Quebrada Alvarado de la Región de Valparaíso, y al poblado de Caleu de la Región Metropolitana. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el dinamismo del paisaje a través del estudio evolutivo de sus elementos desde el año 1200 a 2015. Para dar cumplimiento a los objetivos, y sobre todo para mantener el enfoque geosistémico, se desarrolló una metodología en dos fases: la primera fase consistió en la realización de inventario analítico de los elementos del paisaje, y la segunda fase consistió en la interpretación y la complementación de los resultados de fase anterior. Además, el desarrollo de la metodología permitió comprender el estado del paisaje actual como el resultado de interacciones históricas, y proyectar el paisaje futuro en base a la proyección de estas interacciones. Producto del estudio se pudo determinar que el paisaje presenta una gran singularidad, caracterizado por las irregularidades de las geoformas, y por las condiciones climáticas especiales del área, lo que posibilita la creación de sistemas naturales muy diversos. Estos sistemas sustentan una riqueza florística de composición mixta y endémica, y que ha sido reconocida a nivel mundial como una de las principales ecorregiones de diversidad. Debido a lo anterior, es que en el año 1984 el área de estudio fue declarada Reserva de la Biosfera. Uno de los principales resultados fue establecer que existen áreas con alto grado de naturalidad y fragilidad, las que se encuentran al interior y en los sectores próximos al PNLC. Estas áreas se localizan principalmente en las serranías con baja radiación solar, las que mantienen los mayores valores de vigorosidad de la vegetación, y además presentan los valores más altos de calidad visual. Por otra parte, se determinó que los paisajes con morfología regular se encuentran altamente fragmentados, en comparación con los paisajes irregulares o con alta rugosidad, posiblemente porque estos últimos se encuentran alejados de la población rural, y/o presentan dificultad en el acceso. También se determinó que existen grandes perturbaciones en el paisaje cuando cualquier elemento de la urbanidad se incorpora al paisaje, y que estas perturbaciones han aumentado en los últimos años debido a la tendencia a habitar las áreas con alto grado de naturalidad. En cuanto a la evolución del paisaje, se detectó que la vegetación es el elemento más perturbado del paisaje, y además es el elemento que tiene mayor protagonismo en los relatos obtenidos con los datos proxy. Finalmente, se determinó que las mayores perturbaciones se han producido desde la época colonial, y han ido fragmentando al paisaje natural en la medida que se fueron explotando los recursos naturales del lugar. Sin embargo, a contar del año 2000 estas perturbaciones han afectado mayormente a la vegetación, debido al aumento de las parcelas de agrado que han derribado los límites agrícolas históricos, y han avanzado hacia las serranías en busca de naturaleza y tranquilidad, poniendo en riesgo los últimos parches de vegetación del bosque esclerófilo en el paisaje del PNLC.  This study investigated landscape evolution under the geosystemic approach. This mode represents an integral vision that understands the landscape as a whole and includes the main physical, biological and cultural elements that compose it. Additionally, it includes factors like the relations and interactions between each of these elements and their evolutionary dynamics, which in combination result in the existing landscape. The landscape studied corresponded to the National Park “La Campana” (NPLC) and also included the town of Quebrada Alvarado in the Valparaíso Region, as well as the town of Caleu in the Metropolitan Region. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the dynamism of the landscape through evolutionary study of its elements from 1200 to 2015. To achieve the objective, and mainly to maintain the geosystemic approach, a two-phase methodology was developed: the first phase sought to accomplish the analytical inventory of the landscape elements, and the second one allowed interpreting and complementing the results from the previous phase. Moreover, the development of the methodology allowed understanding the state of the existing landscape as the result of historical interactions, and to project the future landscape on the basis of the projection of these interactions. Due to the study, it could be determined that the landscape presents great singularity, characterized by the irregularities of geoforms and special climatic conditions of the area, which foment the creation of highly diverse natural systems. These systems sustain a floristic richness of mixed and endemic composition that has been recognized world-wide as one of the main eco-regions of diversity. Thus, the study area was declared Reserve of the Biosphere in 1984. One of the main results was to establish that areas with high degree of naturalness and fragility exist, mainly to the interior and in adjacent sectors of the NPLC. These areas are located principally in the mountainous regions with low solar radiation, maintain the highest values of vegetational vigor, and in addition display values of upper visual quality. On the other hand, it was determined that landscapes with regular morphology are highly fragmented in comparison with irregular landscapes or high rugosity, possibly because these latter ones are remote from the rural population, and/or are difficult to access. It was further determined that great disturbances in the landscape exist when any urban element is incorporated into it. Such disturbances have increased in recent years, due to the tendency to inhabit areas with a high degree of naturalness. Regarding the evolution of the landscape, it was found that vegetation is the most disturbed element of the landscape, but also one of the greatest protagonists in the stories obtained via proxy data. Finally, it emerged that the greatest disturbances have taken place from the colonial time onward. They have been fragmenting the natural landscape as the degree of natural resources exploitation of the place deepened. Nevertheless, from the year 2000 on these disturbances have affected mainly vegetation, due to the increase of pleasentness parcels that have demolished historical agricultural limits and have advanced toward the mountainous areas in search of nature and tranquility, thus putting at risk the last patches of vegetation of the sclerophyllous forest in the landscape of the NPLC. Programa de Doctorat en Geografia, Planificació Territorial i Gestió Ambiental

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    Authors: Duflot, Rémi;

    L'hétérogénéité du paysage, définie par la composition en habitats et leur configuration spatiale, est considérée comme un facteur majeur affectant la biodiversité. Cependant, les effets de la composition et de la configuration sont souvent confondus du fait de corrélations entre les descripteurs de ces deux composantes. Il est crucial de déterminer leurs effets indépendants pour comprendre les processus qui contrôlent la biodiversité, et allouer les ressources dédiées à la conservation des espèces aux actions de gestion les plus pertinentes. L'objectif de cette thèse est, grâce à la mise en place de protocoles pseudo-expérimentaux dans l'ouest de la France, d'étudier les effets indépendant de la composition et de la configuration paysagère sur la richesse spécifique, la composition spécifique et la composition en traits fonctionnels des coléoptères carabiques et plantes vasculaires. Ces indices de diversité ont été mesurés au niveau du paysage (diversité gamma), et différentes représentations paysagères ont été testées pour comprendre le rôle de l'hétérogénéité de l'espace cultivé, au-delà de la seule prise en compte des habitats semi-naturels. Les résultats indiquent que l'hétérogénéité paysagère joue un rôle de filtre écologique sur les espèces de carabes et de plantes en fonction de leurs traits fonctionnels. La composition paysagère affecte la composition spécifique de ces groupes, les divers habitats hébergeant des communautés différentes. La configuration affecte la diversité des carabes en lien avec des processus possibles de complémentation entre habitats, tandis qu'elle n'a pas d'effet sur la diversité des plantes, qui ne semble donc pas déterminée par les processus de dispersion. Enfin, nos résultats soulignent que l'hétérogénéité liée aux habitats agricoles contribue à la diversité gamma. Landscape heterogeneity, defined by habitats composition and their spatial configuration, is considered as one of the main factor affecting biodiversity. However, the effects of landscape composition and configuration are often confounded because of correlations between the descriptors of these two components. It is crucial to separate the effects of compositional and configurational heterogeneity to understand the ecological processes driving biodiversity and to allocate conservation resources to the most effective actions. Mensurative experiments were carried out in western France to assess the independent effects of landscape composition and configuration on species richness, species composition, and functional traits composition of carabid beetles and vascular plants. These diversity indices were measured at landscape level (gamma diversity), and different landscape representations were tested to address the role of the farmland heterogeneity, beyond the semi natural habitat / farmland matrix dominant representation. Results indicate that landscape heterogeneity act as an ecological filter on carabid and plant species according to their functional traits. Landscape composition affects species composition because different communities benefit from the various habitat types. In addition, landscape configuration influences carabid beetles diversity in relationships with possible complementation processes between habitats, but had no effect on plant diversity, suggesting dispersal was not a driving process of plant diversity. Furthermore, we found that the heterogeneity related to cultivated lands contributes to gamma diversity.

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    Other literature type . 2013
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    Doctoral thesis . 2013
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    Authors: Juan López Coronado; Javier Molina Vilaplana;

    [SPA] En esta Tesis Doctoral se proponen y desarrollan nuevos modelos neuronales de inspiración biológica para el control y aprendizaje de tareas de agarre por parte de dispositivos robóticos antropomorfos. En la primera parte de la Tesis se lleva a cabo una revisión exhausta de los aspectos más relevantes del comportamiento humano y animal durante movimientos de agarre de objetos en la que se resaltan las características invariantes de dicho movimiento, establecidas a través de numerosos experimentos psicofísicos con humanos y primates. A continuación se realiza un repaso al estado actual del conocimiento relativo a la neurobiología que subyace a los comportamientos motrices descritos anteriormente. Con esta base, la Tesis presenta un modelo para la organización del movimiento de agarre que mimetiza las interacciones entre distintas áreas del córtex y los ganglios basales durante la planificación y ejecución del movimiento de agarre en condiciones normales y en condiciones de déficit motor parkinsoniano. El modelo genera trayectorias realistas de agarre a través de la computación y actualización continúa de las señales que codifican la diferencia entre los programas motores que se establecen para la realización de la tarea, y el estado actual de los efectores finales del movimiento involucrados en la ejecución de dicha tarea. Las principales hipótesis del modelo son: (1) el control del transporte de la mano y de la apertura de los dedos se lleva a cabo a través de la acción de señales de paso talámicas cuya modulación corre a cargo de los circuitos neuronales de los ganglios basales. Dichas señales permiten la ejecución coordinada de los distintos subobjetivos que componen una tarea de agarre. (2) La disrupción del programa motriz detectado en la enfermedad de Parkinson, se debe a la modificación en la funcionalidad de la red de interneuronas colinérgicas del estriado ante una deflexión de dopamina estriatal. En estas condiciones, dicha red de interneuronas pierde la habilidad para mantener segregada la información procesada en bucles cortico ganglio basles paralelos y como consecuencia se producen acoplamientos entre distintos canales cortico subcorticales que afectan a los patrones cinemáticos prototípicos del movimiento de agarre. (3) La aplicación de este modelo a un sistema en el que los efectores finales de los movimientos son antropomorficamente realistas, implica el desarrollo, a partir de los resultados de experiencias psicofísicas expresamente diseñadas en esta Tesis Doctoral, de un esquema de control biológicamente plausible para la reducción de la dimensionalidad en el problema de la coordinación del gesto de la mano, durante el movimiento de agarre. Este esquema de control es lo que se define en la Tesis como Biblioteca de Gestos.(4) El aprendizaje que permite el establecimiento de los programas motores tras la percepción del objeto se lleva a cabo a través de una novedosa arquitectura neuronal multi red inspirada en la conectividad cortical entre áreas del córtex parietal posterior y córtex promotor que, tras una serie de etapas de aprendizaje, es capaz de generar movimientos de agarre correctos para un conjunto brazo mano robot antropomorfo cuando a éste sistema se le presentan objetos de distinta forma y tamaño, independientemente de su localización u orientación en el espacio. La Tesis presenta numerosos resultados referentes a la simulación de los modelos en distintas situaciones así como resultados relativos a la implantación de dichos modelos sobre una plataforma robótica antropomorfa orientada al agarre de objetos. Dichos resultados sustentan las hipótesis teóricas que fundamentan esta investigación y por otra parte muestran las capacidades de los modelos desarrollados para actuar como controladores de alto nivel en el guiado de tareas de agarre manipuladores robóticos humanoides. [ENG] Robotics has become into a traditional field in which research is made by engineers and scientist from different science disciplines such as mathematics, physics, medicine, neurosciences etc. It is evident that in the last years , robotics has evolve to be a multidisciplinary area getting closer and closer to everyday life of human beings such as in the cases of robotics applied to rehabilitation or surgery. It also has been established the use of robotics as a tool for the study of the Man and other biological systems or even to construct artificial anthropomorphic components such as, arms, sensors or cognitive – behavioural schemas able to substitute their biological counterparts in some situations. In the last years, it has been established within the robotics community, the idea about that the understanding of the nervous system of humans and monkeys has also a potential industrial or productive interest. The artificial intelligence industrial devices are more and more inspired in Biology. The brain operates in way very different to the way an actual robot actually operates. The mechanisms for information processing are vastly more complex and subtle in brain neural circuits than in the electronic circuits of the actual robots. The interactions within groups of neurons modify the properties of neural firing of these neurons in their interaction with sensory signals from the external world. An elemental learning such as avoiding behaviours with negative consequences, imply millions of neuronal events, including the reconfiguration and establishment of new neuronal connections. This is what is called ‘adaptability to environment’ of the biological systems. Neuro – Robotics constitutes an emergent and new field which represents, in its objectives, a huge challenge for science ad technology: the transference of fundamental principles of the neurobiology that drives the human behaviour to the diversity of disciplines of the engineering that constitute the Robotics (signal processing, robust and adaptive control, non linear systems, pattern recognition, mechatronics, etc…). If Robotics always has been a multidisciplinary field basically at the technological level, the need to push this field into major advances, requires a stronger interaction between the roboticians and scientist from another fields such as neurosciences, physiology or psychology. The ideas exposed above are the general reference frame in which the work of this PhD Thesis is developed. Concretely, it could be said that, major objectives of this PhD coincide with major objectives of two basic research projects funded by European Commission: BRITE-SYNERAGH (Systems neuroscience and engineering research for anthropomorphic grasping and handling, 1998-2001, BRE-2-CT980797) project and IST/FET-PALOMA (Progressive and adaptive learning for object manipulation: a biologically inspired multi-network architecture, 2001-2004, IST-2001-33073) project. The author of this PhD Thesis is ascribed to NeuroTechnology, Control and Robotics research group of the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena. This research group and the author of this Thesis, have been intensively involved in the development of the two mentioned European projects. Programa de doctorado en Tecnologías Industriales. Subprograma Neurotecnología, Control y Robótica Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

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    https://doi.org/10.31428/10317...
    Thesis . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.31428/10317...
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    Authors: Familiar Cabero, Miguel Santos;

    ¿Por qué la sensibilidad ubicua y la inteligencia ambiental son percibidas por una gran parte de las comunidades académica e industrial como una revolución masiva en el corto plazo? En nuestra opinión, una piedra angular de este pensamiento es el hecho de que la naturaleza última del paradigma de entornos inteligentes no reside en la tecnología en sí misma, sino en una aproximación centrada en las personas. Y es quizá en esta aparente simple concepción donde se halla precisamente el atrevimiento de esta prometedora visión, consolidada en los últimos años con la emergente proliferación de la computación móvil, personal, portable, llevable y sensorial: llegar a todos y a todas partes. Por un lado, esta alcanza nuestras vidas de una manera cercana, minimizando la atención requerida por los usuarios, anticipándose a sus necesidades con el objetivo de redefinir nuestra idea de calidad de experiencia. Por otro lado, esta impacta en todas partes tanto a escala global como personal, con una conectividad expandida entre dispositivos y objetos inteligentes, de un modo ubicuo y dinámico, como una extensión natural del mundo que nos rodea. Conforme a lo anterior, esta tesis doctoral se centra en contribuir en la integración de los avances de ingeniería de redes y software en el ámbito de los espacios y entornos inteligentes ubicuos basados en redes de sensores. Esto se fundamenta en la convergencia de diversos paradigmas de las tecnologías de la información y ciencia de la computación, tales como orientación a servicios y agentes, tecnologías semánticas y de gestión del conocimiento en el contento de la computación ubicua en la Internet de las Cosas. Para este fin, se presentan las aproximaciones nSOM (nano Service-Oriented Middleware) y nSOL (nano Semantics-Oriented Language). En primer lugar, nSOM define una plataforma orientada a servicios para la implementación, despliegue y exposición a la nube de servicios basados en agentes e implementados en red sobre dispositivos heterogéneos de sensores. En segundo lugar, nSOL habilita una abstracción para proporcionar composición ubicua de servicios basada en gestión semántica del conocimiento. La integración de ambas contribuciones conduce a un modelado formal y de implementación práctica de servicios de sensor virtual adaptativos para ecosistemas de inteligencia ambiental. Este trabajo incluye la caracterización del rendimiento del prototipo resultante, basándonos para ello en métricas tales como tamaño de código, tamaño de memoria volátil, sobrecarga de procesamiento, retardo en tiempo de servicio y autonomía de baterías. Los principales fundamentos y resultados discutidos en este ensayo están contextualizados en los siguientes Proyectos de Investigación Europeos: μSWN (FP6 código: IST-034642), DiYSE (ITEA2 código: 08005) y LifeWear (ITEA2 código: 09026). Why pervasive awareness and Ambient Intelligence are perceived by a great part of the academia and industry as a massive revolution in the short-term? In our best knowledge, a cornerstone of this thought is based on the fact that the ultimate nature of the smart environment paradigm is not in the technology itself, but on a people-centered approach. Perhaps, is in this apparently simple conception where precisely lies the boldness of this promising vision, which has been consolidated in recent years with the emerging proliferation of mobile, personal, portable, wearable and sensory computing: to reach everyone and everywhere. On the one hand, it touches our daily lives in a close manner, minimizing the required attention from the users, anticipating to their needs with the main intention of redefining our idea of Quality of Experience. On the other hand, this new wave impacts everywhere at both global and personal scales allowing expanded connectivity between devices and smart objects, in a dynamic and ubiquitous manner, as a natural extension of the physical world around us. According to the above, this doctoral dissertation focuses on contributing to the integration of software and networking engineering advances in the field of pervasive smart spaces and environment using sensor networks. This is founded on the convergence of some information technology and computer science paradigms, such as service and agent orientation, semantic technologies and knowledge management in the framework of pervasive computing and the Internet of Things. To this end, the nSOM (nano Service-Oriented Middleware) and nSOL (nano Semantics-Oriented Language) approaches are presented. Firstly, the nSOM proposal defines a service-oriented platform for the implementation, deployment and exposure of agent-based in-network services to the Internet cloud on heterogeneous sensor devices. Secondly, the nSOL solution enables an abstraction for supporting ubiquitous service composition based on semantic knowledge management. The integration of both contributions leads to the formal modelling and practical development of adaptive virtual sensor services for pervasive Ambient Intelligence ecosystems. This work includes also the related performance characterization of the resulting prototype according to several metrics such as code size, volatile memory footprint, CPU overhead, service time delay and battery lifetime. Main foundations and outcomes presented in this essay are contextualized in the following European Research Projects: μSWN (FP6 code: IST-034642), DiYSE (ITEA2 code: 08005) and LifeWear (ITEA2 code: 09026). -------------------- Presidente: Juan Ramón Velasco Pérez; Vocal: Juan Carlos Dueñas; Secretario: Mario Muñoz Organero

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    Authors: González Esteban, Ángel Luis;

    [eng] This thesis is concerned with the world wheat economy between 1939 and 2010, which may seem somewhat surprising for several reasons. First, the history of wheat is inextricably tied up with the evolution of world agriculture and, as is well-known, the relative importance of agriculture has declined significantly as a consequence of structural change. Second, we are particularly interested in studying the evolution of the international wheat trade, yet it is also well-known that there has been a substantial fall in the share of traditional bulk products, such as wheat, in the international agricultural and food trade over this period. Finally, it is well-documented that, regardless of location, there seems to be a “trading-up” consumption-adjustment pattern as consumers increase their income levels. This means that consumers all over the world tend to substitute high-value animal-protein-rich meat and dairy products for carbohydrate-rich grains such as wheat. Thus, it may seem untimely to write a thesis on something that, one may think, has become less important over time (and presumably will become even more insignificant in the future). There are, however, powerful reasons that justify the relevance of a thorough study of the world wheat economy. The thesis is composed of this introduction, three independent – although deeply interrelated – chapters, and a final summary section. The first chapter explores the major changes experienced in the world wheat market between 1939 and 2010. It looks at the evolution of wheat imports and exports in various groups of countries, identifies major trends, and offers a detailed explanation for those trends. The construction of a theoretical model serves as a vehicle for structuring the discussion: the wheat trade may be explained by looking at the supply and demand trends within those groups of countries, and particular consideration is given to institutional changes. The outlook for the world wheat economy immediately before the Second World War was decidedly gloomy. Trade and prices plummeted during the 1930s and a large number of interventionist measures were undertaken worldwide in order to deal with the so-called "wheat problem". However, the wheat trade today is almost ten times greater than it was in the immediate postwar years and the signs of market disintegration have disappeared. The aim of this chapter is twofold: first, it analyses the reasons behind the extraordinary expansion of the world wheat trade between 1939 and 2010, and second, it explores the main changes in the di6gstribution of wheat exchanges and offers an explanation of those transformations. Major patterns of change in wheat production and consumption in different groups of countries are identified, taking into account such institutional variables as national agricultural policies and their impact on wheat prices, the effect of international agreements, the influence of the international context, and the increasing influence of trading companies. The second chapter is specifically focused on one of the major trends in wheat trade identified in Chapter 1: the increasing concentration of wheat imports in a selected group of developing countries in which wheat consumption prior to World War II was virtually negligible. The growing wheat dependence of low-income countries has often been considered as problematic or even ‘non-desirable’ – as far as food security and economic development strategies are concerned – and it is for this reason that we opted to follow a ‘food regime’ approach. Food regime analysis is concerned with interpreting possibilities and conflicts inherent to the twenty-first century food system in historical terms. This chapter summarizes the theoretical discussion of the food regime method, and of the identification of different 'food regime periods' throughout modern history. While it is widely accepted that the so-called 'second food regime' has already ended, there is much discussion on whether, or not, it is possible to talk about a more recent, third food regime. This Chapter traces the evolution of the 'wheat complex' over the 'second food regime' (1947- 1973) and over the next 45 years, and offers an explanation for the evolution of world wheat trade distribution, based on food regime analysis. Certain authors have claimed that the collapse of the WTO Doha round of negotiations may be understood as a 'hangover' from the second food regime. Similarly, this Chapter argues that the increasing wheat dependence of poor and insecure countries over the last 40 years may be considered as a path-dependence outcome of a process initiated during the second food regime. Chapter 3 is also concerned with identifying the main drivers of the changing patterns in the composition of the world wheat trade. However, rather than analyzing aggregate wheat trade flows, it focuses on the bilateral structure of trade (from 1963 onwards). The estimation of several ‘gravity’ models serves to test the importance of variables such as distance, cultural proximity, and income growth. In contrast with Chapter 2, this is more focused on the ‘economic’ determinants of trade, and therefore pays less attention to the institutional framework in which the wheat trade occurs. However, an effort has been made to test the effect of regional trade agreements, and also that of the inclusion of the wheat trade under the World Trade Organization (WTO) agenda. The results are discussed and interpreted following a cliometric approach that takes into account the major findings of chapters 1 and 2.

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    Authors: Sepúlveda Hernández, Eliezer;

    The work is based on the high-quality ground-based remote sensing Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer for the inversion of precise total column amounts and vertical profiles of different atmospheric trace gases. The thesis is focused on the optimization of the retrieval strategies for the greenhouse gases water vapour and methane. For this purpose the inversion code PROFFIT is applied. The vertical distribution of water vapour and tropospheric methane as derived from our remote sensing measurements are compared against very precise in-situ measurements. Thus, the quality of our retrieved products are documented. These studies have been carry out at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Center (IARC-AEMET), Canary Island, 28.30 N, 16.50 W. Tesis presentada en la Universidad de La Laguna para optar al Grado de Doctor en Física

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    Authors: Emmi, Luis Alfredo;

    Precision Agriculture (PA) aims to the application of selective treatments as well as the use of agricultural inputs depending on the field and crop needs spatially localized. One of the most demanded agricultural work is the effective weed control, to increase productivity while decreasing the usage of polluting chemical products. The incorporation of new positioning technologies (GPS, Laser), acquisition and detection (computer vision) and automatic control adapted for vehicles (tractors) and for agricultural machinery (implements), has established the foundation for the development of PA. Although, only a few cases have achieved a configuration of a fully autonomous agricultural system, and with a minor dimension, a configuration of a fleet of robots for cooperation and for distribution of agricultural tasks. The study presented in this research includes three major contributions oriented to the aforementioned automation. More specifically, this research provides the foundation through the development of a control architecture for the integration of both an autonomous vehicle and an autonomous implement, endowed with the technology required to achieve such autonomy and efficient performance. The first contribution is the development of a simulation environment to study and evaluate the implementation of PA techniques that allows the performance, cooperation and interaction of a group of autonomous robots to be analyzed, while the execution of a specific task is simulated in a three-dimensional world. The second contribution is the development of a proposal of a control architecture to integrate a vehicle equipped with an implement, with the purpose to constitute a fully autonomous agricultural unit able to work cooperatively in a fleet of robots. The third contribution is the integration and validation, in a real crop field, of a perception system (based on computer vision and GPS location), an actuation system (consisting of an autonomous tractor and an autonomous implement for mechanical weed control) and a decision-making system (which is the core of the integration of these elements), all encompassed in the control architecture developed from the perspective of full autonomy. This integration was performed using the selection, management, configuration and synchronization of these systems, providing a model for a fully autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. Successful results of several experiments conducted on real crop fields in differentseasons and under different crop conditions are presented, demonstrating the performance and validity of the integrated proposal in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, and its usefulness and effectiveness. This work is a major advance in the design of mobile units able to work in coordination as a fleet of robots in agricultural tasks, resulting in several publications in various scientific journals and prestigious international conferences in the area of PA. The developments obtained have been a fundamental part in the progress of the RHEA project, demonstrating the ability to configure a fleet of robots for PA applications, having been endorsed by members of the project consortium, as well as positive evaluations of the representatives of the European Union, both technical and management. Tesis Doctoral defendida para la obtención del Título de Grado de Doctor. xx, 213 p. : il., fot., diagr. Fecha de defensa de la Tesis Doctoral: 19 de diciembre de 2014. Calificación: Sobresaliente C. Laude Peer Reviewed

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    E-Prints Complutense
    Doctoral thesis . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa
    Doctoral thesis . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      E-Prints Complutense
      Doctoral thesis . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa
      Doctoral thesis . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Romero, Adriana;

    [eng] Deep learning has recently been enjoying an increasing popularity due to its success in solving challenging tasks. In particular, deep learning has proven to be effective in a large variety of computer vision tasks, such as image classification, object recognition and image parsing. Contrary to previous research, which required engineered feature representations, designed by experts, in order to succeed, deep learning attempts to learn representation hierarchies automatically from data. More recently, the trend has been to go deeper with representation hierarchies. Learning (very) deep representation hierarchies is a challenging task, which involves the optimization of highly non- convex functions. Therefore, the search for algorithms to ease the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies from data is extensive and ongoing. In this thesis, we tackle the challenging problem of easing the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies. We present a hyper-parameter free, off-the-shelf, simple and fast unsupervised algorithm to discover hidden structure from the input data by enforcing a very strong form of sparsity. We study the applicability and potential of the algorithm to learn representations of varying depth in a handful of applications and domains, highlighting the ability of the algorithm to provide discriminative feature representations that are able to achieve top performance. Yet, while emphasizing the great value of unsupervised learning methods when labeled data is scarce, the recent industrial success of deep learning has revolved around supervised learning. Supervised learning is currently the focus of many recent research advances, which have shown to excel at many computer vision tasks. Top performing systems often involve very large and deep models, which are not well suited for applications with time or memory limitations. More in line with the current trends, we engage in making top performing models more efficient, by designing very deep and thin models. Since training such very deep models still appears to be a challenging task, we introduce a novel algorithm that guides the training of very thin and deep models by hinting their intermediate representations. Very deep and thin models trained by the proposed algorithm end up extracting feature representations that are comparable or even better performing than the ones extracted by large state-of-the-art models, while compellingly reducing the time and memory consumption of the model.

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    Authors: Férriz Núñez, Macarena;

    El aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico [CO2] como consecuencia de las emisiones antropogénicas lleva asociado un aumento en la temperatura media del planeta. La cuenca mediterránea es particularmente sensible a perturbaciones más intensas debido a una mayor aridez y al legado de usos de suelo que ha modificado notablemente los paisajes actuales. En este contexto de cambio global, estudiamos el decaimiento y las dinámicas de regeneración de tres especies de coníferas mediterráneas con diferente tolerancia a la sequía Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Capítulo 2). Comparamos los patrones de crecimiento y la respuesta al clima de individuos con diferente estado de salud: sanos (las tres especies), en decaimiento (sólo P. pinaster) y muertos (P. pinaster y P. pinea). La actual especie dominante, P. pinaster, muestra claros signos de decaimiento -definido por alta defoliación e infección de muérdago- y mortalidad, con escasa regeneración, siendo reemplazada por regeneración de otras especies más tolerantes a la sequía como Quercus ilex, P. pinea y J, oxycedrus. Desde los años 80, los eventos de sequía han sido más frecuentes y severos en la zona, habiendo incitado el decaimiento en P. pinaster pero no en las otras especies acompañantes. Los individuos no-sanos de P. pinaster mostraron una reducción en el crecimiento desde 1995, mientras que en los individuos muertos de P. pinea este declive comenzó en 2005. La supervivencia de P. pinaster en la zona estaba relacionada con una mayor sensibilidad a la precipitación de primavera y a sitios con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que la supervivencia de P. pinea estaba principalmente relacionada con un mayor diámetro del árbol. En el Capítulo 3, seleccionamos 5 árboles de cada estado de salud y especie y estudiamos la anatomía del xilema y la discriminación isotópica de carbono (13C) en anillos de crecimiento. Las dos especies de pinos mostraron traqueidas más grandes y una mayor plasticidad del xilema en respuesta a la variabilidad climática que J. oxycedrus. Los caracteres anatómicos se diferenciaron entre estados de salud en P. pinaster y P. pinea. Los individuos sanos tenían mayor área de lumen en la madera temprana y paredes celulares más gruesas en la madera tardía que los individuos no-sanos, junto con mayor plasticidad en el xilema frente al clima, lo que les permitió ajustar sus caracteres anatómicos para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema durante eventos de sequía. La habilidad de mantener un xilema competitivo y plástico es crucial para conseguir ratios productivos en escenarios de cambio climático. Nuestro estudio reveló que los pinos muertos y en decaimiento tenían valores similares de 13C que los árboles sanos, lo que sugiere que los pinos no-sanos ejercen un menor control estomático que debería maximizar la tasa fotosintética y aumentar el transporte de agua hacia la copa para compensar por la pérdida excesiva de agua. Los resultados de los Capítulos 2 y 3 sugieren que a pesar del decaimiento general observado en P. pinaster en el área, los individuos sanos de esta especie pueden sobrevivir en áreas con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que en el resto del paisaje serán eventualmente sustituidos por especies más tolerantes a la sequía como P. pinea y J. oxycedrus. Además, los patrones de regeneración en la zona revelaron que tanto el estrés hídrico como el legado de usos de suelo limitan el establecimiento de regenerado de P. pinaster en comparación con la más abundante regeneración que presentan P. pinea, J, oxycedrus y Q. ilex. Debido a que los cambios de distribución de las especies están determinados en última instancia por el regenerado, comprender el efecto combinado de altas concentraciones de [CO2] y el estrés hídrico es fundamental para pronosticar futuros cambios en el paisaje e identificar qué especies prevalecerán en estos nuevos escenarios. Por ello en el Capítulo 4, analizamos cómo el enriquecimiento con [CO2] puede mitigar los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico en plántulas de dos especies de pino mediterráneas P. pinaster y P. pinea. En cámaras de crecimiento, testamos los efectos de dos concentraciones de [CO2]: a[CO2] (380 ppm) y e[CO2] (800 ppm) y dos regímenes de riego. En condiciones de e[CO2], ambas especies aumentaron la biomasa total, WUE (el uso en la eficiencia del agua a nivel de toda la planta) y WUEi (uso en la eficiencia del agua intrínseco) en comparación con valores medidos en condiciones de a[CO2]. El aumento de WUEi bajo condiciones de alto [CO2] se debió a una reducción en la conductancia estomática y a un aumento de la tasa fotosintética. Sin embargo, encontramos diferencias en los ajustes funcionales al e[CO2] y estrés hídrico en las dos especies. P. pinea mostró una mayor tasa fotosintética y menores potenciales hídricos al amanecer (amanecer) y al mediodía (mediodía,) mostrando que esta especie tiene un comportamiento más anisohídrico que P. pinaster, el cual mantuvo una estrategia más isohídrica y de mayor ahorro de agua mediante un mayor control estomático, invirtiendo más en el desarrollo de la raíz que P. pinea. Además, en el Capítulo 5 estudiamos los ajustes en la anatomía del xilema y en el sistema hidráulico de las plántulas en estas condiciones de e[CO2] alto y estrés hídrico. El estrés hídrico indujo una menor producción de acículas en P. pinaster para minimizar la pérdida de agua. Por otro lado P. pinea mostró una mayor plasticidad en el xilema mediante la reducción del tamaño del lumen para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema ante estrés hídrico. Aunque ambas estrategias pueden ser efectivas a la hora de minimizar transpiración y mantener la seguridad en el xilema, reducir el área foliar puede comprometer la tasa fotosintética a largo plazo, perjudicando la habilidad del individuo para competir. Por el contrario, una mayor plasticidad en el xilema en P. pinea permitiría a los árboles adaptar su crecimiento y estructura a las condiciones ambientales y optimizar el uso de recursos disponibles manteniendo una mayor área foliar activa (es decir, el aparato fotosintético). Altas concentraciones de [CO2] redujeron la conductancia específica de la hoja en ambas especies de pino, probablemente mediante menor conductancia estomática. El aumento en el número de traqueidas en el xilema P. pinea le permite construir un xilema más seguro a la vez que compensa un menor tamaño de traqueidas bajo estrés hídrico. Por tanto, nuestros resultados sugieren que un aumento de [CO2] beneficiará de forma diferente a las dos especies estudiadas, aun asumiendo que ambas pertenecen al mismo grupo funcional. El enriquecimiento en [CO2] beneficiará más a P. pinea que a P. pinaster bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, debido a que P. pinea puede mantener la conductividad hidráulica con un xilema más resistente a la cavitación. Si extrapolamos nuestros resultados a condiciones naturales y en particular a los escenarios climáticos esperados en el futuro, podemos concluir que la mayor tolerancia a la sequía expresada por P. pinea hará que esta especie prevalezca frente a P. pinaster en ambientes futuros con mayor aridez y mayor concentración de [CO2]. ----------ABSTRACT---------- Rising CO2 atmospheric concentration ([CO2]) as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions is driving an increase in the average temperature of the planet. The Mediterranean basin is particularly sensitive to more intense disturbances due to aridification and land-use legacies that have strongly shaped the current landscapes in the Region. In this context of global change, we studied the decline and regeneration dynamics of three co-occurring Mediterranean coniferous species of different drought tolerance: Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Chapter 2). We compared the growth patterns and climatic response of trees with different health status: healthy (for the three species), declining (only P. pinaster) and dead (P. pinaster and P. pinea). The currently dominant species, P. pinaster, shows extensive signs of decline -assessed by high canopy defoliation and mistletoe infection- and mortality. In addition, the species presents scarce regeneration, whereas it is being replaced by Quercus ilex, P. pinea and J. oxycedrus, with more abundant regeneration and abundance in juvenile stages. Since the 1980s, more frequent and severe drought events have occurred, inciting tree growth decline in dead and non-healthy pine trees, but with differences between species. Non-healthy individuals of P. pinaster exhibited negative growth trends since 1995. In dead P. pinea trees, the growth decline started later since 2005. P. pinaster survival in the study area was linked to a higher sensitivity to spring precipitation and was concentrated in sites with higher moisture availability, while P. pinea survival was higher in trees with larger diameters. In Chapter 3, we selected 5 individuals from each status and species and studied the xylem anatomical traits and carbon isotopic discrimination (13C) in annual tree-rings. Pine trees exhibited larger tracheids and higher xylem plasticity to climate variability than J. oxycedrus. Xylem traits differed between different health status in Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea. Healthy pine trees had bigger lumen sizes in the earlywood and thicker cell walls in the latewood than non-healthy trees, along with expressing a higher xylem plasticity to climate. This xylem plasticity allowed P. pinea to adjust their xylem characteristics to increase cell safety during drought events. The ability to maintain a competitive yet plastic xylem structure is crucial to sustain productivity rates under more xeric, climate change scenarios. Our study revealed that non-healthy pines (i.e. declining and dead pine trees) and healthy trees exhibited similar 13C, which suggests that non-healthy pine trees had low stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis and increase water transport to the crown to compensate for the excessive water loss. Results from Chapters 2 and 3 suggest that despite the general species decline (i.e. high mortality, canopy defoliation, mistletoe infection) observed in P. pinaster in the area, healthy individuals of this species are performing well in sites with higher moisture availability, while in soils with less moisture availability in the area it can be eventually replaced by more drought-tolerant P. pinea, J. oxycedrus and Q. ilex. Regeneration patterns in the area revealed that water stress along with land-use legacies are limiting P. pinaster establishment in comparison to more abundant regeneration of these three more drought-tolerant co-occurring taxa. Since species distribution shift is ultimately driven by regeneration success, understanding the combined effect of enriched [CO2] and water stress on seedlings is crucial to forecast future changes in the landscape and identify which species will prevail in these new scenarios. Therefore, in Chapter 4, we characterized how elevated [CO2] can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on seedlings of the two Mediterranean pine species P. pinaster and P. pinea. In growth chambers, we tested the effects of two [CO2] treatments: a[CO2] (380 ppm) and e[CO2] (800 ppm) and two water regimes. Under e[CO2], both species increased total biomass, WUE (whole-plant water use efficiency) and WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) in comparison to measured values in a[CO2]. Increases in WUEi under high [CO2] were both due to reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic rates. However, we also found differences in the functional adjustment to elevated [CO2] and water stress of the two species. P. pinea exhibited higher photosynthetic rates and lower water potential, both predawn and midday, suggesting that this species follows a more anisohydric behaviour than P. pinaster, which in contrast maintained a more isohydric, water-saving strategy and invested more in root development than P. pinea. In addition, in Chapter 5 we studied the xylem anatomical adjustments and hydraulic performance of seedlings under e[CO2] and water stress. Water shortage induced a reduction in P. pinaster leaf production to minimise water loss, while P. pinea exhibited a higher xylem plasticity, particularly by reducing lumen size to increase xylem safety. Although both strategies can be effective in minimising transpiration and maintaining xylem safety, reducing leaf area may compromise photosynthetic rates in the long-term, worsening plant ability to compete. In contrast, higher xylem plasticity in P. pinea would allow trees to adapt growth and structure to environmental conditions and to optimise the use of available resources by keeping a greater active leaf area (i.e., photosynthetic apparatus) under water stress. Elevated [CO2] reduced leaf specific conductivity in both pine species, which was probably linked to lower stomatal conductance. The increased in the number of tracheids in P. pinea xylem allowed it to develop a safer xylem that compensated for smaller tracheids under water stress. Thus, our results suggest that rising [CO2] will differently benefit the two studied species, even if they are assumed to belong to the same functional type. [CO2] enrichment will benefit more P. pinea under water stress than P. pinaster, since P. pinea can maintain hydraulic conductivity with a greater xylem resistance to cavitation. If our results hold for natural conditions, we can conclude that due to the higher drought tolerance expressed by P. pinea in comparison to P. pinaster, the former species will prevail under future more xeric and enriched [CO2] environments, particularly where these two species form mixed stands today.

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    https://doi.org/10.20868/upm.t...
    Thesis . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.20868/upm.t...
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    Authors: Becerra Ortiz, Jairo Andrés;

    La Teledetecció de la Terra des de l'espai exterior ofereix grans possibilitats de desenvolupament per a la humanitat. Les dades obtingudes per satèl·lits són decisives en la predicció del clima, la prevenció de desastres naturals o l'ordenament territorial de les ciutats. És per això que tots els Estats haurien de tenir un marc legal que permeti desenvolupar aquests avenços tecnològics que impacten de manera directa el seu progrés. Aquesta investigació fa un estudi de la regulació a nivell internacional i nacional de la teledetecció de la Terra; la investigació aporta, així mateix, una anàlisi dels drets d'obtenció, accés i ús de dades espacials; a més, pot servir d'orientació a l'hora de desenvolupar polítiques que facilitin el desenvolupament espacial en països emergents. Finalment, fa una proposta que pot afavorir la implementació de la teledetecció de la Terra a Colòmbia, amb la creació d'una llei d'Activitats Espacials. La Teleobservación de la Tierra desde el espacio exterior ofrece grandes posibilidades de desarrollo para la humanidad. Los datos obtenidos por satélites son decisivos en la predicción del clima, la prevención de desastres naturales o el ordenamiento territorial de las ciudades. Es por esto, que todos los Estados deberían poseer un marco legal que permita desarrollar estos adelantos tecnológicos que impactan de manera directa su progreso. Esta investigación realiza un estudio de la regulación a nivel internacional y nacional de la Teleobservación de la Tierra; un análisis de los derechos de obtención, acceso y uso de datos espaciales; y las políticas que hacen posible el desarrollo espacial en países emergentes. Finalmente, hace una propuesta que puede hacer posible la implementación de la Teleobservación de la Tierra en Colombia, con la creación de una ley de Actividades Espaciales. Remote sensing of earth from outer space offers grand development possibilities for humankind. The data obtained by satellites provide decisive information with respect to weather prediction, natural disaster prevention, and urban planning. For these reasons, each state should possess a legal framework that allows the development of these technological advances, which in turn will directly impact the progress of such state. This research constitutes a study of the regulation, on both an international and national level, regarding remote sensing of earth, including an analysis of (i) the rights to gather, access and use such data collected from space and (ii) the policies that encourage space development in emerging countries. Finally, this article proposes a framework through which to implement remote sensing of Colombia: the creation of the Space Activities Act. Programa de Doctorat en Dret i Ciència Política

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    Authors: Lebuy Castillo, Roxana del Carmen;

    Esta investigación estudia la evolución del paisaje bajo un enfoque geosistémico, lo que representa una visión integral que entiende el paisaje como un todo, e incluye los principales los elementos que lo componen, tales como físicos, biológicos y culturales, además de las relaciones e interacciones entre de cada uno de estos elementos, y su dinámica evolutiva, que en combinación dan como resultado el paisaje actual. El paisaje en estudio correspondió al Parque Nacional La Campana (PNLC), y además incluyó al poblado de Quebrada Alvarado de la Región de Valparaíso, y al poblado de Caleu de la Región Metropolitana. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el dinamismo del paisaje a través del estudio evolutivo de sus elementos desde el año 1200 a 2015. Para dar cumplimiento a los objetivos, y sobre todo para mantener el enfoque geosistémico, se desarrolló una metodología en dos fases: la primera fase consistió en la realización de inventario analítico de los elementos del paisaje, y la segunda fase consistió en la interpretación y la complementación de los resultados de fase anterior. Además, el desarrollo de la metodología permitió comprender el estado del paisaje actual como el resultado de interacciones históricas, y proyectar el paisaje futuro en base a la proyección de estas interacciones. Producto del estudio se pudo determinar que el paisaje presenta una gran singularidad, caracterizado por las irregularidades de las geoformas, y por las condiciones climáticas especiales del área, lo que posibilita la creación de sistemas naturales muy diversos. Estos sistemas sustentan una riqueza florística de composición mixta y endémica, y que ha sido reconocida a nivel mundial como una de las principales ecorregiones de diversidad. Debido a lo anterior, es que en el año 1984 el área de estudio fue declarada Reserva de la Biosfera. Uno de los principales resultados fue establecer que existen áreas con alto grado de naturalidad y fragilidad, las que se encuentran al interior y en los sectores próximos al PNLC. Estas áreas se localizan principalmente en las serranías con baja radiación solar, las que mantienen los mayores valores de vigorosidad de la vegetación, y además presentan los valores más altos de calidad visual. Por otra parte, se determinó que los paisajes con morfología regular se encuentran altamente fragmentados, en comparación con los paisajes irregulares o con alta rugosidad, posiblemente porque estos últimos se encuentran alejados de la población rural, y/o presentan dificultad en el acceso. También se determinó que existen grandes perturbaciones en el paisaje cuando cualquier elemento de la urbanidad se incorpora al paisaje, y que estas perturbaciones han aumentado en los últimos años debido a la tendencia a habitar las áreas con alto grado de naturalidad. En cuanto a la evolución del paisaje, se detectó que la vegetación es el elemento más perturbado del paisaje, y además es el elemento que tiene mayor protagonismo en los relatos obtenidos con los datos proxy. Finalmente, se determinó que las mayores perturbaciones se han producido desde la época colonial, y han ido fragmentando al paisaje natural en la medida que se fueron explotando los recursos naturales del lugar. Sin embargo, a contar del año 2000 estas perturbaciones han afectado mayormente a la vegetación, debido al aumento de las parcelas de agrado que han derribado los límites agrícolas históricos, y han avanzado hacia las serranías en busca de naturaleza y tranquilidad, poniendo en riesgo los últimos parches de vegetación del bosque esclerófilo en el paisaje del PNLC.  This study investigated landscape evolution under the geosystemic approach. This mode represents an integral vision that understands the landscape as a whole and includes the main physical, biological and cultural elements that compose it. Additionally, it includes factors like the relations and interactions between each of these elements and their evolutionary dynamics, which in combination result in the existing landscape. The landscape studied corresponded to the National Park “La Campana” (NPLC) and also included the town of Quebrada Alvarado in the Valparaíso Region, as well as the town of Caleu in the Metropolitan Region. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the dynamism of the landscape through evolutionary study of its elements from 1200 to 2015. To achieve the objective, and mainly to maintain the geosystemic approach, a two-phase methodology was developed: the first phase sought to accomplish the analytical inventory of the landscape elements, and the second one allowed interpreting and complementing the results from the previous phase. Moreover, the development of the methodology allowed understanding the state of the existing landscape as the result of historical interactions, and to project the future landscape on the basis of the projection of these interactions. Due to the study, it could be determined that the landscape presents great singularity, characterized by the irregularities of geoforms and special climatic conditions of the area, which foment the creation of highly diverse natural systems. These systems sustain a floristic richness of mixed and endemic composition that has been recognized world-wide as one of the main eco-regions of diversity. Thus, the study area was declared Reserve of the Biosphere in 1984. One of the main results was to establish that areas with high degree of naturalness and fragility exist, mainly to the interior and in adjacent sectors of the NPLC. These areas are located principally in the mountainous regions with low solar radiation, maintain the highest values of vegetational vigor, and in addition display values of upper visual quality. On the other hand, it was determined that landscapes with regular morphology are highly fragmented in comparison with irregular landscapes or high rugosity, possibly because these latter ones are remote from the rural population, and/or are difficult to access. It was further determined that great disturbances in the landscape exist when any urban element is incorporated into it. Such disturbances have increased in recent years, due to the tendency to inhabit areas with a high degree of naturalness. Regarding the evolution of the landscape, it was found that vegetation is the most disturbed element of the landscape, but also one of the greatest protagonists in the stories obtained via proxy data. Finally, it emerged that the greatest disturbances have taken place from the colonial time onward. They have been fragmenting the natural landscape as the degree of natural resources exploitation of the place deepened. Nevertheless, from the year 2000 on these disturbances have affected mainly vegetation, due to the increase of pleasentness parcels that have demolished historical agricultural limits and have advanced toward the mountainous areas in search of nature and tranquility, thus putting at risk the last patches of vegetation of the sclerophyllous forest in the landscape of the NPLC. Programa de Doctorat en Geografia, Planificació Territorial i Gestió Ambiental

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