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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Her...

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  • Authors: Martone, Lisa;

    Beginning in the 1880s, foresters around the world faced problems such as forest fires, pest infestations, and the shrinking of timber resources. This stimulated the intensification of research activities on forest environments and brought about a large-scale globalization of forestry science. Distinct scientific spaces and specific competencies emerged from a transnational dialogue characterized by exchanges and appropriations, but also by scientific disputes shaped by a variety of approaches towards nature and landscapes, as well as confrontations with complex forest environments.This thesis retraces the ways in which forestry knowledge and practices circulated in eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick), at the crossroad between European and American influences, from the 1880s to the 1940s. It sheds light on the forces that contributed to their transformation into a transatlantic science, as well as on the process of blending theories and practices on the ground. Studying the development over time of the science of forestry in eastern Canada uncovers the reasons behind the importation of foreign forestry practices on the Canadian soil, but also the economic, cultural, and ideological limits of those transfers. More broadly, it contributes to the literature examining the ways sciences evolve, the manner in which they are constructed, and their geographic contingencies. In the first half of the 20th century, eastern Canadian forestry emerged as a hybrid discipline pursuing its own economic and scientific agenda. It selected from various external sources the elements it judged relevant and combined them with methods developed on its own soil.; À partir des années 1880, les problèmes rencontrés par les forestiers sur l’ensemble du globe (feux de forêts, invasions d'insectes, raréfaction des ressources ligneuses) stimulèrent une intense production de savoirs sur les environnements forestiers et suscitèrent une vaste internationalisation des sciences forestières. Les échanges, les emprunts, mais aussi les polémiques scientifiques entre forestiers, occasionnées par des rapports à la nature et au territoire divers, et par la confrontation avec des environnements forestiers complexes, tissèrent la trame d’un dialogue transnational par le biais duquel se fabriquèrent des "territoires scientifiques" propres, et des compétences particulières. En retraçant la circulation des connaissances et des pratiques forestières dans l’est du Canada (Québec, Ontario, et Nouveau-Brunswick) entre les années 1880 et 1940, à la croisée des influences européenne et nord- américaine, ce travail de recherche met en lumière les dynamiques de mise en science de la nature à l’échelle transatlantique, mais aussi le processus d’hybridation des théories et des pratiques au niveau local. L’étude diachronique du développement de la foresterie dans les provinces de l’est du Canada révèle en effet les motivations mais aussi les limites économiques, culturelles, et écologiques des transferts de pratiques forestières héxogènes sur le territoire canadien, et contribue plus largement aux travaux portant sur la dynamique des sciences, sur la manière dont elles se construisent, ainsi que sur leur « géographie variable ». Au cours du premier XXème siècle, la foresterie de l’Est du Canada s’affirma en effet comme une science forestière hybride suivant son propre agenda économique et scientifique, sélectionnant à diverses sources extérieures les apports jugés pertinents, et les combinant avec les méthodes développées sur son propre terrain.

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    Authors: Haalboom, A.F.;

    This history studies how the domains of public health and agriculture have negotiated control over livestock-associated zoonoses in the Netherlands during the twentieth century, and how the disciplines of veterinary medicine and medicine have related to one another in this broader context. Four case-studies of dealings with particular livestock-associated zoonoses in a particular period form the body of the thesis: bovine tuberculosis (1898-1956), influenza (1918-1957), salmonellosis (1951-1978) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1988-2001). These examples of livestock-associated zoonoses have been studied using a wide variety of primary sources, like archival documents, scientific journals, newspapers, and interviews.

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  • Authors: Vanhoey, Kenneth;

    Vision and computer graphics communities have built methods for digitizing, processing and rendering 3D objects. There is an increasing demand coming from cultural communities for these technologies, especially for archiving, remote studying and restoring cultural artefacts like statues, buildings or caves. Besides digitizing geometry, there can be a demand for recovering the photometry with more or less complexity : simple textures (2D), light fields (4D), SV-BRDF (6D), etc. In this thesis, we present steady solutions for constructing and treating surface light fields represented by hemispherical radiance functions attached to the surface in real-world on-site conditions. First, we tackle the algorithmic reconstruction-phase of defining these functions based on photographic acquisitions from several viewpoints in real-world "on-site" conditions. That is, the photographic sampling may be unstructured and very sparse or noisy. We propose a process for deducing functions in a manner that is robust and generates a surface light field that may vary from "expected" and artefact-less to high quality, depending on the uncontrolled conditions. Secondly, a mesh simplification algorithm is guided by a new metric that measures quality loss both in terms of geometry and radiance. Finally, we propose a GPU-compatible radiance interpolation algorithm that allows for coherent radiance interpolation over the mesh. This generates a smooth visualisation of the surface light field, even for poorly tessellated meshes. This is particularly suited for very simplified models.; Depuis quelques décennies, les communautés d'informatique graphique et de vision ont contribué à l'émergence de technologies permettant la numérisation d'objets 3D. Une demande grandissante pour ces technologies vient des acteurs de la culture, notamment pour l'archivage, l'étude à distance et la restauration d'objets du patrimoine culturel : statuettes, grottes et bâtiments par exemple. En plus de la géométrie, il peut être intéressant de numériser la photométrie avec plus ou moins de détail : simple texture (2D), champ de lumière (4D), SV-BRDF (6D), etc. Nous formulons des solutions concrètes pour la création et le traitement de champs de lumière surfaciques représentés par des fonctions de radiance attachés à la surface.Nous traitons le problème de la phase de construction de ces fonctions à partir de plusieurs prises de vue de l'objet dans des conditions sur site : échantillonnage non structuré voire peu dense et bruité. Un procédé permettant une reconstruction robuste générant un champ de lumière surfacique variant de prévisible et sans artefacts à excellente, notamment en fonction des conditions d'échantillonnage, est proposé. Ensuite, nous suggérons un algorithme de simplification permettant de réduire la complexité mémoire et calculatoire de ces modèles parfois lourds. Pour cela, nous introduisons une métrique qui mesure conjointement la dégradation de la géométrie et de la radiance. Finalement, un algorithme d'interpolation de fonctions de radiance est proposé afin de servir une visualisation lisse et naturelle, peu sensible à la densité spatiale des fonctions. Cette visualisation est particulièrement bénéfique lorsque le modèle est simplifié.

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    Authors: Öztemiz, Semanur;

    Kültürel miras; toplumların bilgi ve deneyimleri sonucunda oluşan ve çeşitli yollarla korunarak sonraki nesillere aktarılan fiziksel ya da soyut ürünlerdir. Folklor, gelenekler, bilgi, vb. ürünler kültürel mirasın soyut yönünü; bina, anıt, kitap, sanat çalışmaları gibi eserler ise somut yönünü oluşturmaktadır. Bu eserleri toplamak, düzenlemek, korumak, erişilebilir ve kullanılabilir olmasını sağlamak, kütüphane, arşiv ve müze gibi kültürel örgütlerin temel işlevleri arasında yer alır. 20. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren hızla gelişen teknolojilerin etkisiyle iç içe geçen bu örgütler, `kültürel bellek kurumları` kavramı altında bir arada anılmaya başlamışlardır. Bilgiye zaman, donanım, mekân, ücret gibi sınırlamalardan bağımsız erişim, çağın bu kurumlar için gerektirdiği hizmet anlayışının en temel karakteristikleri arasında yerini almıştır. Bu anlayışın gerçekleştirilmesi, kültürel bellek kurumlarının dijital kapılarını aralamaları ve web ortamında görünürlüklerini artırmaları ile olanaklı hale gelmektedir. Anılan koşullar, kültürel bellek kurumları için açık erişimin sunduğu çözümsel yaklaşımları ön plana çıkarmaktadır. Dijital kültürel miras ürünlerine engelsiz erişimle ilgili süreci içeren açık erişim, kültürel bellek kurumlarının bilgi erişim işlevlerini günün gereklerine uygun bir biçimde gerçekleştirmelerinin yanı sıra başka pek çok açıdan yarar sağlayıcıdır. Tarihi hakkında bilinçli, kültürü evrensel değerlerle beslenen ve zenginleşen bir toplum yapısının oluşumuna katkı sağlamak söz konusu yararın toplumsal boyutuna verilebilecek örnekler arasındadır. Kültürel mirasa açık erişim, esinlenme/ilham alma gibi dürtülerin gelişmesinde teşvik edici bir rol üstlenerek yenilikçi ve yaratıcı girişimlerin önünü açar. Bu durum bireysel ya da tüzel kazançların ötesinde ulusal ekonominin gelişmesine de destek olabilir. Açık erişim, kültürel bellek kurumlarının webde keşfedilebilirliğini artırırken, yenilikçi uygulamalarda öncü olduklarının da göstergeleri arasında yer alır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle, Türkiye'de dijitalleştirme uygulamalarında bulunan kamuya bağlı bazı kültürel bellek kurumlarında açık erişim uygulamalarına yönelik mevcut durum ve eğilimi ortaya koymak amacıyla bir araştırma yapılmıştır. araştırma verilerinin elde edilmesinde kullanılan anket, belirlenen kamuya bağlı kültürel bellek kurumlarında, açık erişim sürecini yönetmesi beklenen kimselere ya da karar verici konumda bulunan yetkililere uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler üzerinde herhangi bir istatistiksel test yapılmamakla birlikte, frekans dağılım tablolarına dayalı bulguların bazı araştırma hipotezlerini destekleyici nitelikte olduğu saptanmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında ayrıca, örnekleme alınan kurumlar çerçevesinde açık erişim arşivlerinin kayıtlı olduğu uluslararası kütükler taranmış, kültürel bellek kurumlarının büyük çoğunluğunun irdelenen kütüklerde yer almadığı tespit edilmiştir. Bir başka inceleme dijital kayıtların uluslararası standartlara uyumlu olup olmadığını belirlemek amacıyla örnekleme alınan kurumların web siteleri üzerinde yapılmıştır. Buna göre dijitalleştirilen kültürel miras ürünlerinin standartlardan oldukça uzak ve son derece yetersiz öğelerle tanımlandıkları, uzun uğraşlar gerektiren üyelik ve ücret ödeme süreçlerinden sonra erişilebilir oldukları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Sonraki aşamada, Türkiye'de dijitalleştirilen kültürel mirasa açık erişim sağlanmasıyla ilgili sürecin ideal işleyişine yönelik bir öneri niteliği taşıyan `Dijitalleştirilen kültürel mirasa açık erişim kavramsal modeli`ne yer verilmiştir. Kültürel miras ürünlerinin dijitalleştirme aşaması ve erişim süreçleri üzerine odaklanılarak hazırlanan modelin kamuya bağlı kültürel bellek kurumlarında açık erişimle ilgili gereksinim duyulan rehber görevini gerçekleştirmesi ve toplumun ortak hafızası sayılan kültürel mirasa erişim engellerinin ortadan kaldırılmasına katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir. Cultural heritage; is the combination of intangible and tangible products originated from society's knowledge and experiences which are adapted to next generations in various ways of preservation. While outputs of folklore, traditions and knowledge etc. constitute intangible sides of cultural heritage; achievements of building, monument, book and artworks constitute tangible sides of cultural heritage. Gathering, editing, preserving and making accessible and useful those achievements are amongst the major functions of cultural organizations like library, archive and museums. Organizations which have been engaged by the effect of rapidly improved technology from the beginning of 20th century's second half, are referred together under the concept of `cultural memory institutions`. Access to knowledge independent from limitations like time, hardware, place and price, gained a place among the basic characteristics of service mentality required by the necessities of the time. This mentality becomes reality by cultural memory institutions to open their digital doors and increase their apparency on web. Abovementioned conditions feature analytical approaches which are provided by open access for cultural memory institutions.Containing the process regarding the free access to digital cultural heritage products, the open access is beneficial in several ways, besides performing information retrieval of cultural memory institutions in accordance with the modern day's needs. Contribution to generation of society structure which is aware of its history while feeding and enriching its culture with universal morals, can be considered within the scope of abovementioned benefit, as an example for the common interest. Open access to cultural heritage leads up the innovative and creative initiatives by acting an encouraging role for improvement of motivations like inspiration. This may also support development of national economy, beyond the individual or corporate earnings. While open access increases the visibility of cultural memory institutions' discoverability on web, it also indicates an institute remains one of the most pioneers of innovative applications. This study is primarily intended to set forth the tendency and the current situation of digitalization applications in Turkey, devoted to open access applications in state owned cultural memory institutions. Research data is gathered by survey method; in this context the survey is applied to highly represent state owned cultural memory institutions. Even though there are no statistical tests made using gathered data, it's determined based on frequency distribution tables that findings support some research hypothesis. Under the study, within the scope of sampling institutions, international logs containing registered open access archives are searched and it's determined that a great majority of cultural memory institutions do not exist in those logs. Another research is performed on web sites of sampling institutions, in order to determine whether digital records are in accordance with international standards. Accordingly, it's reached that cultural heritage outputs are identified well beyond the standards by extremely ineligible elements, and this outputs are only available to open access upon effortful membership and payment processes.In the next phase, `Open access conceptual model to digitized cultural heritage` is taken a place, which is generated as the ultimate objective of the study and an offer devoted to ideal functioning of the process with regard to providing open access to digitized cultural heritage in Turkey. It's expected that the model, which is prepared focusing on next phases of digitalization of cultural heritage outputs, will make a contribution in eliminating obstacles on the access to society's common memory, cultural heritage, and take on the task for guidance about open access which is in need of in state owned cultural memory institutions. 150

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    This history studies how the domains of public health and agriculture have negotiated control over livestock-associated zoonoses in the Netherlands during the twentieth century, and how the disciplines of veterinary medicine and medicine have related to one another in this broader context. Four case-studies of dealings with particular livestock-associated zoonoses in a particular period form the body of the thesis: bovine tuberculosis (1898-1956), influenza (1918-1957), salmonellosis (1951-1978) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1988-2001). These examples of livestock-associated zoonoses have been studied using a wide variety of primary sources, like archival documents, scientific journals, newspapers, and interviews.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2017
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  • Authors: Leu, Philipp;

    To work on digitized reviews today means essentially to be confronted with artefacts. Digitized in black and white, stripped of their covers, of blank pages, of inserts, advertisements, bulletins and other supplements, digital reproductions of reviews often differ greatly from the originals, especially when the electronic files have been based on previous reproductions (microforms or reprints). Our work evolves around a question of method: what principles should be followed in digitizing literature and art reviews from the end of the 19th century, in order to preserve the subtle harmony between form and content when the medium is no longer hard copy?Literature and art reviews participate in literary communication at the intersection of hybrid editorial traditions. Their matrix oscillates between newspapers, books, art albums and reviews, utilising the characteristics of these four media. We have chosen four periodicals to represent them: the French reviews La Plume (1889–1914) and L’Épreuve (1894–1895), the British quarterly The Yellow Book (1894–1897), and the Berlin periodical Pan (1895–1900). These publications articulate the different characteristics of reviews in three cultural contexts, allowing us to explore their specificities as well as the financial aspects linked to their development, in close interaction with literary and artistic social life and aesthetic doctrines. As case studies, these bear on an analysis of the materiality, of the financial and editorial practices of late 19th century reviews while questioning the historical, cultural and sociological implications of these objects.Degraded and fragile through years of use, these reviews, catalysts of textual and graphic innovation, are in urgent need of dematerialisation so as to remain accessible for future research. Close examination of six digital libraries (Gallica, the digital library of Heidelberg University, Internet Archive, The Yellow Nineties Online, the Blue Mountain Project, and Jugend Wochenschrift) underlines that digitization is in no way a neutral operation and must constantly be accompanied by scientific validation with a view to developing recommendations and "good practices".Besides technical questions of primary importance, this thesis’ focus is on digitization procedures, aiming at both optimal restitution of the originals and functional interfaces that provide the researcher with new heuristic tools, through innovative technologies, in the service of our cultural heritage.; Travailler aujourd’hui sur un fonds numérique de revues c’est être confronté à des artefacts. Numérisées en noir et blanc, débarrassées de leurs couvertures, des pages vierges, des encarts, des publicités, des bulletins et hors-texte divers, les revues numérisées offrent souvent une physionomie très différente des documents originaux, surtout quand les fichiers numériques ont été produits à partir de reproductions antérieures (réimpressions ou microformes). Le présent travail tourne autour d’une question de méthode : quels sont les principes à retenir pour la numérisation des revues littéraires et artistiques de la fin du xixe siècle afin que l’accord subtil entre forme et contenu ne soit pas rompu lorsque les supports sont dématérialisés ?La revue littéraire et artistique s’inscrit dans la communication littéraire au croisement de traditions éditoriales hybrides. Sa matrice oscille entre le journal, le livre, l’album d’art et la revue, mobilisant et exploitant les caractéristiques de ces quatre référents. Ces référents sont ici représentés à travers un corpus de quatre périodiques : les revues françaises La Plume (1889–1914) et L’Épreuve (1894–1895), le trimestriel britannique The Yellow Book (1894–1897), et le périodique berlinois Pan (1895–1900). Ces publications déclinent l’objet revue dans trois aires culturelles, et permettent d’en explorer les spécificités ainsi que les enjeux économiques liés à son essor au sein des sociabilités littéraires et artistiques et au contact des doctrines esthétiques. Cette étude de cas débouche sur une analyse de la matérialité, de l’économie et des pratiques revuistes dans la période fin-de-siècle qui amène à s’interroger sur les implications culturelles, historiques et sociologiques de ces objets.Fragilisée par l’usage fréquent, la revue, lieu d’innovations graphiques et textuelles, est confrontée à la nécessité de la dématérialisation pour rester accessible à la recherche. L’examen de six bibliothèques numériques (Gallica, la Bibliothèque numérique de l’Université de Heidelberg, Internet Archive, The Yellow Nineties Online, le Blue Mountain Project et Jugend Wochenschrift) souligne que le numérique n’est en aucune manière une opération neutre et doit être constamment accompagné d’une approche scientifique de l’objet ouvrant à des recommandations et à de « bonnes pratiques ».Outre la question technique, toujours capitale, l’accent est mis dans cette thèse sur les procédures de numérisation en vue à la fois d’une restitution optimale de l’original et de la possibilité de disposer d’interfaces et de fonctionnalités dotant le chercheur de nouvelles approches heuristiques, permises par les nouvelles technologies, au service du patrimoine.

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  • Authors: Walker, Joshua Charles;

    Faucets and Fertilizers: Interpreting Technological Change in Rural Oaxaca, Mexico, 1946-1988 argues that peasant farmers in Oaxaca were key actors who helped to oversee the technological modernization of their villages in the twentieth century. From the 1940s to the 1980s, federal and state development programs sought to introduce new tools like chemical fertilizers, water faucets, roads, and mechanical corn grinders to villages in the countryside. These programs were often unevenly distributed and poorly designed, forcing peasants to rely on old skills and customs in order to acquire and use the technologies they wanted. As peasants learned about the benefits of the technologies, they also learned to use them to challenge the power of family patriarchs, village elders, and federal leaders. Far from being the passive victims of modernization described in the historiography of rural Mexico, Oaxacan peasants participated in technological change and used new tools in an attempt to overcome problems with low crop production and restricted mobility.

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    This thesis explores how digitisation affects the way we perceive, handle, encounter, keep, preserve, and understand medieval manuscripts. With digitisation gaining ever-more importance, today, we encounter medieval manuscripts mostly in their digital form. This study reflects on how medieval manuscripts function and move as cultural (devotional, historical, archival, heritage) objects in an increasingly digital culture. Chapter 1 comprises a theoretical and methodological framework which discusses relevant ideas about codicology, (digital) materials and materiality, reproduction and copying. This thesis uses digital codicology to analyse the core case studies’ material elements, its place as cultural object and carrier of knowledge and tradition, and its position in history, in relation to the physical manuscript. Chapter 2 explores the Bury Bible (CCCC, ms. 2) and looks into how the digital facsimile is made and what digitisation practices mean for how the Bury Bible is revealed to or obscured for the audience in digital space. The chapter considers how the manuscript’s material properties are presented the digital object, and what this brings to light about its intellectual, cultural and institutional contexts. Chapter 3 looks at a Der naturen bloeme manuscript (KB, KA16), focusing on the ways in which digitisation facilitates fragmentation and the hyper-expansion of the manuscript, fostering re-use and appropriation in social media environments. The chapter thinks about how the digital manuscript functions in larger cultural narratives and how it is used once it enters seemingly unbound digital space. Chapter 4 details the prayer book of Mary of Guelders (SBB-PK, ms. germ. qu. 41 and ÖNB, cod. 1908) explores ideas about fragility, looking at how the manuscript is sustained in digital space, and how, in turn, the fragile material of the digital object is often disregarded. It studies the relationship between digitisation and preservation practices, and how this affects meaning and value we ascribe to the manuscript and the digital facsimile. "This thesis was supported by the University of Groningen PhD scholarships; the St Leonard's College European doctoral scholarships; the Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds scholarship grant (40016097/MAK/ILE); the Vereniging Rembrandt, Claudine de With scholarship grant; the Arts, Books and Collections scholarship grant." -- Funding

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    Doctoral thesis . Thesis . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Doctoral thesis . Thesis . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Çakmak, Tolga;

    Kültürel miras, özelde toplumların genelde ise insanlığın yaşayışını gösteren en önemli unsurlardan biridir. Bu nedenle kültürel mirasın kalıcılığının ve sürdürülebilirliğinin sağlanması için ülkelerin yasal düzenlemelere gittiği, konuyla ilgili uluslararası anlaşma ve sözleşmeleri dikkate aldığı görülmektedir. Söz konusu düzenlemeler ve sözleşmeler ülkelerin kültürel miraslarının korunmasında ve bu mirasın gelecek kuşakların kullanımına sunulmasında girişim ve yatırımlara öncülük etmeleri açısından önem taşımaktadır. Kültürel mirasın korunması ve gelecek kuşakların kullanımına sunulması için girişimlerde ve yatırımlarda bulunan kurumlar arasında kütüphaneler, arşivler ve müzeler gibi kültürel bellek kurumlarını da saymak mümkündür. Özellikle 1990'lı yıllarda bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinde yaşanan gelişmelerle birlikte bu kurumların kültürel miras ürünleri için dijitalleştirme ve dijital koruma programları uyguladıkları ve söz konusu alanlara yönelik olarak gerçekleştirdikleri yatırımlar ve girişimler ön plana çıkmıştır. Kültürel bellek kurumlarının dermelerindeki kültürel miras ürünlerinin dijitalleştirilmesi ve dijital ortamda korunmasına yönelik yatırımlarının yanı sıra bu ürünlerin güncel teknolojilerle yeniden kullanımının sağlanması için de sistemli çalışmalar gerçekleştirdikleri ve belirli bir politika doğrultusunda hareket ettikleri bilinmektedir. Türkiye'de de diğer ülkelerdeki kültürel bellek kurumlarında olduğu gibi dijitalleştirme ve dijital koruma uygulamaları gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu çerçevede kültürel miras ürünlerinin tespit edilmesi ve korunması ile ilgili konulara yasal düzenlemelerde yer verilmektedir. Ancak bu girişimler ve konuyla ilgili literatür incelendiğinde Türkiye'de dijitalleştirme ve dijital koruma uygulamalarıyla ilgili idari, mali ve teknik konularda sorunların yaşandığı ve sürdürülebilir bir yapının bulunmadığı ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu noktadan hareketle araştırmada Türkiye'de kültürel miras ürünlerine yönelik durum literatür değerlendirmesi, örnekleme alınan kurumlara uygulanan anket ile toplanan veriler ve idari ve yasal koşullar çerçevesinde betimlenmiştir. Araştırmada ayrıca Türkiye'de dijitalleştirme ve dijital koruma uygulamalarında bulunan farklı ölçekteki 14 kurum literatürdeki çalışmalar ve modellere dayanılarak geliştirilen bir değerlendirme aracıyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda `Türkiye'de bellek kurumlarının dijitalleştirme ve dijital korumaya yönelik planlama, karar verme süreçleri ve uygulamalarındaki (mali kaynaklar, kurumlar arası iletişim, erişim yönetimi, teknik, eğitim) yaklaşımları sürdürülebilir bir nitelikte değildir` şeklinde belirlenen hipotez doğrulanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları doğrultusunda Türkiye'de kültürel bellek kurumlarının kültürel miras ürünlerinin dijitalleştirilmesi ve dijital ortamda korunmasına yönelik süreçlerin devamlılığını sağlamada kullanılabilecek politikalara yönelik bir model geliştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın son bölümünde ise kültürel bellek kurumlarının dijitalleştirme ve dijital koruma uygulamalarında sürdürülebilirliği benimseyen bir yaklaşımı taşımalarıyla ilgili önerilere yer verilmektedir. Son olarak çalışmada kültürel bellek kurumlarında kapsamlı ve belirli dönemlerde güncellenecek bir politika belgesinin gerekliliği vurgulanmıştır. Bu bağlamda araştırmada geliştirilen modele dayanarak oluşturulan örnek bir dijitalleştirme ve dijital koruma politikasına yönelik ilkeler de kültürel bellek kurumları için bir rehber oluşturmak amacıyla sunulmuştur. Cultural heritage is one of the most significant constituent of societies in particular and life of humankind in general. For this reason, states have made legislative regulations in order to ensure the persistence and sustainability of cultural heritage, and thus international agreements and conventions have been considered on the matter. These regulations and conventions in question are of vital importance in terms of pioneering the institutions and investments which preserve the cultural heritage assets of the countries and pass them on to the next generations.Cultural memory institutions such as libraries, archives and museums can be counted among the institutions undertaking such enterprises and investing for the protection of cultural heritage and its transition to the next generations. Especially in 1990's, together with the developments in information and communications technologies (ICTs), application of digitization and digital preservation programs for the of cultural heritage objects, as well as making investments and embarking on enterprises in areas in question came into prominence. Besides investments of associations undertaken by cultural memory institutions in the digitization of cultural heritage objects and their preservation in the digital environment, it is a well-known fact that they have carried on studies in a systematic manner with the purpose of ensuring the reusability of these objects via current technologies and acted on in line with specific policies.Much the same as many other countries, cultural memory institutions in Turkey carry out digitization and digital preservation applications. Within this framework, issues related to the identification and preservation of cultural heritage objects are also addressed in the legal regulations. However, when the aforementioned enterprises and literature review on the subject are examined, it becomes clear that Turkey has been confronting problems in the administrative, financial and technical aspects of the digitization and digital preservation applications, and have no sustainable structure. Thus, in this research the current situation of cultural heritage institutions is described with reference to the literature review, data gathered from the institutions chosen as test-bed and administrative and legal framework. In line with the research, fourteen different sized institutions carrying out digitization and digital preservation applications have been analysed via research instrument which was developed according to the studies and models in the literature. The hypothesis proposed as `In Turkey, the planning, decision-making and practical approaches (with regard to financial resources, business-to-business communications, access management, technicalities, education) adopted by cultural memory institutions in digitization and digital preservation do not have the necessary qualifications to be regarded as sustainable in terms of.` is verified. In line with the findings of this research, a model has been developed to be taken as a sample in related policies with the purpose of maintaining the continuity of the processes regarding the digitization and digital preservation of cultural heritage objects managed by the cultural memory institutions. In the final section, recommendations addressed to the cultural memory institutions to lead them adopt an approach which ensures the sustainability of digitization and digital preservation processes were offered. Finally, the necessity of a comprehensive policy document to be updated periodically by cultural memory institution was emphasized. Within this context, principles regarding the policy on digitization and digital preservation which was recommended by depending on the model developed in this research were presented in an attempt to provide guidelines for the cultural memory institutions. 167

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    Authors: Haşiloğlu, Mehmet Ferruh;

    Eğitmenlerin, öğrencilerin, araştırmacıların ve yazarların araştırdıkları konu üzerinde farklı kaynaklardan beslenmesi ve desteklenmesi, yapılan araştırmaların eksiksiz bir şekilde ortaya konulabilmesi bakımından arşivlerin önemi çok büyüktür.Grafist / İstanbul Grafik Tasarım Günleri etkinliği; uluslararası tasarım eğitimine, tasarım kültürüne ve tasarımda yeni algı ve yorumlara katkısı bakımından önemli bir yere sahiptir. Bu raporun konusu olan, Grafist Açık Arşiv projesi; Grafist etkinliği kapsamında gelen tasarım alanında çoğu belli standartları ve normları belirleyen tasarımcıların bağışladıkları afiş, kitap gibi işlerden oluşan fiziksel arşivin, sayısallaştırılarak `kullanıcı odaklı açık arşiv` olma yöntemini sunar.Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi, Güzel Sanatlar Fakültesi, Grafik Tasarım Bölümü'nde yer alan 3000'e yakın grafik tasarım ürünü, önce Grafik Tasarım Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi'nde fiziksel olarak koruma altına alınarak arşivlenmiş, daha sonra sayısallaştırılarak açık arşiv haline getirilmiştir.Böylece grafik tasarımcı, araştırmacı, akademisyen ve öğrencilerin yararlanacağı kullanıcı dostu arayüz tasarımlarının yapılacağı bir açık arşiv oluşturulması amaçlanmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Grafik Tasarım, Arşiv, Açık Arşiv, Kullanıcı Dostu Arayüz Tasarımı Archives give opportunity to the educators, students, researchers and authors to feed and support their research from multiple sources. Archives are the key to the completion of a comprehensive research. `Grafist` Istanbul Graphic Design Week event contributes to the international design education, culture and criticism. It also contributes to the design world by creating new ways of conception. The designers who attended Grafist since the event's inception have donated posters, books and various design works to the archive. This dissertation's subject is the digitalization of the physical works in order to present them as an open archive project for Grafist in the form of a `user aimed open archive`. Within this project almost 3000 graphic design works belonging to the Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Graphic Design Department have been archived under protection and then digitalized as an digital open archive.The aim is to create an open archive with a user friendly interface for the use of graphic designers, researchers, academics and students.Keywords: Graphic Design, Archive, Open Archive, User Friendly Interface Design 153

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  • Authors: Martone, Lisa;

    Beginning in the 1880s, foresters around the world faced problems such as forest fires, pest infestations, and the shrinking of timber resources. This stimulated the intensification of research activities on forest environments and brought about a large-scale globalization of forestry science. Distinct scientific spaces and specific competencies emerged from a transnational dialogue characterized by exchanges and appropriations, but also by scientific disputes shaped by a variety of approaches towards nature and landscapes, as well as confrontations with complex forest environments.This thesis retraces the ways in which forestry knowledge and practices circulated in eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick), at the crossroad between European and American influences, from the 1880s to the 1940s. It sheds light on the forces that contributed to their transformation into a transatlantic science, as well as on the process of blending theories and practices on the ground. Studying the development over time of the science of forestry in eastern Canada uncovers the reasons behind the importation of foreign forestry practices on the Canadian soil, but also the economic, cultural, and ideological limits of those transfers. More broadly, it contributes to the literature examining the ways sciences evolve, the manner in which they are constructed, and their geographic contingencies. In the first half of the 20th century, eastern Canadian forestry emerged as a hybrid discipline pursuing its own economic and scientific agenda. It selected from various external sources the elements it judged relevant and combined them with methods developed on its own soil.; À partir des années 1880, les problèmes rencontrés par les forestiers sur l’ensemble du globe (feux de forêts, invasions d'insectes, raréfaction des ressources ligneuses) stimulèrent une intense production de savoirs sur les environnements forestiers et suscitèrent une vaste internationalisation des sciences forestières. Les échanges, les emprunts, mais aussi les polémiques scientifiques entre forestiers, occasionnées par des rapports à la nature et au territoire divers, et par la confrontation avec des environnements forestiers complexes, tissèrent la trame d’un dialogue transnational par le biais duquel se fabriquèrent des "territoires scientifiques" propres, et des compétences particulières. En retraçant la circulation des connaissances et des pratiques forestières dans l’est du Canada (Québec, Ontario, et Nouveau-Brunswick) entre les années 1880 et 1940, à la croisée des influences européenne et nord- américaine, ce travail de recherche met en lumière les dynamiques de mise en science de la nature à l’échelle transatlantique, mais aussi le processus d’hybridation des théories et des pratiques au niveau local. L’étude diachronique du développement de la foresterie dans les provinces de l’est du Canada révèle en effet les motivations mais aussi les limites économiques, culturelles, et écologiques des transferts de pratiques forestières héxogènes sur le territoire canadien, et contribue plus largement aux travaux portant sur la dynamique des sciences, sur la manière dont elles se construisent, ainsi que sur leur « géographie variable ». Au cours du premier XXème siècle, la foresterie de l’Est du Canada s’affirma en effet comme une science forestière hybride suivant son propre agenda économique et scientifique, sélectionnant à diverses sources extérieures les apports jugés pertinents, et les combinant avec les méthodes développées sur son propre terrain.

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    Authors: Haalboom, A.F.;

    This history studies how the domains of public health and agriculture have negotiated control over livestock-associated zoonoses in the Netherlands during the twentieth century, and how the disciplines of veterinary medicine and medicine have related to one another in this broader context. Four case-studies of dealings with particular livestock-associated zoonoses in a particular period form the body of the thesis: bovine tuberculosis (1898-1956), influenza (1918-1957), salmonellosis (1951-1978) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1988-2001). These examples of livestock-associated zoonoses have been studied using a wide variety of primary sources, like archival documents, scientific journals, newspapers, and interviews.

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  • Authors: Vanhoey, Kenneth;

    Vision and computer graphics communities have built methods for digitizing, processing and rendering 3D objects. There is an increasing demand coming from cultural communities for these technologies, especially for archiving, remote studying and restoring cultural artefacts like statues, buildings or caves. Besides digitizing geometry, there can be a demand for recovering the photometry with more or less complexity : simple textures (2D), light fields (4D), SV-BRDF (6D), etc. In this thesis, we present steady solutions for constructing and treating surface light fields represented by hemispherical radiance functions attached to the surface in real-world on-site conditions. First, we tackle the algorithmic reconstruction-phase of defining these functions based on photographic acquisitions from several viewpoints in real-world "on-site" conditions. That is, the photographic sampling may be unstructured and very sparse or noisy. We propose a process for deducing functions in a manner that is robust and generates a surface light field that may vary from "expected" and artefact-less to high quality, depending on the uncontrolled conditions. Secondly, a mesh simplification algorithm is guided by a new metric that measures quality loss both in terms of geometry and radiance. Finally, we propose a GPU-compatible radiance interpolation algorithm that allows for coherent radiance interpolation over the mesh. This generates a smooth visualisation of the surface light field, even for poorly tessellated meshes. This is particularly suited for very simplified models.; Depuis quelques décennies, les communautés d'informatique graphique et de vision ont contribué à l'émergence de technologies permettant la numérisation d'objets 3D. Une demande grandissante pour ces technologies vient des acteurs de la culture, notamment pour l'archivage, l'étude à distance et la restauration d'objets du patrimoine culturel : statuettes, grottes et bâtiments par exemple. En plus de la géométrie, il peut être intéressant de numériser la photométrie avec plus ou moins de détail : simple texture (2D), champ de lumière (4D), SV-BRDF (6D), etc. Nous formulons des solutions concrètes pour la création et le traitement de champs de lumière surfaciques représentés par des fonctions de radiance attachés à la surface.Nous traitons le problème de la phase de construction de ces fonctions à partir de plusieurs prises de vue de l'objet dans des conditions sur site : échantillonnage non structuré voire peu dense et bruité. Un procédé permettant une reconstruction robuste générant un champ de lumière surfacique variant de prévisible et sans artefacts à excellente, notamment en fonction des conditions d'échantillonnage, est proposé. Ensuite, nous suggérons un algorithme de simplification permettant de réduire la complexité mémoire et calculatoire de ces modèles parfois lourds. Pour cela, nous introduisons une métrique qui mesure conjointement la dégradation de la géométrie et de la radiance. Finalement, un algorithme d'interpolation de fonctions de radiance est proposé afin de servir une visualisation lisse et naturelle, peu sensible à la densité spatiale des fonctions. Cette visualisation est particulièrement bénéfique lorsque le modèle est simplifié.

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    Authors: Öztemiz, Semanur;

    Kültürel miras; toplumların bilgi ve deneyimleri sonucunda oluşan ve çeşitli yollarla korunarak sonraki nesillere aktarılan fiziksel ya da soyut ürünlerdir. Folklor, gelenekler, bilgi, vb. ürünler kültürel mirasın soyut yönünü; bina, anıt, kitap, sanat çalışmaları gibi eserler ise somut yönünü oluşturmaktadır. Bu eserleri toplamak, düzenlemek, korumak, erişilebilir ve kullanılabilir olmasını sağlamak, kütüphane, arşiv ve müze gibi kültürel örgütlerin temel işlevleri arasında yer alır. 20. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren hızla gelişen teknolojilerin etkisiyle iç içe geçen bu örgütler, `kültürel bellek kurumları` kavramı altında bir arada anılmaya başlamışlardır. Bilgiye zaman, donanım, mekân, ücret gibi sınırlamalardan bağımsız erişim, çağın bu kurumlar için gerektirdiği hizmet anlayışının en temel karakteristikleri arasında yerini almıştır. Bu anlayışın gerçekleştirilmesi, kültürel bellek kurumlarının dijital kapılarını aralamaları ve web ortamında görünürlüklerini artırmaları ile olanaklı hale gelmektedir. Anılan koşullar, kültürel bellek kurumları için açık erişimin sunduğu çözümsel yaklaşımları ön plana çıkarmaktadır. Dijital kültürel miras ürünlerine engelsiz erişimle ilgili süreci içeren açık erişim, kültürel bellek kurumlarının bilgi erişim işlevlerini günün gereklerine uygun bir biçimde gerçekleştirmelerinin yanı sıra başka pek çok açıdan yarar sağlayıcıdır. Tarihi hakkında bilinçli, kültürü evrensel değerlerle beslenen ve zenginleşen bir toplum yapısının oluşumuna katkı sağlamak söz konusu yararın toplumsal boyutuna verilebilecek örnekler arasındadır. Kültürel mirasa açık erişim, esinlenme/ilham alma gibi dürtülerin gelişmesinde teşvik edici bir rol üstlenerek yenilikçi ve yaratıcı girişimlerin önünü açar. Bu durum bireysel ya da tüzel kazançların ötesinde ulusal ekonominin gelişmesine de destek olabilir. Açık erişim, kültürel bellek kurumlarının webde keşfedilebilirliğini artırırken, yenilikçi uygulamalarda öncü olduklarının da göstergeleri arasında yer alır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle, Türkiye'de dijitalleştirme uygulamalarında bulunan kamuya bağlı bazı kültürel bellek kurumlarında açık erişim uygulamalarına yönelik mevcut durum ve eğilimi ortaya koymak amacıyla bir araştırma yapılmıştır. araştırma verilerinin elde edilmesinde kullanılan anket, belirlenen kamuya bağlı kültürel bellek kurumlarında, açık erişim sürecini yönetmesi beklenen kimselere ya da karar verici konumda bulunan yetkililere uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler üzerinde herhangi bir istatistiksel test yapılmamakla birlikte, frekans dağılım tablolarına dayalı bulguların bazı araştırma hipotezlerini destekleyici nitelikte olduğu saptanmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında ayrıca, örnekleme alınan kurumlar çerçevesinde açık erişim arşivlerinin kayıtlı olduğu uluslararası kütükler taranmış, kültürel bellek kurumlarının büyük çoğunluğunun irdelenen kütüklerde yer almadığı tespit edilmiştir. Bir başka inceleme dijital kayıtların uluslararası standartlara uyumlu olup olmadığını belirlemek amacıyla örnekleme alınan kurumların web siteleri üzerinde yapılmıştır. Buna göre dijitalleştirilen kültürel miras ürünlerinin standartlardan oldukça uzak ve son derece yetersiz öğelerle tanımlandıkları, uzun uğraşlar gerektiren üyelik ve ücret ödeme süreçlerinden sonra erişilebilir oldukları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Sonraki aşamada, Türkiye'de dijitalleştirilen kültürel mirasa açık erişim sağlanmasıyla ilgili sürecin ideal işleyişine yönelik bir öneri niteliği taşıyan `Dijitalleştirilen kültürel mirasa açık erişim kavramsal modeli`ne yer verilmiştir. Kültürel miras ürünlerinin dijitalleştirme aşaması ve erişim süreçleri üzerine odaklanılarak hazırlanan modelin kamuya bağlı kültürel bellek kurumlarında açık erişimle ilgili gereksinim duyulan rehber görevini gerçekleştirmesi ve toplumun ortak hafızası sayılan kültürel mirasa erişim engellerinin ortadan kaldırılmasına katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir. Cultural heritage; is the combination of intangible and tangible products originated from society's knowledge and experiences which are adapted to next generations in various ways of preservation. While outputs of folklore, traditions and knowledge etc. constitute intangible sides of cultural heritage; achievements of building, monument, book and artworks constitute tangible sides of cultural heritage. Gathering, editing, preserving and making accessible and useful those achievements are amongst the major functions of cultural organizations like library, archive and museums. Organizations which have been engaged by the effect of rapidly improved technology from the beginning of 20th century's second half, are referred together under the concept of `cultural memory institutions`. Access to knowledge independent from limitations like time, hardware, place and price, gained a place among the basic characteristics of service mentality required by the necessities of the time. This mentality becomes reality by cultural memory institutions to open their digital doors and increase their apparency on web. Abovementioned conditions feature analytical approaches which are provided by open access for cultural memory institutions.Containing the process regarding the free access to digital cultural heritage products, the open access is beneficial in several ways, besides performing information retrieval of cultural memory institutions in accordance with the modern day's needs. Contribution to generation of society structure which is aware of its history while feeding and enriching its culture with universal morals, can be considered within the scope of abovementioned benefit, as an example for the common interest. Open access to cultural heritage leads up the innovative and creative initiatives by acting an encouraging role for improvement of motivations like inspiration. This may also support development of national economy, beyond the individual or corporate earnings. While open access increases the visibility of cultural memory institutions' discoverability on web, it also indicates an institute remains one of the most pioneers of innovative applications. This study is primarily intended to set forth the tendency and the current situation of digitalization applications in Turkey, devoted to open access applications in state owned cultural memory institutions. Research data is gathered by survey method; in this context the survey is applied to highly represent state owned cultural memory institutions. Even though there are no statistical tests made using gathered data, it's determined based on frequency distribution tables that findings support some research hypothesis. Under the study, within the scope of sampling institutions, international logs containing registered open access archives are searched and it's determined that a great majority of cultural memory institutions do not exist in those logs. Another research is performed on web sites of sampling institutions, in order to determine whether digital records are in accordance with international standards. Accordingly, it's reached that cultural heritage outputs are identified well beyond the standards by extremely ineligible elements, and this outputs are only available to open access upon effortful membership and payment processes.In the next phase, `Open access conceptual model to digitized cultural heritage` is taken a place, which is generated as the ultimate objective of the study and an offer devoted to ideal functioning of the process with regard to providing open access to digitized cultural heritage in Turkey. It's expected that the model, which is prepared focusing on next phases of digitalization of cultural heritage outputs, will make a contribution in eliminating obstacles on the access to society's common memory, cultural heritage, and take on the task for guidance about open access which is in need of in state owned cultural memory institutions. 150

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    This history studies how the domains of public health and agriculture have negotiated control over livestock-associated zoonoses in the Netherlands during the twentieth century, and how the disciplines of veterinary medicine and medicine have related to one another in this broader context. Four case-studies of dealings with particular livestock-associated zoonoses in a particular period form the body of the thesis: bovine tuberculosis (1898-1956), influenza (1918-1957), salmonellosis (1951-1978) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1988-2001). These examples of livestock-associated zoonoses have been studied using a wide variety of primary sources, like archival documents, scientific journals, newspapers, and interviews.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2017
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  • Authors: Leu, Philipp;

    To work on digitized reviews today means essentially to be confronted with artefacts. Digitized in black and white, stripped of their covers, of blank pages, of inserts, advertisements, bulletins and other supplements, digital reproductions of reviews often differ greatly from the originals, especially when the electronic files have been based on previous reproductions (microforms or reprints). Our work evolves around a question of method: what principles should be followed in digitizing literature and art reviews from the end of the 19th century, in order to preserve the subtle harmony between form and content when the medium is no longer hard copy?Literature and art reviews participate in literary communication at the intersection of hybrid editorial traditions. Their matrix oscillates between newspapers, books, art albums and reviews, utilising the characteristics of these four media. We have chosen four periodicals to represent them: the French reviews La Plume (1889–1914) and L’Épreuve (1894–1895), the British quarterly The Yellow Book (1894–1897), and the Berlin periodical Pan (1895–1900). These publications articulate the different characteristics of reviews in three cultural contexts, allowing us to explore their specificities as well as the financial aspects linked to their development, in close interaction with literary and artistic social life and aesthetic doctrines. As case studies, these bear on an analysis of the materiality, of the financial and editorial practices of late 19th century reviews while questioning the historical, cultural and sociological implications of these objects.Degraded and fragile through years of use, these reviews, catalysts of textual and graphic innovation, are in urgent need of dematerialisation so as to remain accessible for future research. Close examination of six digital libraries (Gallica, the digital library of Heidelberg University, Internet Archive, The Yellow Nineties Online, the Blue Mountain Project, and Jugend Wochenschrift) underlines that digitization is in no way a neutral operation and must constantly be accompanied by scientific validation with a view to developing recommendations and "good practices".Besides technical questions of primary importance, this thesis’ focus is on digitization procedures, aiming at both optimal restitution of the originals and functional interfaces that provide the researcher with new heuristic tools, through innovative technologies, in the service of our cultural heritage.; Travailler aujourd’hui sur un fonds numérique de revues c’est être confronté à des artefacts. Numérisées en noir et blanc, débarrassées de leurs couvertures, des pages vierges, des encarts, des publicités, des bulletins et hors-texte divers, les revues numérisées offrent souvent une physionomie très différente des documents originaux, surtout quand les fichiers numériques ont été produits à partir de reproductions antérieures (réimpressions ou microformes). Le présent travail tourne autour d’une question de méthode : quels sont les principes à retenir pour la numérisation des revues littéraires et artistiques de la fin du xixe siècle afin que l’accord subtil entre forme et contenu ne soit pas rompu lorsque les supports sont dématérialisés ?La revue littéraire et artistique s’inscrit dans la communication littéraire au croisement de traditions éditoriales hybrides. Sa matrice oscille entre le journal, le livre, l’album d’art et la revue, mobilisant et exploitant les caractéristiques de ces quatre référents. Ces référents sont ici représentés à travers un corpus de quatre périodiques : les revues françaises La Plume (1889–1914) et L’Épreuve (1894–1895), le trimestriel britannique The Yellow Book (1894–1897), et le périodique berlinois Pan (1895–1900). Ces publications déclinent l’objet revue dans trois aires culturelles, et permettent d’en explorer les spécificités ainsi que les enjeux économiques liés à son essor au sein des sociabilités littéraires et artistiques et au contact des doctrines esthétiques. Cette étude de cas débouche sur une analyse de la matérialité, de l’économie et des pratiques revuistes dans la période fin-de-siècle qui amène à s’interroger sur les implications culturelles, historiques et sociologiques de ces objets.Fragilisée par l’usage fréquent, la revue, lieu d’innovations graphiques et textuelles, est confrontée à la nécessité de la dématérialisation pour rester accessible à la recherche. L’examen de six bibliothèques numériques (Gallica, la Bibliothèque numérique de l’Université de Heidelberg, Internet Archive, The Yellow Nineties Online, le Blue Mountain Project et Jugend Wochenschrift) souligne que le numérique n’est en aucune manière une opération neutre et doit être constamment accompagné d’une approche scientifique de l’objet ouvrant à des recommandations et à de « bonnes pratiques ».Outre la question technique, toujours capitale, l’accent est mis dans cette thèse sur les procédures de numérisation en vue à la fois d’une restitution optimale de l’original et de la possibilité de disposer d’interfaces et de fonctionnalités dotant le chercheur de nouvelles approches heuristiques, permises par les nouvelles technologies, au service du patrimoine.

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  • Authors: Walker, Joshua Charles;

    Faucets and Fertilizers: Interpreting Technological Change in Rural Oaxaca, Mexico, 1946-1988 argues that peasant farmers in Oaxaca were key actors who helped to oversee the technological modernization of their villages in the twentieth century. From the 1940s to the 1980s, federal and state development programs sought to introduce new tools like chemical fertilizers, water faucets, roads, and mechanical corn grinders to villages in the countryside. These programs were often unevenly distributed and poorly designed, forcing peasants to rely on old skills and customs in order to acquire and use the technologies they wanted. As peasants learned about the benefits of the technologies, they also learned to use them to challenge the power of family patriarchs, village elders, and federal leaders. Far from being the passive victims of modernization described in the historiography of rural Mexico, Oaxacan peasants participated in technological change and used new tools in an attempt to overcome problems with low crop production and restricted mobility.

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    This thesis explores how digitisation affects the way we perceive, handle, encounter, keep, preserve, and understand medieval manuscripts. With digitisation gaining ever-more importance, today, we encounter medieval manuscripts mostly in their digital form. This study reflects on how medieval manuscripts function and move as cultural (devotional, historical, archival, heritage) objects in an increasingly digital culture. Chapter 1 comprises a theoretical and methodological framework which discusses relevant ideas about codicology, (digital) materials and materiality, reproduction and copying. This thesis uses digital codicology to analyse the core case studies’ material elements, its place as cultural object and carrier of knowledge and tradition, and its position in history, in relation to the physical manuscript. Chapter 2 explores the Bury Bible (CCCC, ms. 2) and looks into how the digital facsimile is made and what digitisation practices mean for how the Bury Bible is revealed to or obscured for the audience in digital space. The chapter considers how the manuscript’s material properties are presented the digital object, and what this brings to light about its intellectual, cultural and institutional contexts. Chapter 3 looks at a Der naturen bloeme manuscript (KB, KA16), focusing on the ways in which digitisation facilitates fragmentation and the hyper-expansion of the manuscript, fostering re-use and appropriation in social media environments. The chapter thinks about how the digital manuscript functions in larger cultural narratives and how it is used once it enters seemingly unbound digital space. Chapter 4 details the prayer book of Mary of Guelders (SBB-PK, ms. germ. qu. 41 and ÖNB, cod. 1908) explores ideas about fragility, looking at how the manuscript is sustained in digital space, and how, in turn, the fragile material of the digital object is often disregarded. It studies the relationship between digitisation and preservation practices, and how this affects meaning and value we ascribe to the manuscript and the digital facsimile. "This thesis was supported by the University of Groningen PhD scholarships; the St Leonard's College European doctoral scholarships; the Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds scholarship grant (40016097/MAK/ILE); the Vereniging Rembrandt, Claudine de With scholarship grant; the Arts, Books and Collections scholarship grant." -- Funding