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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wiersum, K.F.;

    Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At the end of the 1970s a new concept was introduced in forestry, i.e. social forestry. This approach focuses specificly on the forest-related needs of local communities in tropical countries, and on stimulating community involvement in the sustainable management of forest resources. It has been suggested that the development of social forestry implies a paradigmatic change in forestry. This suggestion is contested, however.The objective of this study is to contribute towards the elucidation of the question whether the emergence of the concept of social forestry has indeed brought about a paradigmatic change in forestry. A paradigm involves the total set of disciplinary commitments; this disciplinary matrix includes a basic world-view, normative perspectives and conceptual generalizations as well as ideal-typical exemplars for problem-solving. Both scientists and professionals may adhere to such normative commitments. Consequently, the suggestion of a paradigmatic change in forestry may be related either to forestry as a science or forestry as a professional institution.The study consists of four analytical steps. First a short overview of the history of forestry and of one of its major conceptual generalizations, i.e. sustainability, is given, and the nature of the disciplinary matrix of conventional forestry is identified. Next the development of social forestry is described. This forestry approach is conceptualized as involving forestry policies designed and implemented by professional foresters, and community forest management practices executed by local communities, who are not professionally-trained in forestry. It cannot be assumed that the normative perspectives of these two categories of practitioners are similar. The third step of analysis therefore consists of a comparison of the perspectives of these two categories of forestry practitioners; it shows major differences in normative perspectives. The last step of analysis focuses on how the recognition of such differences has impacted on forestry science and professional practice. It is concluded that social forestry involves major changes in both role- and rule-orientation of professional foresters. The role of professional foresters is not considered any longer as being ideal-typical forest managers, but also as being facilitators of community forestry. Consequently, several new concepts and theories concerning social coordination in forestry evolved.Forestry science became more empirically oriented by paying attention to all possible forest management conditions rather than to professionally-controlled forest management situations only. These changes in forestry science can best be considered as an evolutionary change rather than a paradigmatic one. However, the differentiation in tasks of professional foresters and the loosening of the close institutional links between forestry scientists and professional practitioners can be considered as involving a paradigmatic change in forestry as professional institution.

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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    Authors: Friedli, Jürg;
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Doctoral thesis . 2002
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Doctoral thesis . 2002
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    Authors: Krishnan, Parvathy;

    Pathogenic fungi impose a great threat to the global food production. They are globally distributed and display a huge amount of phenotypic diversity. They demonstrate high adaptability to diverse environments and to fluctuating conditions within their hosts. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying these processes of adaptation. Deciphering the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity may help us to get a deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate complex adaptive traits. Furthermore, these findings may help in improving strategies for an effective and sustainable management of pathogens. In my PhD study, I aimed to understand the genetic basis of adaptation to variable environments using Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici causes septoria leaf blotch of wheat and is considered to be the most devastating fungal wheat pathogen in Europe. In the first chapter of my thesis, I studied the role of melanin in adaptation of Z. tritici. I, demonstrated that melanin is essential for protection against harmful chemical fungicides such as bixafen. Remarkably, I observed high phenotypic variability in melanin accumulation levels in different Zymoseptoria tritici strains, most probably reflecting its role in adaptation to variable environments. Using genetic mapping, I was able to demonstrate that variability in melanization levels between two Swiss strains of Z. tritici was mediated by differential expression of the transcription factor Zmr1 (Zymoseptoria melanin regulation 1). I identified nucleotide mutations in the promoter region and an insertion of transposable elements (TEs) upstream of the promoter region as two mechanisms responsible for this observed differential expression of Zmr1. My findings clearly demonstrated the significance of gene expression regulation, mediated by the insertion of TEs and SNPs, in optimizing the growth and adaptation of the fungus under variable environments. Furthermore, these adaptive changes are responsible for the phenotypic diversity that we observe in Z. tritici strains from all over the world. In the second part of my thesis, I analyzed the expression of several secreted peptidases of Z. tritici at distinct stages during the infection process of wheat plants. Using computational genetic methods, I also analyzed nucleotide data sets of the peptidase genes for evolutionary signatures of genetic adaptation. By combining both approaches, I aimed at obtaining a more detailed picture of the relevance and the role of each enzyme during the infection process. I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. In the third part of my thesis, I evaluated the role of a cellulase-encoding gene (JGI Prot. ID: 76589) using molecular biology techniques. This cellulase was only expressed during the final necrotrophic phase of Z. tritici infection and the nucleotide sequences of the gene showed signatures of diversifying selection. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of evasion from host recognition during the first phases of infection and subsequent induction of host-cell death by the secretion of an array of different cellulase isoforms by the fungus. To test this hypothesis, I constitutively expressed the cellulase-encoding gene in Z. tritici during all infection stages by inserting a constitutive promoter (originally from the Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Aspergillus nidulans) upstream of the start codon of the cellulase gene. I was able to show that the progress of infection in this mutant was delayed compared to the non-modified Z. tritici isolates. This suggests that the cellulase acts as an elicitor molecule that is detected by the plant and triggers the defense machinery that will hinder the growth of the pathogen. In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant pathogenic fungi to facilitate adaptation to different environmental conditions and host colonization. Remarkably, I was able to show that gene expression fine-tuning resulted in large amounts of phenotypic diversity in adaptive traits.

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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Doctoral thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Sales, Marli;

    Orientador: Emilia Pietrafesa de Godoi Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas Resumo: Este trabalho trata das transformações materiais e simbólicas verificadas em Angueretá, distrito de Curvelo, MG, no período posterior a 1970. O processo de incorporação das áreas de cerrado à moderna agricultura, que tem início a partir de então, tem como agente o Estado brasileiro, articulado ao capital privado. O município de Curvelo , bem como toda a área em que se inscreve - o sertão mineiro - sofre uma verdadeira transfiguração: novos atores, novas ordens, novas territorialidades, que dialogam e se antagonizam com as ordens, atores e territorialidades pré-existentes. A implantação de uma poderosa malha viária e a retirada do cerrado com sua substituição pela monocultura de eucalipto são os primeiros impactos. A alteração da paisagem a extinção e/ou interdição dos recursos do cerrado obriga os habitantes de Angueretá, locus empírico da investigação, a re-elaborarem suas práticas tradicionais. Discute-se em que medida foram alterados o ambiente, as práticas, as representações simbólicas e as territorialidades, desses habitantes. Abstract: This work deals with the material and symbolic transformations seen at Angueretá,Curvelo district, M.G.,verified in the period after 1970. The incorporation process of natural cerrado areas to the modern agriculture which starts since then has its agent as the Brasilian state joined to the private capital. The municipal district of Curvelo as the whole area in which it inserts itself-the Minas Gerais's sertão-suffers a real transfiguration: new actors,new orders, new territorialities which dialogue and act in opposition to the orders, actors and territorialities which already exists. The implantation of a powerful transport system and the withdraw of the backwards with its substitution by the eucalyptus monoculture are the first impacts. The landscape alteration and thye extintion and/or the interdiction of resources of the woodsy pasture, obligue the Angueretá's inhabitants, locus empiricous of the ivestigation, to reelaborate their traditional practices. One can discuss in which measure the environment was changed, the practices, the symbolic representation and these inhabitants's territorialities. Doutorado Doutor em Ciências Sociais

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
      Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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    Other literature type . 2021
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      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Solyom, Stefan;

    Virtually all real life systems are such that they present some kind of limitation on one or many of its variables, physical quantities. These systems are designated in this thesis as systems with limited capacity. This work is treating control related problems of a subclass of such systems, where the limitation is a critical factor. The thesis is composed of four parts. The first part is treating the control of tire slip in a braking car. The Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) is an important component of a complex steering system for the modern car. In the latest generation of brake-by-wire systems, the controllers have to maintain a specified tire slip for each wheel during braking. This thesis proposes a design model and based on that a hybrid controller that regulates the tire-slip. Simulation and results from drive tests are presented. In the second part, a design method for robust PID controllers is presented for a class of systems with limited capacity. Robustness is ensured with respect to a cone bounded static nonlinearity acting on the plant. Additional constraints on maximum sensitivity are also considered. The design procedure has been successfully applied in the synthesis of the proposed ABS controller. The third part studies the trajectory convergence for a general class of nonlinear systems. The servo problem for piecewise linear systems is presented. Convex optimization is used to describe the behavior of system trajectories of a piecewise linear system with respect to some input signals. The obtained results are then applied for the study of anti-windup compensators. The last part of the thesis is treating the problem of voltage stability in power systems. Voltage at the load end of a power system has to be controlled within prescribed tolerances. In case of emergencies such as sudden line failures, this task ca n be very challenging. The main contribution of this chapter is a method for improving the stability properties of the power system by dynamic compensation of the reference load voltage. Moreover, a complete compensation scheme is proposed where load shedding is the secondary control variable. This control scheme is shown to stabilize different power system models. Alla regler system kan betraktas som system med begränsad kapacitet. Detta arbetet består av fyra delar. Den första delen betraktar reglering av låsningsfria bromsar (ABS). Den andra delen betraktar en tuning metod för PID regulatorer. Den tredje delen beskriver servoproblemet för styckvislinjära system samt en anti-windup syntes metod. Den sista delen beskriver ett spänningstabiitet problem i elkraftsystem.

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  • Authors: Kounades-Bastian, Dionyssos;

    In this thesis we address the problem of multichannel audio source separa- tion (MASS) for underdetermined convolutive mixtures through probabilistic modeling. We focus on three aspects of the problem and make three contri- butions. Firstly, inspired from the empirically well validated representation of an audio signal, that is know as local Gaussian signal model (LGM) with non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), we propose a Bayesian extension to this, that overcomes some of the limitations of the NMF. We incorporate this representation in a MASS framework and compare it with the state of the art in MASS, yielding promising results. Secondly, we study how to separate mix- tures of moving sources and/or of moving microphones. Movements make the acoustic path between sources and microphones become time-varying. Ad- dressing time-varying audio mixtures appears is not so popular in the MASS literature. Thus, we begin from a state of the art LGM-with-NMF method designed for separating time-invariant audio mixtures and propose an exten- sion that uses a Kalman smoother to track the acoustic path across time. The proposed method is benchmarked against a block-wise adaptation of that state of the art (ran on time segments), and delivers competitive results on both simulated and real-world mixtures. Lastly, we investigate the link between MASS and the task of audio diarisation. Audio diarisation is the detection of the time intervals where each speaker/source is active or silent. Most state of the art MASS methods consider the sources to emit continuously; A hypothe- sis that can result in spurious signal estimates for a source, in intervals where that source was silent. Our aim is that diarisation can aid MASS by indicat- ing the emitting sources at each time frame. To that extent we design a joint framework for simultaneous diarisation and MASS, that incorporates a hidden Markov model (HMM) to track the temporal activity of the sources, within a state of the art LGM-with-NMF MASS framework. We compare the proposed method with the state of the art in MASS and audio diarisation tasks. We ob- tain performances comparable, with the state of the art, in terms of separation while winning in terms of diarisation.; Dans cette thèse nous abordons le problème de la séparation de sources audio dans des mélanges convolutifs multicanaux et sous-déterminés, en utilisant une modélisation probabiliste. Nous nous concentrons sur trois aspects, et nous apportons trois contributions. D’abord, nous nous inspirons du modèle Gaussien local par factorisation en matrices non-négatives (LGM-with-NMF), qui est un modèle empiriquement validé pour représenter un signal audio. Nous proposons une extension Bayésienne de ce modèle, qui permet de sur- passer certaines limitations du modèle NMF. Nous incorporons cette représentation dans un cadre de separation audio multicanaux, et le comparons avec l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation. Nous obtenons des résultats prometteurs. Deuxièment, nous étudions comment séparer des mélanges audio de sources et/ou des capteurs en mouvement. Ces déplacements rendent le chemin acoustique entre les sources et les microphones variant en cours du temps. L’adressage des mélanges convolutifs variant au cours du temps est peu exploré dans la littérature. Ainsi, nous partons d’une méthode de l’état de l’art développée pour la séparation de mélanges invariant (sources et microphones statiques) et utilisant LGM-with-NMF. Nous proposons à ceci une extension qui utilise un filtre de Kalman pour suivre le chemin acoustique au cours du temps. La technique proposée est comparée à une adaptation block-par-block d’une technique de l’état de l’art appliquée sur des intervalles de temps, et a donné des résultats exceptionels sur les mélanges simulés et les mélanges du monde réel. Enfin, nous investiguons les similitudes entre la séparation et la journalisation audio. La journalisation est le problème de détection des intervalles auxquels chaque locuteur/source est émettant. La plupart des méthodes de séparation supposent toutes les sources émettent continuellement. Cette hypothèe peut donner lieu à de fausses estimations durant les intervalles au cours desquels cette source n’a pas émis. Notre objectif est que la journalisation puisse aider à résoudre la séparation, en indiquant les sources qui émettent à chaque intervalle de temps. Dans cette mesure, nous concevons une cadre commun pour traiter simultanément la journalisation et la séparation du mélange audio. Ce cadre incorpore un modèle de Markov caché pour suivre les activités des sources au sein d’une technique de séparation LGM-with-NMF. Nous comparons l’algorithme proposé à l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation et de journalisation. Nous obtenons des performances comparables avec l’état de l’art pour la séparation, et supériures pour la journalisation.

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    Authors: Finke, P.A.;

    This thesis treats the impact of soil spatial variability on spatial variability of simulated land qualities. A sequence of procedures that were done to determine this impact is described in chapters 2 and 3. The subchapters correspond to seven manuscripts that either have appeared in or have been submitted to peer-reviewed journals.In chapter 2 attention is paid to methods to inventory spatial variability of soil characteristics related to the structure of the soil. A method was developed to construct confidence intervals to point count results in case of spatial dependency of the point observations on a soil thin section. It was concluded, that confidence intervals obtained following the traditional method by assuming all observations independent, will be much narrower than those where spatial dependency structure is taken into account.Two other papers in chapter 2 describe a method to translate soil profile descriptions into soil physical input data for computer models that simulate solute flow. The concept of functional layers is introduced. A functional layer is a combination of soil layers showing comparable soil physical behaviour related to water flow. The functional layer approach was tested and accepted for examples of disturbed and thinly stratified soils by calculating functional properties of the layer under defined hydrological conditions. When functional layers are established, mapping the thickness, starting depth and type of functional layers provides spatial information about soil physical characteristics. In one paper in chapter 2 the number of necessary observations in this mapping procedure is optimized by application of geostatistical methods and a sequential sampling test.In chapter three the impact of variability of the structure of the soil on variability of crop yields and nitrate leaching is investigated. One paper describes a field scale empirical study where barley grain yield variability is correlated to variability of soil characteristics and simulated transpiration deficits. Simulation model inputs were obtained using the functional layer approach described in chapter 2. Regression functions based on simulated transpiration deficits only could explain 43% of the variance in yields, which suggested that variability of transpiration may be an important factor causing yield variability. This hypothesis was tested in a next paper in which remote sensing estimates of the leaf area index were used to obtain estimates of the potential transpiration with a high spatial accuracy. Incorporating space- and time series of the leaf area index into a crop growth model resulted in a prediction of yield variability that could explain 39% of measured variability. Variability of plant- available water, expressed by the actual transpiration, is an important factor causing yield variability.Two papers in chapter three describe how a combined solute flow and crop growth model was used to evaluate the spatial varying effect of fertilizing scenarios. 'Me spatial interpolation method Disjunctive Kriging was used to translate spatial variability of simulated nitrate leaching into maps of the probability that a threshold leaching concentration is exceeded. It was also investigated, whether the number of simulations could be minimized using Disjunctive CoKriging and available spatial information. It was concluded, that different soil units within one agricultural field showed a different leaching response and crop yield response to identical fertilizer treatments, and that yield variability will increase when fertilizer levels approach the level for maximal production.

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1992
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1992
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    Authors: Romero, Adriana;

    [eng] Deep learning has recently been enjoying an increasing popularity due to its success in solving challenging tasks. In particular, deep learning has proven to be effective in a large variety of computer vision tasks, such as image classification, object recognition and image parsing. Contrary to previous research, which required engineered feature representations, designed by experts, in order to succeed, deep learning attempts to learn representation hierarchies automatically from data. More recently, the trend has been to go deeper with representation hierarchies. Learning (very) deep representation hierarchies is a challenging task, which involves the optimization of highly non- convex functions. Therefore, the search for algorithms to ease the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies from data is extensive and ongoing. In this thesis, we tackle the challenging problem of easing the learning of (very) deep representation hierarchies. We present a hyper-parameter free, off-the-shelf, simple and fast unsupervised algorithm to discover hidden structure from the input data by enforcing a very strong form of sparsity. We study the applicability and potential of the algorithm to learn representations of varying depth in a handful of applications and domains, highlighting the ability of the algorithm to provide discriminative feature representations that are able to achieve top performance. Yet, while emphasizing the great value of unsupervised learning methods when labeled data is scarce, the recent industrial success of deep learning has revolved around supervised learning. Supervised learning is currently the focus of many recent research advances, which have shown to excel at many computer vision tasks. Top performing systems often involve very large and deep models, which are not well suited for applications with time or memory limitations. More in line with the current trends, we engage in making top performing models more efficient, by designing very deep and thin models. Since training such very deep models still appears to be a challenging task, we introduce a novel algorithm that guides the training of very thin and deep models by hinting their intermediate representations. Very deep and thin models trained by the proposed algorithm end up extracting feature representations that are comparable or even better performing than the ones extracted by large state-of-the-art models, while compellingly reducing the time and memory consumption of the model.

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    Authors: Geerling, C.;

    This work is a field guide to the woody plants of the savannes and steppes of northern tropical Africa, from Senegal to Chad. 371 species of trees, shrubs and woody lianas, belonging to 62 families are included. The Dutch introduction comprises notes on fire, the use of the plants by Man, and the conservation status of the species concerned.The French field guide has a key on vegetative characters, an illustrated glossary, descriptions of the species, with accent on the vegetative part, and illustrations of all species.81 species have - mostly taxonomic - notes, including 10 new synonyms in the genera Boswellia, Combretum, Euphorbia, Lippia, Maerura, Pachystela and Salix. One species - Maerua sp. - is possibly new, but sufficient material is still lacking.

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    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1983
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1983
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    Authors: Wiersum, K.F.;

    Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At the end of the 1970s a new concept was introduced in forestry, i.e. social forestry. This approach focuses specificly on the forest-related needs of local communities in tropical countries, and on stimulating community involvement in the sustainable management of forest resources. It has been suggested that the development of social forestry implies a paradigmatic change in forestry. This suggestion is contested, however.The objective of this study is to contribute towards the elucidation of the question whether the emergence of the concept of social forestry has indeed brought about a paradigmatic change in forestry. A paradigm involves the total set of disciplinary commitments; this disciplinary matrix includes a basic world-view, normative perspectives and conceptual generalizations as well as ideal-typical exemplars for problem-solving. Both scientists and professionals may adhere to such normative commitments. Consequently, the suggestion of a paradigmatic change in forestry may be related either to forestry as a science or forestry as a professional institution.The study consists of four analytical steps. First a short overview of the history of forestry and of one of its major conceptual generalizations, i.e. sustainability, is given, and the nature of the disciplinary matrix of conventional forestry is identified. Next the development of social forestry is described. This forestry approach is conceptualized as involving forestry policies designed and implemented by professional foresters, and community forest management practices executed by local communities, who are not professionally-trained in forestry. It cannot be assumed that the normative perspectives of these two categories of practitioners are similar. The third step of analysis therefore consists of a comparison of the perspectives of these two categories of forestry practitioners; it shows major differences in normative perspectives. The last step of analysis focuses on how the recognition of such differences has impacted on forestry science and professional practice. It is concluded that social forestry involves major changes in both role- and rule-orientation of professional foresters. The role of professional foresters is not considered any longer as being ideal-typical forest managers, but also as being facilitators of community forestry. Consequently, several new concepts and theories concerning social coordination in forestry evolved.Forestry science became more empirically oriented by paying attention to all possible forest management conditions rather than to professionally-controlled forest management situations only. These changes in forestry science can best be considered as an evolutionary change rather than a paradigmatic one. However, the differentiation in tasks of professional foresters and the loosening of the close institutional links between forestry scientists and professional practitioners can be considered as involving a paradigmatic change in forestry as professional institution.

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    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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    Authors: Friedli, Jürg;
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Doctoral thesis . 2002
    Data sources: Datacite
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Doctoral thesis . 2002
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Krishnan, Parvathy;

    Pathogenic fungi impose a great threat to the global food production. They are globally distributed and display a huge amount of phenotypic diversity. They demonstrate high adaptability to diverse environments and to fluctuating conditions within their hosts. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying these processes of adaptation. Deciphering the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity may help us to get a deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate complex adaptive traits. Furthermore, these findings may help in improving strategies for an effective and sustainable management of pathogens. In my PhD study, I aimed to understand the genetic basis of adaptation to variable environments using Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici causes septoria leaf blotch of wheat and is considered to be the most devastating fungal wheat pathogen in Europe. In the first chapter of my thesis, I studied the role of melanin in adaptation of Z. tritici. I, demonstrated that melanin is essential for protection against harmful chemical fungicides such as bixafen. Remarkably, I observed high phenotypic variability in melanin accumulation levels in different Zymoseptoria tritici strains, most probably reflecting its role in adaptation to variable environments. Using genetic mapping, I was able to demonstrate that variability in melanization levels between two Swiss strains of Z. tritici was mediated by differential expression of the transcription factor Zmr1 (Zymoseptoria melanin regulation 1). I identified nucleotide mutations in the promoter region and an insertion of transposable elements (TEs) upstream of the promoter region as two mechanisms responsible for this observed differential expression of Zmr1. My findings clearly demonstrated the significance of gene expression regulation, mediated by the insertion of TEs and SNPs, in optimizing the growth and adaptation of the fungus under variable environments. Furthermore, these adaptive changes are responsible for the phenotypic diversity that we observe in Z. tritici strains from all over the world. In the second part of my thesis, I analyzed the expression of several secreted peptidases of Z. tritici at distinct stages during the infection process of wheat plants. Using computational genetic methods, I also analyzed nucleotide data sets of the peptidase genes for evolutionary signatures of genetic adaptation. By combining both approaches, I aimed at obtaining a more detailed picture of the relevance and the role of each enzyme during the infection process. I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. In the third part of my thesis, I evaluated the role of a cellulase-encoding gene (JGI Prot. ID: 76589) using molecular biology techniques. This cellulase was only expressed during the final necrotrophic phase of Z. tritici infection and the nucleotide sequences of the gene showed signatures of diversifying selection. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of evasion from host recognition during the first phases of infection and subsequent induction of host-cell death by the secretion of an array of different cellulase isoforms by the fungus. To test this hypothesis, I constitutively expressed the cellulase-encoding gene in Z. tritici during all infection stages by inserting a constitutive promoter (originally from the Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Aspergillus nidulans) upstream of the start codon of the cellulase gene. I was able to show that the progress of infection in this mutant was delayed compared to the non-modified Z. tritici isolates. This suggests that the cellulase acts as an elicitor molecule that is detected by the plant and triggers the defense machinery that will hinder the growth of the pathogen. In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant pathogenic fungi to facilitate adaptation to different environmental conditions and host colonization. Remarkably, I was able to show that gene expression fine-tuning resulted in large amounts of phenotypic diversity in adaptive traits.

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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Doctoral thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Sales, Marli;

    Orientador: Emilia Pietrafesa de Godoi Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas Resumo: Este trabalho trata das transformações materiais e simbólicas verificadas em Angueretá, distrito de Curvelo, MG, no período posterior a 1970. O processo de incorporação das áreas de cerrado à moderna agricultura, que tem início a partir de então, tem como agente o Estado brasileiro, articulado ao capital privado. O município de Curvelo , bem como toda a área em que se inscreve - o sertão mineiro - sofre uma verdadeira transfiguração: novos atores, novas ordens, novas territorialidades, que dialogam e se antagonizam com as ordens, atores e territorialidades pré-existentes. A implantação de uma poderosa malha viária e a retirada do cerrado com sua substituição pela monocultura de eucalipto são os primeiros impactos. A alteração da paisagem a extinção e/ou interdição dos recursos do cerrado obriga os habitantes de Angueretá, locus empírico da investigação, a re-elaborarem suas práticas tradicionais. Discute-se em que medida foram alterados o ambiente, as práticas, as representações simbólicas e as territorialidades, desses habitantes. Abstract: This work deals with the material and symbolic transformations seen at Angueretá,Curvelo district, M.G.,verified in the period after 1970. The incorporation process of natural cerrado areas to the modern agriculture which starts since then has its agent as the Brasilian state joined to the private capital. The municipal district of Curvelo as the whole area in which it inserts itself-the Minas Gerais's sertão-suffers a real transfiguration: new actors,new orders, new territorialities which dialogue and act in opposition to the orders, actors and territorialities which already exists. The implantation of a powerful transport system and the withdraw of the backwards with its substitution by the eucalyptus monoculture are the first impacts. The landscape alteration and thye extintion and/or the interdiction of resources of the woodsy pasture, obligue the Angueretá's inhabitants, locus empiricous of the ivestigation, to reelaborate their traditional practices. One can discuss in which measure the environment was changed, the practices, the symbolic representation and these inhabitants's territorialities. Doutorado Doutor em Ciências Sociais

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
      Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Solyom, Stefan;

    Virtually all real life systems are such that they present some kind of limitation on one or many of its variables, physical quantities. These systems are designated in this thesis as systems with limited capacity. This work is treating control related problems of a subclass of such systems, where the limitation is a critical factor. The thesis is composed of four parts. The first part is treating the control of tire slip in a braking car. The Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) is an important component of a complex steering system for the modern car. In the latest generation of brake-by-wire systems, the controllers have to maintain a specified tire slip for each wheel during braking. This thesis proposes a design model and based on that a hybrid controller that regulates the tire-slip. Simulation and results from drive tests are presented. In the second part, a design method for robust PID controllers is presented for a class of systems with limited capacity. Robustness is ensured with respect to a cone bounded static nonlinearity acting on the plant. Additional constraints on maximum sensitivity are also considered. The design procedure has been successfully applied in the synthesis of the proposed ABS controller. The third part studies the trajectory convergence for a general class of nonlinear systems. The servo problem for piecewise linear systems is presented. Convex optimization is used to describe the behavior of system trajectories of a piecewise linear system with respect to some input signals. The obtained results are then applied for the study of anti-windup compensators. The last part of the thesis is treating the problem of voltage stability in power systems. Voltage at the load end of a power system has to be controlled within prescribed tolerances. In case of emergencies such as sudden line failures, this task ca n be very challenging. The main contribution of this chapter is a method for improving the stability properties of the power system by dynamic compensation of the reference load voltage. Moreover, a complete compensation scheme is proposed where load shedding is the secondary control variable. This control scheme is shown to stabilize different power system models. Alla regler system kan betraktas som system med begränsad kapacitet. Detta arbetet består av fyra delar. Den första delen betraktar reglering av låsningsfria bromsar (ABS). Den andra delen betraktar en tuning metod för PID regulatorer. Den tredje delen beskriver servoproblemet för styckvislinjära system samt en anti-windup syntes metod. Den sista delen beskriver ett spänningstabiitet problem i elkraftsystem.

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