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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mönkkönen, Mikko; Aakala, Tuomas; Blattert, Clemens; Burgas, Daniel; +5 Authors

    National forest inventories (NFI) in Finland provide empirical evidence for a marked increase in tree growth, total forest area, and total timber volume over the past century. Meanwhile, the assessments of threatened forest species and habitats indicate continuous degradation of biodiversity in Finnish forests. To shed light on this seeming paradox, we summarized the temporal patterns of forest characteristics (indicators) that have major influence on biodiversity, comparing the structure of current Finnish forests with natural and historical references. Using a variety of data sources, we estimated the proportion of area of old-growth forest and of deciduous-dominated forests, the density of large trees, and the amount of dead wood in Finnish forests under natural reference conditions, in the 1750s, 1920s (NFI1), and 2010s (NFI12). Our results show that levels of the forest structures essential to maintain ecologically diverse forests are below those that likely prevailed in Finland under natural reference conditions and in the 1750s. This scarcity is particularly pronounced for dead wood volumes and old forest area. The marked increase in the volume of living trees during the last century did not translate into improved biodiversity indicators and has not been effective for turning the tide of biodiversity loss in Finnish forests. We discuss actions that are necessary to safeguard forest biodiversity in Finland both in terms of protected areas and management in production forest.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2022
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      Journal.fi
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mineraud, Julien; Mazhelis, Oleksiy; Su, Xiang; Tarkoma, Sasu;

    We are experiencing an abundance of Internet-of-Things (IoT) middleware solutions that provide connectivity for sensors and actuators to the Internet. To gain a widespread adoption, these middleware solutions, referred to as platforms, have to meet the expectations of different players in the IoT ecosystem, including device providers, application developers, and end-users, among others. In this article, we evaluate a representative sample of these platforms, both proprietary and open-source, on the basis of their ability to meet the expectations of different IoT users. The evaluation is thus more focused on how ready and usable these platforms are for IoT ecosystem players, rather than on the peculiarities of the underlying technological layers. The evaluation is carried out as a gap analysis of the current IoT landscape with respect to (i) the support for heterogeneous sensing and actuating technologies, (ii) the data ownership and its implications for security and privacy, (iii) data processing and data sharing capabilities, (iv) the support offered to application developers, (v) the completeness of an IoT ecosystem, and (vi) the availability of dedicated IoT marketplaces. The gap analysis aims to highlight the deficiencies of today's solutions to improve their integration to tomorrow's ecosystems. In order to strengthen the finding of our analysis, we conducted a survey among the partners of the Finnish IoT program, counting over 350 experts, to evaluate the most critical issues for the development of future IoT platforms. Based on the results of our analysis and our survey, we conclude this article with a list of recommendations for extending these IoT platforms in order to fill in the gaps. 15 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables, Accepted for publication in Computer Communications, special issue on the Internet of Things: Research challenges and solutions

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    Computer Communications
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: VIRTA
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Computer Communications
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2015
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Herzon, Irina; Raatikainen, Kaisa J.; Wehn, Sølvi; Rūsiņa, Solvita; +3 Authors

    The European continent contains substantial areas of semi-natural habitats, mostly grasslands, which are among the most endangered habitats in Europe. Their continued existence depends on some form of human activity, for either production or conservation purposes, or both. We examined the share of semi-natural grasslands within the general grassland areas in boreal Europe. We reviewed research literature across the region to compile evidence on semi-natural grasslands and other semi-natural habitats, such as wooded pastures, in respect to a range of topics such as ecology, land-use change, socioeconomics, and production. We also explored drivers of the research agenda and outlined future research needs. Challenges are faced when defining and quantifying semi-natural habitats even across a restricted region. Agricultural development and other policies clearly impact the research agenda in various countries. There are recent signs of a shift from classical ecological studies toward more multidisciplinary and integrated research. To sufficiently address the threats faced by semi-natural habitats, political and research frameworks in the European Union should pay more attention to the social-ecological complexity inherent in their management and should support the engagement of various actors into participatory governance processes. This is in line with a full-farm approach implicit in high nature value farming systems. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutional Reposi...arrow_drop_down
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    Ecology and Society
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutional Reposi...arrow_drop_down
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      Ecology and Society
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Purhonen, Jenna; Abrego, Nerea; Komonen, Atte; Huhtinen, Seppo; +3 Authors

    The general negative impact of forestry on wood-inhabiting fungal diversity is well recognized, yet the effect of forest naturalness is poorly disentangled among different fungal groups inhabiting dead wood of different tree species. We studied the relationship between forest naturalness, log characteristics and diversity of different fungal morpho-groups inhabiting large decaying logs of similar quality in spruce dominated boreal forests. We sampled all non-lichenized fruitbodies from birch, spruce, pine and aspen in 12 semi-natural forest sites of varying level of naturalness. The overall fungal community composition was mostly determined by host tree species. However, when assessing the relevance of the environmental variables separately for each tree species, the most important variable varied, naturalness being the most important explanatory variable for fungi inhabiting pine and aspen. More strikingly, the overall species richness increased as the forest naturalness increased, both at the site and log levels. At the site scale, the pattern was mostly driven by the discoid and pyrenoid morpho-groups inhabiting pine, whereas at the log scale, it was driven by pileate and resupinate morpho-groups inhabiting spruce. Although our study demonstrates that formerly managed protected forests serve as effective conservation areas for most wood-inhabiting fungal groups, it also shows that conservation planning and management should account for group- or host tree -specific responses. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2021
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      Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Xinyu Tan; Ismo Hakala;

    The increasing significance of operating systems (OSs) in the development of the internet of things (IoT) has emerged in the last decade. An event-driven OS is memory efficient and suitable for resource-constrained IoT devices and wireless sensors, although the program’s control flow, which is determined by events, is not always obvious. A multithreaded OS with sequential control flow is often considered clearer. However, this approach is memory-consuming. A hybrid OS seeks to combine the strengths of the event-driven approach with multithreaded approach. An event-driven cooperative threaded OS represents a hybrid approach that supports concurrency by explicitly yielding control to another thread. Although this approach is memory efficient, as cooperative threads are not preemptive, it may not provide sufficient real-time performance. This article proposes a memory-efficient hybrid OS, called StateOS, for resource-constrained IoT devices. It is an event-driven cooperative threaded OS with partial real-time performance. StateOS implements a hybrid task scheduler that combines two cooperative threaded subsystems as kernel processes on a priority-based preemptive scheduler. This approach provides adequate real-time performance for IoT devices at a low memory cost. peerReviewed

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2...
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2...
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jérémy Cours; Laurent Larrieu; Aurélien Sallé; Christophe Bouget;

    Article• Gold Open Access; International audience; Salvage logging is performed to limit the sanitary and economic impact of forest declines. In the present literature review, we examine the impact of these cuts on the ecosystem services related to the resilience of forest ecosystems. Salvage logging affects forest species communities by decreasing the share of closed-forest species while promoting that of more open spaces. Dryad species and species that regenerate through seeds are rather disadvantaged. The soil physicochemical characteristics are also affected. A better consideration of environmental factors in management choices is recommended.Highlights: Salvage logging adds to the severity of natural disturbances. Salvage logging negatively affects closed-forest species, to the benefit of open-forest species. Salvage logging may induce a decrease in resilience of disturbed forest ecosystems.; Les coupes sanitaires sont utilisées pour limiter l’impact sanitaire et économique des dépérissements forestiers. Dans cette revue de la littérature, nous avons examiné l’impact de ces coupes sur les services écosystémiques associés à la résilience des écosystèmes forestiers. Les coupes sanitaires affectent les communautés d’espèces forestières en réduisant la part des espèces de forêts fermées et en promouvant celles de milieux plus ouverts. Les essences dryades et à régénération obligatoire par graine sont plutôt défavorisées. Les caractéristiques physicochimiques des sols sont également affectées. Une meilleure prise ne compte des facteurs environnementaux dans les choix de gestion est recommandée.Messages clés: Les coupes sanitaires s'additionnent à la sévérité des perturbations naturelles. Elles affectent négativement les espèces de milieux forestiers fermés au profit d'espèces de milieux forestiers ouverts. Elles peuvent induire une baisse de résilience dans les écosystèmes forestiers perturbés.

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    Revue Forestière Française
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Revue Forestière Française
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
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    Authors: Anna Oldén; Otso Ovaskainen; Janne S Kotiaho; Sanna Laaka-Lindberg; +1 Authors

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer ‘lifeboats’ to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 ‘retention aspens’ on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 ‘conservation aspens’ on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20–30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20–30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old-growth forests. peerReviewed

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2014
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    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2014
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pohjanmies, Tähti; Elshibli, Sakina; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Rusanen, Mari; +3 Authors

    Populations at species' range margins are expected to show lower genetic diversity than populations at the core of the range. Yet, long-lived, widespread tree species are expected to be resistant to genetic impoverishment, thus showing comparatively high genetic diversity within populations and low differentiation among populations. Here, we study the distribution of genetic variation in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at its range margin in Finland at two hierarchical scales using 15 microsatellite loci. At a regional scale, we compared variation within versus among three oak populations. At a landscape scale, we examined genetic structuring within one of these populations, growing on an island of ca 5 km(2). As expected, we found the majority of genetic variation in Q. robur to occur within populations. Nonetheless, differentiation among populations was markedly high (F-ST = 0.12) compared with values reported for populations of Q. robur closer to the core of its range. At the landscape level, some spatial and temporal sub-structuring was observed, likely explained by the history of land-use on the island. Overall, Q. robur fulfils the expectation of the central-marginal hypothesis of high differentiation among marginal populations, but the notable population differentiation has most likely been influenced also by the long, ongoing fragmentation of populations. Finnish oak populations may still be adjusting to the drastic habitat changes of the past centuries. Preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands is thus an important factor in the conservation of Q. robur at its range margin. Peer reviewed

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    Silva Fennica
    Article . 2016
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    Authors: Yihua Xiao; Laura Hoikkala; Ville Kasurinen; Marja Tiirola; +2 Authors

    AbstractIron (Fe) may alter the biodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM), by interacting with DOM, phosphorus (P), and microbes. We isolated DOM and a bacterial community from boreal lake water and examined bacterial growth on DOM in laboratory experiments. Fe was introduced either together with DOM (DOM‐Fe) or into bacterial suspension, which led to the formation of insoluble Fe precipitates on bacterial surfaces (Fe coating). In the latter case, the density of planktonic bacteria was an order of magnitude lower than that in the corresponding treatment without introduced Fe. The association of Fe with DOM decreased bacterial growth, respiration, and growth efficiency compared with DOM alone at the ambient concentration of dissolved P (0.16 µmol L−1), indicating that DOM‐associated Fe limited the bioavailability of P. Under a high concentration (21 µmol L−1) of P, bacterial biomass and respiration were similar or several times higher in the treatment where DOM was associated with Fe than in a corresponding treatment without Fe. Based on the next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, Caulobacter dominated bacterial communities grown on DOM‐Fe. This study demonstrated that association of Fe with a bacterial surface or P reduces bacterial growth and the consumption of DOM. In contrast, DOM‐Fe is bioavailable and bound Fe can even stimulate bacterial growth on DOM when P is not limiting.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Laasasenaho, Kari; Lensu, Anssi; Rintala, Jukka;

    Each year, thousands of hectares of peatland that had been harvested are being released in Finland, which can offer an opportunity to increase energy crops and attain the bioenergy targets for non-agriculture lands. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) method was used to improve the assessment of decentralized renewable energy resources. The amount of peat production lands and future cutaway areas for energy crop production was calculated as a case study by using ArcGIS and the Finnish Topographic database. There are almost 1000 km2 of peat production lands in Finland, and theoretically, approximately 300 km2 of cutaway peatlands could be used for energy crops after 30 years. The dry biomass yield of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) or timothy-fescue grass (mix of Phleum pratense and Festuca pratensis) could be higher than 100 Gg a−1 in these lands indicating methane potential of approximately 300 GWh. The exhausted peat production areas in the western region of Finland have significant potential for use for energy crops; North and South Ostrobothnia account for almost 45% of the total peat production land. A future goal could be to use the cutaway peat production lands more efficiently for bioenergy to mitigate climate change. Since the use of wastelands (including peatlands) are being considered in Europe as a way to avoid competition with food production, the GIS method used in the study to identify suitable peat lands could be applicable to biomass resource studies being conducted in many countries. peerReviewed

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    Biomass and Bioenergy
    Article . 2016
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    Biomass and Bioenergy
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biomass and Bioenergy
      Article . 2016
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      Biomass and Bioenergy
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mönkkönen, Mikko; Aakala, Tuomas; Blattert, Clemens; Burgas, Daniel; +5 Authors

    National forest inventories (NFI) in Finland provide empirical evidence for a marked increase in tree growth, total forest area, and total timber volume over the past century. Meanwhile, the assessments of threatened forest species and habitats indicate continuous degradation of biodiversity in Finnish forests. To shed light on this seeming paradox, we summarized the temporal patterns of forest characteristics (indicators) that have major influence on biodiversity, comparing the structure of current Finnish forests with natural and historical references. Using a variety of data sources, we estimated the proportion of area of old-growth forest and of deciduous-dominated forests, the density of large trees, and the amount of dead wood in Finnish forests under natural reference conditions, in the 1750s, 1920s (NFI1), and 2010s (NFI12). Our results show that levels of the forest structures essential to maintain ecologically diverse forests are below those that likely prevailed in Finland under natural reference conditions and in the 1750s. This scarcity is particularly pronounced for dead wood volumes and old forest area. The marked increase in the volume of living trees during the last century did not translate into improved biodiversity indicators and has not been effective for turning the tide of biodiversity loss in Finnish forests. We discuss actions that are necessary to safeguard forest biodiversity in Finland both in terms of protected areas and management in production forest.

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    Journal.fi
    Article . 2022
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    Authors: Mineraud, Julien; Mazhelis, Oleksiy; Su, Xiang; Tarkoma, Sasu;

    We are experiencing an abundance of Internet-of-Things (IoT) middleware solutions that provide connectivity for sensors and actuators to the Internet. To gain a widespread adoption, these middleware solutions, referred to as platforms, have to meet the expectations of different players in the IoT ecosystem, including device providers, application developers, and end-users, among others. In this article, we evaluate a representative sample of these platforms, both proprietary and open-source, on the basis of their ability to meet the expectations of different IoT users. The evaluation is thus more focused on how ready and usable these platforms are for IoT ecosystem players, rather than on the peculiarities of the underlying technological layers. The evaluation is carried out as a gap analysis of the current IoT landscape with respect to (i) the support for heterogeneous sensing and actuating technologies, (ii) the data ownership and its implications for security and privacy, (iii) data processing and data sharing capabilities, (iv) the support offered to application developers, (v) the completeness of an IoT ecosystem, and (vi) the availability of dedicated IoT marketplaces. The gap analysis aims to highlight the deficiencies of today's solutions to improve their integration to tomorrow's ecosystems. In order to strengthen the finding of our analysis, we conducted a survey among the partners of the Finnish IoT program, counting over 350 experts, to evaluate the most critical issues for the development of future IoT platforms. Based on the results of our analysis and our survey, we conclude this article with a list of recommendations for extending these IoT platforms in order to fill in the gaps. 15 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables, Accepted for publication in Computer Communications, special issue on the Internet of Things: Research challenges and solutions

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    Computer Communications
    Article . 2016
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    Computer Communications
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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