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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Silvia Pérez-Criado; José Ramón Bertomeu Sánchez;

    This paper reviews the way in which Spanish agriculture climbed onto the pesticide treadmill. We claim that Fascist policies and expert advice assembled in the early 1940s accelerated the introduction of pesticides into Spanish agriculture and promoted the emergence of the Spanish pesticide industry in the times of autarky. Agricultural engineers were the key protagonists in this process, but other human and non-human actors also played a pivotal role: a new pest (the Colorado beetle), Francoist politicians, farmers, landowners and industry managers. Our focus is on the use of pesticides against the Colorado beetle (the main threat to the potato crop), and the transition from arsenical pesticides to DDT during the 1940s. We discuss how the politics of autarky offered new opportunities for developing agronomic programmes and the chemical industry and led to the creation of the Register of Pesticides in 1942. We also discuss the role of these regulations in concealing the risks of pesticides from farmers and food consumers. Arsenic pesticides became sources of slow poisoning and tools for social control while reinforcing the alliance of agricultural engineers and Fascist politicians in their autarkic and authoritarian projects. When DDT arrived in Spain, the agricultural engineers praised the low toxicity it had demonstrated (compared to lead arsenate) in its first uses in public health and in military campaigns in Italy. Indeed, the data concerning its potential dangers disappeared from view thanks in part to a large multimedia campaign launched to promote the introduction of the new organic pesticides in Spanish agriculture, which is described at the end of the paper. Este artículo revisa la forma en que la agricultura española entró en el círculo vicioso de los pesticidas. A principios de la década de 1940, la unión de políticas de inspiración fascista y el asesoramiento de expertos aceleraron la introducción de los pesticidas en la agricultura, y promovieron el surgimiento de la industria española de pesticidas durante los años de la autarquía franquista. Los protagonistas clave en este proceso fueron los ingenieros agrícolas, pero también otros actores humanos y no humanos jugaron un papel fundamental: una nueva plaga (la del escarabajo de la patata), políticos franquistas, agricultores, propietarios de tierras y empresarios de la industria. El trabajo se centra en el uso de pesticidas contra el escarabajo de la patata (la principal amenaza para el cultivo de patata) y la transición del uso de pesticidas arsenicales al DDT durante la década de 1940. La política de la autarquía ofreció nuevas oportunidades para desarrollar programas agronómicos y la industria química y condujo a la creación del Registro de plaguicidas en 1942. También se revisa el papel de estas regulaciones para ocultar los riesgos de los plaguicidas a agricultores y consumidores. Los pesticidas con arsénico se convirtieron en fuentes de envenenamiento lento y herramientas para el control social al tiempo que reforzaron la alianza de ingenieros agrícolas y políticos fascistas en sus proyectos autárquicos y autoritarios. Cuando el DDT llegó a España, los ingenieros agrícolas elogiaron la baja toxicidad que había demostrado (en comparación con el arseniato de plomo) en sus primeros usos en salud pública y en campañas militares en Italia. De hecho, los datos sobre sus peligros potenciales apenas tuvieron visibilidad, gracias en parte a una gran campaña multimedia lanzada para promover la introducción de los nuevos pesticidas orgánicos en la agricultura española, la cual se describe al final del artículo.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Culture & History Di...arrow_drop_down
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    Culture & History Digital Journal
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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
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    Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Culture & History Digital Journal
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Culture & History Di...arrow_drop_down
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      Culture & History Digital Journal
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      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2021
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      Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Culture & History Digital Journal
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: María Dolores Bargues; Valeria Gayo; Jaime Sanchis; Patricio Artigas; +3 Authors

    Background Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. Methodology/Principal findings The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. Conclusions/Significance The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and epidemiological differences between Andean highlands and non-Andean lowlands in South America. Despite rainfall increase predictions for Uruguay, nothing suggests a trend towards a worrying human infection scenario as in Andean areas. Author summary Fascioliasis is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease emerging in recent decades, in part due to the effects of climate and global changes. South America is the continent presenting more numerous human fascioliasis endemic areas and the highest Fasciola hepatica infection prevalences and intensities known in humans. These serious public health scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. To understand this difference, we characterized F. hepatica from cattle and horses and lymnaeids of Uruguay by sequencing of ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 spacers and mitochondrial DNA cox1, nad1 and 16S genes. Results indicate that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. Our correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock species into Uruguay allow to understand the molecular diversity detected. We study the life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. Results demonstrate that although L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector in the lowlands, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of G. truncatula in the highlands. On this baseline, we review the human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyze the present and future risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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      PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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      PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Alejandro José Pérez Cueva; Ghaleb Fansa;

    espanolMonteagudo del Castillo (Teruel) esta cerca del polo de maxima tormentosidad violenta de la Peninsula Iberica. El aporte pluviometrico de estas tormentas es capaz de invertir el regimen estacional habitual del clima mediterraneo, con el verano como estacion mas lluviosa. Aqui se estudia la gestion tradicional de la arroyada en dos cuencas del termino municipal, desde la doble perspectiva riesgo/recurso: control de la erosion y aprovechamiento de la arroyada para regar prados. Para gestionar la arroyada concentrada de las tormentas se ha modificado la red de drenaje mediante acequias recolectoras y/o evacuadoras y la rectificacion de la red hidrografica natural. Las acequias de derivacion permiten la existencia de prados para ganado bovino con precipitaciones alrededor de 430 mm/ano. Se reconstruye la red de drenaje mediante trabajo de campo, fotointerpretacion y datos LIDAR, para conceptualizar los tipos de cauce, interpretar la red antropica y poder determinar las estrategias de gestion. EnglishMonteagudo del Castillo (Teruel) is near the pole of maximum violent storms of the Iberian Peninsula. The pluviometric contribution of these storms is capable of reversing the usual seasonal regime of the Mediterranean climate, with summer as the rainiest season. Here the traditional management of the stream in two basins of the municipal area is studied, from the double perspective risk/resource: control of erosion and use of the stream to irrigate meadows. To manage the concentrated stream of the storms, the drainage network has been modified through collecting and/or evacuating channels and the rectification of the natural hydrographic network. The derivation channels allow the existence of meadows for cattle with rainfall of around 430 mm/year. The drainage network is reconstructed through field work, photointerpretation and LIDAR data, to conceptualize the channel types, interpret the anthropic network and determine management strategies.

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    Geographicalia
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pereira, Paulo Alexandre da Silva; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; +2 Authors

    The aim of this work is to study the effects of a wildfire on water-extractable elements in ash from a Pinus pinaster forest located in Portugal. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR), aluminium (Al3+), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), zinc (Zn2+), sulphur (S), silica (Si) and phosphorous (P) were analysed in ash sampled from a sloped area burned in a wildfire and from litter from a contiguous unburned area, with similar morphological conditions. The results showed that ash leachates had higher pH and EC, and were significantly richer in water-extractable Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SPAR, S and Si and significantly poorer in water-extractable Al3+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ than litter solutions. No significant differences were observed in water-extractable P. The fire changed the ash solute chemistry compared with the unburned litter and increased the sample variability of nutrient distribution with potential implications for plant recovery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, project CGL2006-11107-C02-02/BOS ‘Evaluation of the quality of Mediterranean soils affected by fire in a middle and large term’ and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER). We are also thankful to Serveis Cientıfico-Tecnics from the University of Barcelona. The authors would also like to acknowledge FuegoRed (Fire Effects on Soil Properties Network) for financing the projects CGL2007-28764-E/BTE CGL2008-01632-E/BTE y CGL2009-06861-E/BTE, the Lithuanian Research Council for financing the project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011), the HYDFIRE project (CGL2010-21670-C02-01) and the Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca del DIUE de la Generalitat de Catalunya. Peer Reviewed

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    Hydrological Processes
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hydrological Processes
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Igor Gómez; Vicente Caselles; María J. Estrela; Juan M Sanchez; +1 Authors

    Atmospheric mesoscale numerical models are commonly used not only for research and air quality studies, but also for other related applications, such as short-term weather forecasting for atmospheric, hydrological, agricultural and ecological modelling. A key element to produce faithful simulations is the proper representation of the soil parameters used in the initialization of the corresponding mesoscale numerical model. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is used in the current study. The model code has been updated in order to permit the model to be initialized using a heterogeneous soil moisture and temperature distribution derived from land surface models. Particularly, RAMS has been adapted to incorporate the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) dataset for the initialization of the corresponding soil parameters. The results obtained using this heterogeneous initialization are compared to the model results obtained by the default homogeneous RAMS initializations. A series of numerical experiments have been conducted for a 7-days period over eastern Spain within the 2011 summer season. The selected period covers different typical summer atmospheric situations from the region of study. Ground data from two FLUXNET stations, together with the measurements registered by a portable weather station, located over the region of study, and other permanent weather stations are used for the result assessment. Incorporating the GLDAS product in the initialization of RAMS has been found to remarkably improve the representation of surface sensible weather parameters. On the other hand, significant differences are still observed in the proper simulation of the surface parameters when the model is applied to well vegetated areas in comparison to those obtained over poor and/or sparsely vegetated regions. Considering the better agreement found in this latter case, we have performed several sensitivity tests regarding land-surface-atmosphere coupling with the aim of improving the original results over well vegetated areas. This work has been funded by the Regional Government of Valencia through the project PROMETEOII/2014/086. The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness with co-funding from the European Development Regional Fund (MINECO/FEDER, UE; Project AGL2014-55658-R, FORESTRENGTH), and the Education, Culture and Sports Department of the Castilla-La Mancha Regional Council with co-funding from the European Development Regional Fund (FEDER) (Project PEIC-2014- 002-P, ECOFLUX III) are acknowledged for funding the acquisition of surface fluxes data for RAMS validation.

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    Authors: Sutcliffe, Laura M. E.; Batáry, Péter; Kormann, Urs; Baldi, Andras; +39 Authors

    A large proportion of European biodiversity today depends on habitat provided by low‐intensity farming practices, yet this resource is declining as European agriculture intensifies. Within the European Union, particularly the central and eastern new member states have retained relatively large areas of species‐rich farmland, but despite increased investment in nature conservation here in recent years, farmland biodiversity trends appear to be worsening. Although the high biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland has long been reported, the amount of research in the international literature focused on farmland biodiversity in this region remains comparatively tiny, and measures within the EU Common Agricultural Policy are relatively poorly adapted to support it. In this opinion study, we argue that, 10 years after the accession of the first eastern EU new member states, the continued under‐representation of the low‐intensity farmland in Central and Eastern Europe in the international literature and EU policy is impeding the development of sound, evidence‐based conservation interventions. The biodiversity benefits for Europe of existing low‐intensity farmland, particularly in the central and eastern states, should be harnessed before they are lost. Instead of waiting for species‐rich farmland to further decline, targeted research and monitoring to create locally appropriate conservation strategies for these habitats is needed now. Volkswagen Foundation

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.co...
    Article
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    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Mohammad Reza Goodarzi; Rabi H. Mohtar; Mahboobeh Kiani-Harchegani; Alireza Faraji; +2 Authors

    El Índice de Pobreza Hídrica (WPI) se considera, en general, una herramienta simple y clara para evaluar los efectos de factores combinados sobre la escasez de agua y la tensión de los recursos hídricos. En esta investigación, intentamos centrarnos en las problemáticas hídricas en las cabeceras de montaña de la cuenca de Karoon en Irán para analizar el estado de los recursos hídricos. Para este propósito, los datos requeridos se obtuvieron en primer lugar mediante la preparación de un informe de la Autoridad del Agua, la parte Agrícola y la Organización de Agua y Saneamiento del Condado de Borujerd. Luego, se estimó el valor del WPI a escala de subcuenca del río Karoon considerando como recurso la posibilidad de acceso, capacidad socioeconómica, usos y criterios de calidad ambiental. Los resultados de esta investigación indicaron un rango de variación entre 6,6 y 18,2, obteniendo el punto más bajo por su condición ambiental actual y el punto más alto por el fácil acceso. Los valores más altos de cada criterio muestran las mejores condiciones que conducen a una menor pobreza hídrica en esa subcuenca. En general, el valor de WPI es aproximadamente 67,65, según la clasificación del centro de Ecología e Hidrología de Wallingford, esta subcuenca se ubica en un rango de pobreza hídrica de baja a moderada. Dado el carácter multidimensional del WPI y considerando todos los factores que afectan a la disponibilidad o falta de recursos hídricos, así como las implicaciones económicas y sociales para la población dedicada, principalmente a la agricultura y la ganadería, podemos concluir que este índice puede ser considerado como una herramienta útil para esta región priorizar las áreas críticas y un paso efectivo para el desarrollo y uso óptimo de sus recursos hídricos. Water poverty index (WPI) is widely considered a simple and clear tool to evaluate the effects of combined factors on water shortage and resources stress. In this research, we tried to focus on water tensions in the upstream part of the Karoon basin in Iran for analyzing the water status of the area. For this purpose, the required data were firstly obtained by preparing a report from the Water Authority, Agricultural part, and the Water and Wastewater Organization of Borujerd County. Then, the value of the WPI was estimated at the sub-basin scale of the large Karoon River in the Borujerd-Dorood Watershed (Iran) considering as a resource, the possibility to access, socio-economic capacity, uses, and environmental quality criteria. Results of this research indicated a variation range between 6.6 and 18.2, obtaining the lowest point for its current environmental condition and the highest point due to the easy access. The highest values of each criterion show the better conditions that lead to less water poverty in that sub-basin area. In general, the value of WPI in the study area is approximately 67.65, according to the classification of the Ecology and Hydrology center of Wallingford, this sub-basin is placed in a low to moderate range of water poverty. Given the multidimensional nature of the WPI and considering all the factors affecting the availability or lack of water resources as well as economic and social implications for the rural inhabitants devoted to agriculture and pasture, we conclude that this index can be considered as a useful tool in prioritizing the critical areas and an effective step to develop optimal use of water resources.

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    Pirineos: Revista de Ecología de Montaña
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Pirineos: Revista de Ecología de Montaña
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    Authors: Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado; Javier Andrey; Michaël Sicard; Francisco Molero; +10 Authors

    We present a comparison of aerosol properties derived from in situ and remote sensing instruments during DAMOCLES campaign, aimed at investigating the equivalence between the instrumentation and methodologies employed by several Spanish groups to study atmospheric aerosols at a regional background site. The complete set of instruments available during this closure experiment allowed collecting a valuable high-resolution aerosol measurement data set. The data set was augmented with airborne in situ measurements carried out in order to characterize aerosol particles during the midday of 29 June 2006. This work is focused on aerosol measurements using different techniques of high-quality instruments (ground-based remote sensing and aircraft in situ) and their comparisons to characterize the aerosol vertical profiles. Our results indicate that the variability between the detected aerosol layers was negligible in terms of aerosol optical properties and size distributions. Relative differences in aerosol extinction coefficient profiles were less than 20% at 355 and 532 nm and less than 30% at 1064 nm, in the region with high aerosol concentration. Absolute differences in aerosol optical depth (AOD) were below 0.01 at 532 and 1064 nm and less than 0.02 at 355 nm, less than the uncertainties assumed in the AOD obtained from elastic lidar. Columnar values of the lidar ratio revealed some discrepancies with respect to the in situ aircraft measurements, caused fundamentally by the lack of information in the lowest part of the boundary layer. Peer Reviewed

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    Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
    Other literature type . Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
      Other literature type . Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sánchez-Jerez, Pablo; Babarro, Jose M. F.; Padin, X.A.; Longa Portabales, Angeles; +4 Authors

    Marine aquaculture takes advantage of marine ecosystem services to produce goods that can be relevant from a food security point of view. However, this activity is subject to multiple stressors as the ones exerted by global climate change. Local stressed conditions due to environmental drivers may be exacerbated by the COVID19 pandemic crisis. In this paper we analyze the pre-COVID-19 situation in two Spanish regions with the highest aquaculture production, Galicia and the Valencian Community. The incidence of storms, heat waves and mussel farming closure were analyzed, and surveys were used to define the perception of producers in terms of economic problems derived from COVID-19 and synergistic environmental concerns. Also the temporal trend of mussel production was analyzed. Spanish marine aquaculture has been intensively subjected to climatic stressors that made it more vulnerable to COVID-19, showing some weakness in terms of production as can be seen in mussel production and fresh consumption. Anyway, extensive aquaculture and aquaculture developed by Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) was reported as somewhat more resilient to the impact of COVID-19. In order to ensure the environmental and economic sustainability of marine aquaculture - under a future uncertain pandemic scenario – our outcomes underline the need for more resilient adaptation programs and recovery plans taking into account the climate change effects M.C.M.’s research activity was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation pro- gramme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action (Grant agreement no. 835589, MIRROR Project) 9 pages, 8 figures Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ottenbros, Ilse; Lebret, Erik; Huber, Carolin; Lommen, Arjen; +27 Authors

    Humans are exposed to a mixture of pesticides through diet as well as through the environment. We conducted a suspect-screening based study to describe the probability of (concomitant) exposure to a set of pesticide profiles in five European countries (Latvia, Hungary, Czech Republic, Spain and the Netherlands). We explored whether living in an agricultural area (compared to living in a peri-urban area), being a a child (compared to being an adult), and the season in which the urine sample was collected had an impact on the probability of detection of pesticides (-metabolites). In total 2088 urine samples were collected from 1050 participants (525 parent-child pairs) and analyzed through harmonized suspect screening by five different laboratories. Fourty pesticide biomarkers (either pesticide metabolites or the parent pesticides as such) relating to 29 pesticides were identified at high levels of confidence in samples across all study sites. Most frequently detected were biomarkers related to the parent pesticides acetamiprid and chlorpropham. Other biomarkers with high detection rates in at least four countries related to the parent pesticides boscalid, fludioxonil, pirimiphos-methyl, pyrimethanil, clothianidin, fluazifop and propamocarb. In 84% of the samples at least two different pesticides were detected. The median number of detected pesticides in the urine samples was 3, and the maximum was 13 pesticides detected in a single sample. The most frequently co-occurring substances were acetamiprid with chlorpropham (in 62 urine samples), and acetamiprid with tebuconazole (30 samples). Some variation in the probability of detection of pesticides (-metabolites) was observed with living in an agricultural area or season of urine sampling, though no consistent patterns were observed. We did observe differences in the probability of detection of a pesticide (metabolite) among children compared to adults, suggesting a different exposure and/or elimination patterns between adults and children. This survey demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a harmonized pan-European sample collection, combined with suspect screening to provide insight in the presence of exposure to pesticide mixtures in the European population, including agricultural areas. Future improvements could come from improved (harmonized) quantification of pesticide levels. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 733032 HBM4EU, No 857560 and No 857340. P.C., O.M. & L.S. acknowledge the RECETOX research infrastructure supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LM2018121) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/17_043/0009632). This publication reflects only the author’s view and the European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. BG was supported by the Margarita Salas postdoctoral contract MGS/2021/25 (UP2021-021) financed by the European UnionNextGenerationEU. Sí

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    REPISALUD
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: REPISALUD
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      REPISALUD
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: REPISALUD
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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