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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ertaş, Cemal;

    Ahlat, Doğu Anadolu Bölges'inde patates tarımının en fazla yapıldığı yerlerin başında gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; Ahlat'ta üretimi en fazla yapılan Granola patates çeşidinde, toprak ve yaprak analizleriyle verimliliğin ve bitki beslenme durumunun belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla, Ahlat ilçesine bağlı patates üretiminin en fazla yapıldığı 10 farklı köy/mahalleden (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş ve Kültür) ve her köy/mahalleden 4 çiftçi tarlası olmak üzere toplam 40 patates tarlasından toprak ve bitki örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örnekleriyle yapılan analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprak örnekleri genel olarak, tınlı bünyede, organik madde miktarları düşük, (% 0.39-1.90) tuzluluk problemi olmayan, nötr-hafif asidik reaksiyonda (5.46-7.34) ve kireç miktarı bakımından (% 1.18-2.36) kireçli gruba dahildir. Denemeye alınan toprak örneklerinin % 88'inde yarayışlı P miktarı yeterli-fazla, % 98'inde değişebilir K miktarı yeterli, değişebilir Ca miktarı örneklerin % 60'ında yeterli ve % 40'ında düşük ve değişebilir Mg miktarı % 85 örnekte yeterli bulunmuştur. Toprakta DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilir Fe, Zn ve Cu içeriklerinin genel olarak yeterli ve yüksek olduğu belirlenirken, DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilen Mn içeriğinin toprakların % 58'inde yeterli ve % 42'sinde düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; genel olarak yaprak N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu miktarları yeterli bulunurken, K, Mg ve Zn miktarları düşük bulunmuştur. Toprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprağa organik gübre ilavesinin patates yetiştiriciliği için faydalı olacağı kanaatine varılmıştır. Ayrıca, toprakta yeterli olmasına rağmen, bitkide K, Mg ve Zn miktarlarının düşük olması uygulanan azot ve fosforlu gübre düzeylerinin yüksekliğinden kaynaklanan antagonistik bir ilişkilerin varlığını göstermektedir. Ahlat is taken an important place among places which are cultivated potatoes in Eastern Anatolia. The aim of the study is to determine status of the fertility and plant nutrition through soil and leaf analysis of the most produced potatoes `Granola` in Ahlat. For this purpose, soil and plant samples were taken 40 potato fields in total; 10 different villages and neighborhoods (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş, Kültür) and 4 farmer fields from each places. Productivity and various nutrient elements were analyzed by using these soil and plant samples. According to the results of the soil samples are generally determined in the group of loamy texture, low amount of organic matters (0.39-1.90%), no salinity problems, neutral- slightly acidic reaction (5.46-7.34) lime according the lime content (1.18-2.36 %). 88% of the sample soils in the resarch was found sufficient-excess for available P amount; 98 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable K amount. Also 60 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Ca amount and 85 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Mg amount. The amount of DTPA Mn was found sufficient in 58 % and low in 42 % of the soils while the amount of Fe, Zn and Cu extractable with DTPA in the soil was determined sufficient high. According to the results of the leaf analysis; N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu amounts of the leaf were found sufficient; K, Mg and Zn amount of the leaf was fount low. According to the results of the soil analysis, it can be said that the organic fertilizer addition would be benefical. Also, although they are sufficient in the soil, low amount of K, Mg and Zn in the plant shows antagonistic relationship between high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applied. 66

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    Authors: Durgun, Burhan;

    Atabey Ovası toprakları yüksek tepelikler ve sırt araziler, koluviyal etekler, alüviyal yelpazeler, yaşlı dere yatakları, bajadalar, taban araziler ve genç dere yatakları fizyografik üniteleri üzerinde oluşmuşlardır. Bu değişkenlik ovada 20 farklı toprak serisinin oluşmasına, çinkonun yarayışlılığı ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonların da değişime neden olmaktadır. Bunun sonucunda ovada değişen derecelerde çinko noksanlığı ve tarımsak uygulamalardan kaynaklanan çinko toksikliği ortaya çıkmaktadır. Çinko yarayışlığında ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonlardaki değişimin belirlenmesi için her bir serinin 3 farklı noktasından alınan yüzey toprak örnekleri (0-20 cm derinlik) alınarak toplamda 70 ovayı temsil eden 70 örnekleme yapılmıştır. Daha sonra bu topraklarda tanımlayıcı fizikokimyasal analizler ve kademeli Zn fraksiyon analizler yapılmıştır. Ektraksiyon sırası; suda çözünebilir ve değişebilir fraksiyon (WS-EX), karbonatlara bağlı (Car-Zn), Mn oksitlere bağlı (MnOX-Zn), amorf Fe oksitlere bağlı (AFeOx-Zn), kristalin Fe oksitlere (KFeOx-Zn), organik ve sülfitlere bağlı (OS-Zn) ve bakiye fraksiyon (R-Zn) şeklindedir. Çinko fraksiyonlarının toprak toprak özellikleri ile olan ilişkileri varyans analizi, korrelasyon analizi ve kemometrik analizlerle ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ova topraklarında bu fraksiyonların ortalama dağılım sırası küçükten büyüğe doğru WS-EX (%0.304)<MnOx-Zn (%0.555)<Car-Zn (%3.096)<OS-Zn (%3.723)<KFeOx-Zn (%14.97)<AFeOx-Zn (19.61)<R-Zn (%57.74) şeklinde gerçekleşmiştir. Bu fraksiyonlardan WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn ve AFeOx-Zn fraksiyonlarının Zn'nin yarayışlı miktarlarıyla yakından ilişkili olduğu özellikle gübreleme ve ziraai mücadele gibi tarımsal uygulamalarla artan Zn konsantrasyonu bu fraksiyonların oransal değerlerinde artışlar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ovada Zn eksiklik/toksiklik mekanizmasının kullanışlı olacaktır. Elde edilen veriler tarımsal üreünlerin miktarını ve kalitesini arttırabilmek için ekonomik ve çevreye duyarlı gübreleme programlarının geliştirilmesine katkı sağlayabilecektir. Soil of Atabey Plain have formed different physiographic units such as hills and slopes, colluvium, alluvium, old stream beds, bajadas, lowlands, and young stream beds. Such variation resulted in the formation of 20 soil series and this in fact leaded to changes in the availability and geochemical fractions of soil zinc. Thus differing degrees of zinc deficiency and possible toxicity in some location are observed in the Plain. Total of 70 surface soil samples were collected from at least three different locations of each soil series. Descriptive physico-chemical parameters and sequential extraction of Zn were determined in the soils. The extraction sequence of the Zn fractions were: water soluble and exchangeable fraction (WS-EX), carbonate related fraction (Car-Zn), manganese oxide fraction(MnOx-Zn), amorphous Fe oxides fraction (AFeOx-Zn), crystalline Fe oxide fraction (KFeOx-Zn), fraction bound to sulphites and organic compounds (OS-Zn), and residual fraction (R-Zn). Relationships between zinc fraction and soil components and soil properties were revealed by means of Pearson correlation and chemometric analysis. The chemical fractions of soil Zn in acidic soils were found to be in the following descending order of Zn percentages: WS-EX (0.304%) < MnOx-Zn (0.555%) < Car-Zn (3.096%) < OS-Zn (3.723%) < KFeOx-Zn (14.97%) < AFeOx-Zn (19.61%) < R-Zn (57.74%). The occurence of WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn, and AFeOx-Zn fractions which are potentially plant available found to be related to increased Zn input induced by agricultural practices such as fertilization and pest management. The results of this study will be useful data-base for understanding the mechanisms of zinc deficiency/toxicity of Atabey Plain's soils. These information may enable to develop economically feasible and environmentally friendly fertilization strategies towards enhancing the yield and yield quality of agricultural products in the region. 104

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    Authors: Patiño Barrera, Eldibrando;

    "Los avances en los proyectos de ingeniería asociados a medios rocosos requieren cada día procedimientos más modernos para determinar las propiedades mecánicas del subsuelo, debido a que los métodos que se han venido implementando han perdido vigencia debido a su agotamiento, demora, complejidad y un elevado costo para su ejecución. Los Métodos No Destructivos – MND, que utilizan las ondas elásticas, se han constituido en una herramienta importante para la investigación del subsuelo porque con su sencillez, rapidez y bajo costo, agilizan los trabajos, dando resultados satisfactorios en el desarrollo de la ingeniería. Con la aplicación de este método es posible obtener indirectamente las propiedades mecánicas del macizo rocoso, sin embargo, las relaciones que se emplean todavía están en proceso de comprobación, Como contribución en el proceso de investigación técnico-científica, en el presente trabajo se exponen algunos razonamientos y procedimientos que permiten darle a los métodos no destructivos una aplicación más práctica en el conocimiento del macizo rocoso. En la mecánica de rocas, los parámetros mecánicos más representativos del medio rocoso son la resistencia a la compresión simple y el módulo de deformación. Los MND, mediante la utilización de ondas elásticas que se desplazan en el macizo rocoso, generaron un campo de investigación muy amplio, el cual cada vez se fertiliza más con los resultados que se van produciendo y que son aplicados a la ingeniería de rocas. En el marco de la investigación adelantada, los trabajos de campo consistieron en la ejecución de tres perforaciones en medios rocosos conformados por calizas, areniscas y arcillolitas, respectivamente, obteniendo el muestreo de rocas para desarrollar el programa de laboratorio y adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas Down Hole sobre las perforaciones midiendo la velocidad de ondas elásticas en los macizos rocosos explorados." -- Extracto del texto "The advances in the engineering projects associated with rocky media require more modern procedures every day to determine the mechanical properties of the subsoil, because the methods that have been implemented have lost their validity due to their exhaustion, delay, complexity and a high level of cost for its execution Non-Destructive Methods - MND, which uses elastic waves, have become an important tool for underground research because with its simplicity, speed and low cost, speed up the work, giving satisfactory results in the development With the application of this method it is possible to obtain indirectly the mechanical properties of the rock mass, however, the relationships that are used are still in the process of verification, as a contribution in the technical-scientific research process, in the present Some of the reasoning and procedures that allow the Give non-destructive methods a more practical application in the knowledge of the rock mass. In rock mechanics, the most representative mechanical parameters of the rocky medium are the simple compressive strength and the modulus of deformation. The MND, through the use of elastic waves that move in the rock mass, generated a very broad field of research, which is increasingly fertilized with the results that are produced and that are applied to the engineering of rocks. In the framework of the advanced investigation, the field works consisted of the execution of three perforations in rocky media formed by limestones, sandstones and arcillolites, respectively, obtaining the rock sampling to develop the laboratory program and additionally, tests were carried out Down Hole over the perforations by measuring the speed of elastic waves in the rocky massifs explored. "- Excerpt from the text Magíster en Ingeniería Civil con Énfasis en Geotecnia Maestría

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    Authors: Tagliabue, G.; Masseroli, A.; Mattia, M.; Sala, C.; +5 Authors
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    Authors: El-Rihani, Amjad T.;

    Seventy-eight soil samples belonging to 15 sites were sampled by SEAM project in 1976. These 15 pedons represent different soil types which cover the Manti-LaSal area in the central part of Utah. The 15 pedons were described in standard notation. Complete soil analysis was done. The soil analysis includes the following determinations: particle size distribution, moisture retention, soil pH, organic matter, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity , base saturation, extractable cations and saturation extract soluble. Also x-ray diffraction for selected horizons was done. The 15 pedons were classified according to the currently used system. This report includes the classification and the interpretation of these soils. The purpose of this report is to facilitate planning the management of resources in the Manti-LaSal forest.

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    DigitalCommons@USU
    Other literature type . 1977
    Data sources: DigitalCommons@USU
    https://doi.org/10.26076/e7d4-...
    Other literature type . 1977
    Data sources: Datacite
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      DigitalCommons@USU
      Other literature type . 1977
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      https://doi.org/10.26076/e7d4-...
      Other literature type . 1977
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    Authors: Turak, Celal;

    11 BÜTÜNÜYLE KATI-HAL KONTAKT AMONYUM-SEÇİCİ PVC-MEMBRAN KONDÜKTOMETRİK ELEKTROTLAR VE PERFORMANS KARAKTERİSTİKLERİ ÖZET Nonaktin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 ve disüdo-18~crown-6 gibi crown-eter bileşikleri (nötral iyonoforlar olarak) kullanılarak tümüyle katı-hal kontakt PVC-membran NH/- seçici elektrotlar hazırlandı. Elektrotların kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik performansları bilgisayarlı bir ölçüm sisteminde araştırıldı. Hazırlanan elektrotların tamamına yakını ana iyon çözeltisine karşı Nernst davranışı gösterirken (>60 mV/her 10 kat değişim), cevap zamanları kısa (<15 s) ve kullanım ömürleri uzundu (en az 1-2 ay). or -i Tüm elektrotlar 10` -10` mol.L` konsantrasyon aralığında ana iyon çözeltisine karşı doğrusal davranış sergilemekteydi. Elektrotların ana iyon yanında girişim yapan iyonlara karşı seçicilik katsayıları ayrı çözelti metodu ile hesaplandı. A ve D ile ifade edilen membran elektrotlar NHU+ iyonuna karşı Na+ ve K+ iyonları yanında oldukça yüksek kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik seçicilik sergilediği, B ve C membran elektrotların ise çözeltide NH41` iyonuna karşı düşük düzeyde seçicilik sergilediği sonucuna varıldı. Genel olarak, bütünüyle katı-hal kontakt NHU+ seçici membran elektrotların kondüktometrik sistemde NH4+ iyonuna karşı seçiciliği potansiyometrik sistemle kıyaslandığında azaldı. Ayrıca elektrotların düşük hücre hacimli akış hücreleri hazırlanarak hareketli ortamlarda da ölçümler alındı. D membran bileşimi ile hazırlanan elektrot kullanılarak, amonyumun toprak numunelerinde tayini kondüktometrik ve potansyometrik-akış enjeksiyon sistemlerinde başarıyla gerçekleştirildi. Anahtar Kelimeler : PVC-membran Elektrotlar, Bütünüyle Katı-Hal, Seçici kondüktometri, Amonyum, Toprak Analizi. Ill ALL SOLID-STATE CONTACT AMMONIUM-SELECTIVE PVC- MEMBRANE CONDUCTOMETRIC ELECTRODES AND THEIR PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ABSTRACT All solid-state contact PVC-membrane NH4+-selective electrodes were prepared by using crown-ether compounds Nonactin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 and dicyclo-18-crown-6 as neutral ionofores. The conductometric and potentiometric performances of electrodes were examined with a computerized measuring system. All electrodes almost exhibited Nernstian behaviour (>60 mV/per decade), short response times (<15 s) and long life times (at least 1-2 months) with a linear response between 10`2-10`5 mol.L`1 solutions of primary ion. Selectivity cofficients of the electrodes againt potential interferent ions were calculated by separate solution method. Membrane electrodes A and D exhibited a high degree of conductometric and potentiometric selectivity toward NH/ against Na+ and K+ ions. Although membrane electrodes B and C resulted a limeted selectivity toward NH4+ ion in solution. All solid-state NH/ selective membrane electrodes applied in the potentiometric form of the measurement behaved more selective toward NH4+ than applied in the conductometric form of the measurment selectivity of all solid-state NHU+ selective membrane electrodes toward NH/ ion was diminished by applying conductometry. Flow-through cells for the electrodes were designed and used in flowing conditions. Electrodes prepared with D membrane, ammonium ion was determined successfully in soil samples by the use of conductometric and potentiometric-flow injection system. Keywords : PVC-Membrane Electrodes, All Solid-State, Selective Conductometry, Ammonium, Soil Analysis. 70

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    Authors: Lilka Isuzu Kawazaki; Mario Miyazawa; Marcos Antonio Pavan; Julio Cezar Franchini;

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a flow injection system for determination of residual CO3(2-) in soil amended with lime material. It was used a closed system were the CO2 released from soil sample acidified with 0.5 mol L-1 HCl was capted in a 0.2 mol L-1 NaOH solution. After 16h the capted CO2 was determined by conductivimetry using a flow injection system. The results obtained by the proposed method were significantly correlated with those reported in soil samples used by the International Soil Analytical Exchange Programe. The regression equation was: y = 0.987x -- 0.075 r = 0.996, P > 0.01. For acid soils amended with CaCO3 the method showed a deviation error of 2.7%, detection limit was 0.077 mmol kg-1 of CO3(2-), and a recovery of 99.7% of the total CO3(2-) added in soil sample. The method was easily adapted for routine determination of residual CO3(2-) in soil samples with an analytical frequency of 40 samples per hour.

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    Química Nova
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      Química Nova
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    Authors: Sanderman, Jonathan; Smith, Colleen; Safanelli, José L.; Mitu, Sadia Mannan; +3 Authors

    Up-to-date information on soil properties and the ability to track changes in soil properties over time are critical for improving multiple decisions on soil security at various scales, ranging from global climate change modeling and policy to national level environmental and development planning, to farm and field level resource management. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy has become an indispensable laboratory tool for the rapid estimation of numerous soil properties to support various soil mapping, soil monitoring, and soil testing applications. Recent advances in hardware technology have enabled the development of handheld sensors with similar performance specifications as laboratory-grade near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Here, we've compiled a hand-held NIR spectral library (1350-2550 nm) using the NeoSpectra Handheld NIR Analyzer developed by Si-Ware. Each scanner is fitted with Fourier-Transform technology based on the semiconductor Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) manufacturing technique, promising accuracy, and consistency between devices. This library includes 2,106 distinct mineral soil samples scanned across 9 of these portable low-cost NIR spectrometers (indicated by serial no). 2,016 of these soil samples were selected to represent the diversity of mineral soils found in the United States, and 90 samples were selected across Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria. 519 of the US samples were selected and scanned by Woodwell Climate Research Center. These samples were queried from the USDA NRCS NSSC-KSSL Soil Archives as having a complete set of eight measured properties (TC, OC, TN, CEC, pH, clay, sand, and silt). They were stratified based on the major horizon and taxonomic order, omitting the categories with less than 500 samples. Three percent of each stratum (i.e., a combination of major horizon and taxonomic order) was then randomly selected as the final subset retrieved from KSSL's physical soil archive as 2-mm sieved samples. The remaining 1,604 US samples were queried from the USDA NRCS NSSC-KSSL Soil Archives by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln to meet the following criteria: Lower depth <= 30 cm, pH range 4.0 to 9.5, Organic carbon <10%, Greater than lower detection limits, Actual physical samples available in the archive, Samples collected and analyzed from 2001 onwards, Samples having complete analyses for high-priority properties (Sand, Silt, Clay, CEC, Exchangeable Ca, Exchangeable Mg, Exchangeable K, Exchangeable Na, CaCO3, OC, TN), & MIR scanned. All samples were scanned dry 2mm sieved. ~20g of sample was added to a plastic weighing boat where the NeoSpectra scanner would be placed down to make direct contact with the soil surface. The scanner was gently moved across the surface of the sample as 6 replicate scans were taken. These replicates were then averaged so that there is one spectra per sample per scanner in the resulting database. The repository contains: Neospectra_database_column_names.csv: describes the variables (columns) of site and soil data, and the range of NIR and MIR spectra. Both Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_avg and Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_reps share the same columns. The CSV is composed of the file name, column name, type, example, and description with measurement unit. Neospectra_project_summary.txt: the summary of the project with purpose, the origin of soil samples, instrumentation, and brief SOP. Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_avg_MIR.csv: the equivalent MIR spectra of neospectra samples' list that was fetched from the KSSL database and formatted to the OSSL specifications. Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_avg_soil+site+NIR.csv: soil, site, and Neospectra's NIR. Each row contains the averaged spectra for a given scanner and soil sample (1 spectra per scanner per soil sample). Soil and site info is filled within the same soil sample. Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_reps_soil+site+NIR.csv: soil, site, and Neospectra's NIR. Each row contains one replicated spectra of a given scanner (6 repeats per scanner per soil sample). Soil and site info is filled within the same soil sample. We thank the USDA NRCS National Soil Survey Center for providing access to their soil archives and for continuing to promote the use of soil spectroscopy. This project was funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Award # 2020-67021-32467; USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Award # 2018-67007-28529; Woodwell Fund for Climate Solutions; and Foodshot Global.

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    Authors: Bataglia, O. C.; Santos, W. R.;

    O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia) foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate soil and plant responses to a continuous supply of NPK fertilizers on rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. The experiment was conducted on a Red-Yellow Podzolic Latosol sand/medium texture at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A fractionated factorial experiment 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) was used, with doses of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. The evaluations consisted of soil, leaf and trunk girth analyses. The nitrogen fertilizer (urea) promoted the greatest changes in soil fertility, significantly increasing soil acidity. Leaf N concentration was enhanced while K and S decreased. Phosphate fertilizer increased soil P availability and leaf P. Potassium fertilizer improved soil and leaf K contents. Leaf N was better correlated with plant growth while soil and leaf P and K were not consistently correlated. Borum concentrations in the leaves were positively correlated with the immaturity period of the crop. The availability of other micronutrients was not affected by the fertilizer treatments. Nitrogen and potassium nutrition showed the best correlations with crop growth. Differences up to twelve months in the immaturity period were observed for the different treatments.

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    Authors: Ertaş, Cemal;

    Ahlat, Doğu Anadolu Bölges'inde patates tarımının en fazla yapıldığı yerlerin başında gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; Ahlat'ta üretimi en fazla yapılan Granola patates çeşidinde, toprak ve yaprak analizleriyle verimliliğin ve bitki beslenme durumunun belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla, Ahlat ilçesine bağlı patates üretiminin en fazla yapıldığı 10 farklı köy/mahalleden (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş ve Kültür) ve her köy/mahalleden 4 çiftçi tarlası olmak üzere toplam 40 patates tarlasından toprak ve bitki örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örnekleriyle yapılan analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprak örnekleri genel olarak, tınlı bünyede, organik madde miktarları düşük, (% 0.39-1.90) tuzluluk problemi olmayan, nötr-hafif asidik reaksiyonda (5.46-7.34) ve kireç miktarı bakımından (% 1.18-2.36) kireçli gruba dahildir. Denemeye alınan toprak örneklerinin % 88'inde yarayışlı P miktarı yeterli-fazla, % 98'inde değişebilir K miktarı yeterli, değişebilir Ca miktarı örneklerin % 60'ında yeterli ve % 40'ında düşük ve değişebilir Mg miktarı % 85 örnekte yeterli bulunmuştur. Toprakta DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilir Fe, Zn ve Cu içeriklerinin genel olarak yeterli ve yüksek olduğu belirlenirken, DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilen Mn içeriğinin toprakların % 58'inde yeterli ve % 42'sinde düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; genel olarak yaprak N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu miktarları yeterli bulunurken, K, Mg ve Zn miktarları düşük bulunmuştur. Toprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprağa organik gübre ilavesinin patates yetiştiriciliği için faydalı olacağı kanaatine varılmıştır. Ayrıca, toprakta yeterli olmasına rağmen, bitkide K, Mg ve Zn miktarlarının düşük olması uygulanan azot ve fosforlu gübre düzeylerinin yüksekliğinden kaynaklanan antagonistik bir ilişkilerin varlığını göstermektedir. Ahlat is taken an important place among places which are cultivated potatoes in Eastern Anatolia. The aim of the study is to determine status of the fertility and plant nutrition through soil and leaf analysis of the most produced potatoes `Granola` in Ahlat. For this purpose, soil and plant samples were taken 40 potato fields in total; 10 different villages and neighborhoods (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş, Kültür) and 4 farmer fields from each places. Productivity and various nutrient elements were analyzed by using these soil and plant samples. According to the results of the soil samples are generally determined in the group of loamy texture, low amount of organic matters (0.39-1.90%), no salinity problems, neutral- slightly acidic reaction (5.46-7.34) lime according the lime content (1.18-2.36 %). 88% of the sample soils in the resarch was found sufficient-excess for available P amount; 98 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable K amount. Also 60 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Ca amount and 85 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Mg amount. The amount of DTPA Mn was found sufficient in 58 % and low in 42 % of the soils while the amount of Fe, Zn and Cu extractable with DTPA in the soil was determined sufficient high. According to the results of the leaf analysis; N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu amounts of the leaf were found sufficient; K, Mg and Zn amount of the leaf was fount low. According to the results of the soil analysis, it can be said that the organic fertilizer addition would be benefical. Also, although they are sufficient in the soil, low amount of K, Mg and Zn in the plant shows antagonistic relationship between high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applied. 66

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    Authors: Durgun, Burhan;

    Atabey Ovası toprakları yüksek tepelikler ve sırt araziler, koluviyal etekler, alüviyal yelpazeler, yaşlı dere yatakları, bajadalar, taban araziler ve genç dere yatakları fizyografik üniteleri üzerinde oluşmuşlardır. Bu değişkenlik ovada 20 farklı toprak serisinin oluşmasına, çinkonun yarayışlılığı ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonların da değişime neden olmaktadır. Bunun sonucunda ovada değişen derecelerde çinko noksanlığı ve tarımsak uygulamalardan kaynaklanan çinko toksikliği ortaya çıkmaktadır. Çinko yarayışlığında ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonlardaki değişimin belirlenmesi için her bir serinin 3 farklı noktasından alınan yüzey toprak örnekleri (0-20 cm derinlik) alınarak toplamda 70 ovayı temsil eden 70 örnekleme yapılmıştır. Daha sonra bu topraklarda tanımlayıcı fizikokimyasal analizler ve kademeli Zn fraksiyon analizler yapılmıştır. Ektraksiyon sırası; suda çözünebilir ve değişebilir fraksiyon (WS-EX), karbonatlara bağlı (Car-Zn), Mn oksitlere bağlı (MnOX-Zn), amorf Fe oksitlere bağlı (AFeOx-Zn), kristalin Fe oksitlere (KFeOx-Zn), organik ve sülfitlere bağlı (OS-Zn) ve bakiye fraksiyon (R-Zn) şeklindedir. Çinko fraksiyonlarının toprak toprak özellikleri ile olan ilişkileri varyans analizi, korrelasyon analizi ve kemometrik analizlerle ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ova topraklarında bu fraksiyonların ortalama dağılım sırası küçükten büyüğe doğru WS-EX (%0.304)<MnOx-Zn (%0.555)<Car-Zn (%3.096)<OS-Zn (%3.723)<KFeOx-Zn (%14.97)<AFeOx-Zn (19.61)<R-Zn (%57.74) şeklinde gerçekleşmiştir. Bu fraksiyonlardan WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn ve AFeOx-Zn fraksiyonlarının Zn'nin yarayışlı miktarlarıyla yakından ilişkili olduğu özellikle gübreleme ve ziraai mücadele gibi tarımsal uygulamalarla artan Zn konsantrasyonu bu fraksiyonların oransal değerlerinde artışlar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ovada Zn eksiklik/toksiklik mekanizmasının kullanışlı olacaktır. Elde edilen veriler tarımsal üreünlerin miktarını ve kalitesini arttırabilmek için ekonomik ve çevreye duyarlı gübreleme programlarının geliştirilmesine katkı sağlayabilecektir. Soil of Atabey Plain have formed different physiographic units such as hills and slopes, colluvium, alluvium, old stream beds, bajadas, lowlands, and young stream beds. Such variation resulted in the formation of 20 soil series and this in fact leaded to changes in the availability and geochemical fractions of soil zinc. Thus differing degrees of zinc deficiency and possible toxicity in some location are observed in the Plain. Total of 70 surface soil samples were collected from at least three different locations of each soil series. Descriptive physico-chemical parameters and sequential extraction of Zn were determined in the soils. The extraction sequence of the Zn fractions were: water soluble and exchangeable fraction (WS-EX), carbonate related fraction (Car-Zn), manganese oxide fraction(MnOx-Zn), amorphous Fe oxides fraction (AFeOx-Zn), crystalline Fe oxide fraction (KFeOx-Zn), fraction bound to sulphites and organic compounds (OS-Zn), and residual fraction (R-Zn). Relationships between zinc fraction and soil components and soil properties were revealed by means of Pearson correlation and chemometric analysis. The chemical fractions of soil Zn in acidic soils were found to be in the following descending order of Zn percentages: WS-EX (0.304%) < MnOx-Zn (0.555%) < Car-Zn (3.096%) < OS-Zn (3.723%) < KFeOx-Zn (14.97%) < AFeOx-Zn (19.61%) < R-Zn (57.74%). The occurence of WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn, and AFeOx-Zn fractions which are potentially plant available found to be related to increased Zn input induced by agricultural practices such as fertilization and pest management. The results of this study will be useful data-base for understanding the mechanisms of zinc deficiency/toxicity of Atabey Plain's soils. These information may enable to develop economically feasible and environmentally friendly fertilization strategies towards enhancing the yield and yield quality of agricultural products in the region. 104

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    Authors: Patiño Barrera, Eldibrando;

    "Los avances en los proyectos de ingeniería asociados a medios rocosos requieren cada día procedimientos más modernos para determinar las propiedades mecánicas del subsuelo, debido a que los métodos que se han venido implementando han perdido vigencia debido a su agotamiento, demora, complejidad y un elevado costo para su ejecución. Los Métodos No Destructivos – MND, que utilizan las ondas elásticas, se han constituido en una herramienta importante para la investigación del subsuelo porque con su sencillez, rapidez y bajo costo, agilizan los trabajos, dando resultados satisfactorios en el desarrollo de la ingeniería. Con la aplicación de este método es posible obtener indirectamente las propiedades mecánicas del macizo rocoso, sin embargo, las relaciones que se emplean todavía están en proceso de comprobación, Como contribución en el proceso de investigación técnico-científica, en el presente trabajo se exponen algunos razonamientos y procedimientos que permiten darle a los métodos no destructivos una aplicación más práctica en el conocimiento del macizo rocoso. En la mecánica de rocas, los parámetros mecánicos más representativos del medio rocoso son la resistencia a la compresión simple y el módulo de deformación. Los MND, mediante la utilización de ondas elásticas que se desplazan en el macizo rocoso, generaron un campo de investigación muy amplio, el cual cada vez se fertiliza más con los resultados que se van produciendo y que son aplicados a la ingeniería de rocas. En el marco de la investigación adelantada, los trabajos de campo consistieron en la ejecución de tres perforaciones en medios rocosos conformados por calizas, areniscas y arcillolitas, respectivamente, obteniendo el muestreo de rocas para desarrollar el programa de laboratorio y adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas Down Hole sobre las perforaciones midiendo la velocidad de ondas elásticas en los macizos rocosos explorados." -- Extracto del texto "The advances in the engineering projects associated with rocky media require more modern procedures every day to determine the mechanical properties of the subsoil, because the methods that have been implemented have lost their validity due to their exhaustion, delay, complexity and a high level of cost for its execution Non-Destructive Methods - MND, which uses elastic waves, have become an important tool for underground research because with its simplicity, speed and low cost, speed up the work, giving satisfactory results in the development With the application of this method it is possible to obtain indirectly the mechanical properties of the rock mass, however, the relationships that are used are still in the process of verification, as a contribution in the technical-scientific research process, in the present Some of the reasoning and procedures that allow the Give non-destructive methods a more practical application in the knowledge of the rock mass. In rock mechanics, the most representative mechanical parameters of the rocky medium are the simple compressive strength and the modulus of deformation. The MND, through the use of elastic waves that move in the rock mass, generated a very broad field of research, which is increasingly fertilized with the results that are produced and that are applied to the engineering of rocks. In the framework of the advanced investigation, the field works consisted of the execution of three perforations in rocky media formed by limestones, sandstones and arcillolites, respectively, obtaining the rock sampling to develop the laboratory program and additionally, tests were carried out Down Hole over the perforations by measuring the speed of elastic waves in the rocky massifs explored. "- Excerpt from the text Magíster en Ingeniería Civil con Énfasis en Geotecnia Maestría

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    Authors: Tagliabue, G.; Masseroli, A.; Mattia, M.; Sala, C.; +5 Authors
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    Authors: El-Rihani, Amjad T.;

    Seventy-eight soil samples belonging to 15 sites were sampled by SEAM project in 1976. These 15 pedons represent different soil types which cover the Manti-LaSal area in the central part of Utah. The 15 pedons were described in standard notation. Complete soil analysis was done. The soil analysis includes the following determinations: particle size distribution, moisture retention, soil pH, organic matter, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity , base saturation, extractable cations and saturation extract soluble. Also x-ray diffraction for selected horizons was done. The 15 pedons were classified according to the currently used system. This report includes the classification and the interpretation of these soils. The purpose of this report is to facilitate planning the management of resources in the Manti-LaSal forest.

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    Other literature type . 1977
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    https://doi.org/10.26076/e7d4-...
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    Authors: Turak, Celal;

    11 BÜTÜNÜYLE KATI-HAL KONTAKT AMONYUM-SEÇİCİ PVC-MEMBRAN KONDÜKTOMETRİK ELEKTROTLAR VE PERFORMANS KARAKTERİSTİKLERİ ÖZET Nonaktin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 ve disüdo-18~crown-6 gibi crown-eter bileşikleri (nötral iyonoforlar olarak) kullanılarak tümüyle katı-hal kontakt PVC-membran NH/- seçici elektrotlar hazırlandı. Elektrotların kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik performansları bilgisayarlı bir ölçüm sisteminde araştırıldı. Hazırlanan elektrotların tamamına yakını ana iyon çözeltisine karşı Nernst davranışı gösterirken (>60 mV/her 10 kat değişim), cevap zamanları kısa (<15 s) ve kullanım ömürleri uzundu (en az 1-2 ay). or -i Tüm elektrotlar 10` -10` mol.L` konsantrasyon aralığında ana iyon çözeltisine karşı doğrusal davranış sergilemekteydi. Elektrotların ana iyon yanında girişim yapan iyonlara karşı seçicilik katsayıları ayrı çözelti metodu ile hesaplandı. A ve D ile ifade edilen membran elektrotlar NHU+ iyonuna karşı Na+ ve K+ iyonları yanında oldukça yüksek kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik seçicilik sergilediği, B ve C membran elektrotların ise çözeltide NH41` iyonuna karşı düşük düzeyde seçicilik sergilediği sonucuna varıldı. Genel olarak, bütünüyle katı-hal kontakt NHU+ seçici membran elektrotların kondüktometrik sistemde NH4+ iyonuna karşı seçiciliği potansiyometrik sistemle kıyaslandığında azaldı. Ayrıca elektrotların düşük hücre hacimli akış hücreleri hazırlanarak hareketli ortamlarda da ölçümler alındı. D membran bileşimi ile hazırlanan elektrot kullanılarak, amonyumun toprak numunelerinde tayini kondüktometrik ve potansyometrik-akış enjeksiyon sistemlerinde başarıyla gerçekleştirildi. Anahtar Kelimeler : PVC-membran Elektrotlar, Bütünüyle Katı-Hal, Seçici kondüktometri, Amonyum, Toprak Analizi. Ill ALL SOLID-STATE CONTACT AMMONIUM-SELECTIVE PVC- MEMBRANE CONDUCTOMETRIC ELECTRODES AND THEIR PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ABSTRACT All solid-state contact PVC-membrane NH4+-selective electrodes were prepared by using crown-ether compounds Nonactin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 and dicyclo-18-crown-6 as neutral ionofores. The conductometric and potentiometric performances of electrodes were examined with a computerized measuring system. All electrodes almost exhibited Nernstian behaviour (>60 mV/per decade), short response times (<15 s) and long life times (at least 1-2 months) with a linear response between 10`2-10`5 mol.L`1 solutions of primary ion. Selectivity cofficients of the electrodes againt potential interferent ions were calculated by separate solution method. Membrane electrodes A and D exhibited a high degree of conductometric and potentiometric selectivity toward NH/ against Na+ and K+ ions. Although membrane electrodes B and C resulted a limeted selectivity toward NH4+ ion in solution. All solid-state NH/ selective membrane electrodes applied in the potentiometric form of the measurement behaved more selective toward NH4+ than applied in the conductometric form of the measurment selectivity of all solid-state NHU+ selective membrane electrodes toward NH/ ion was diminished by applying conductometry. Flow-through cells for the electrodes were designed and used in flowing conditions. Electrodes prepared with D membrane, ammonium ion was determined successfully in soil samples by the use of conductometric and potentiometric-flow injection system. Keywords : PVC-Membrane Electrodes, All Solid-State, Selective Conductometry, Ammonium, Soil Analysis. 70

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    Authors: Lilka Isuzu Kawazaki; Mario Miyazawa; Marcos Antonio Pavan; Julio Cezar Franchini;

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a flow injection system for determination of residual CO3(2-) in soil amended with lime material. It was used a closed system were the CO2 released from soil sample acidified with 0.5 mol L-1 HCl was capted in a 0.2 mol L-1 NaOH solution. After 16h the capted CO2 was determined by conductivimetry using a flow injection system. The results obtained by the proposed method were significantly correlated with those reported in soil samples used by the International Soil Analytical Exchange Programe. The regression equation was: y = 0.987x -- 0.075 r = 0.996, P > 0.01. For acid soils amended with CaCO3 the method showed a deviation error of 2.7%, detection limit was 0.077 mmol kg-1 of CO3(2-), and a recovery of 99.7% of the total CO3(2-) added in soil sample. The method was easily adapted for routine determination of residual CO3(2-) in soil samples with an analytical frequency of 40 samples per hour.

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      Química Nova
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    Authors: Sanderman, Jonathan; Smith, Colleen; Safanelli, José L.; Mitu, Sadia Mannan; +3 Authors

    Up-to-date information on soil properties and the ability to track changes in soil properties over time are critical for improving multiple decisions on soil security at various scales, ranging from global climate change modeling and policy to national level environmental and development planning, to farm and field level resource management. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy has become an indispensable laboratory tool for the rapid estimation of numerous soil properties to support various soil mapping, soil monitoring, and soil testing applications. Recent advances in hardware technology have enabled the development of handheld sensors with similar performance specifications as laboratory-grade near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Here, we've compiled a hand-held NIR spectral library (1350-2550 nm) using the NeoSpectra Handheld NIR Analyzer developed by Si-Ware. Each scanner is fitted with Fourier-Transform technology based on the semiconductor Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) manufacturing technique, promising accuracy, and consistency between devices. This library includes 2,106 distinct mineral soil samples scanned across 9 of these portable low-cost NIR spectrometers (indicated by serial no). 2,016 of these soil samples were selected to represent the diversity of mineral soils found in the United States, and 90 samples were selected across Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria. 519 of the US samples were selected and scanned by Woodwell Climate Research Center. These samples were queried from the USDA NRCS NSSC-KSSL Soil Archives as having a complete set of eight measured properties (TC, OC, TN, CEC, pH, clay, sand, and silt). They were stratified based on the major horizon and taxonomic order, omitting the categories with less than 500 samples. Three percent of each stratum (i.e., a combination of major horizon and taxonomic order) was then randomly selected as the final subset retrieved from KSSL's physical soil archive as 2-mm sieved samples. The remaining 1,604 US samples were queried from the USDA NRCS NSSC-KSSL Soil Archives by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln to meet the following criteria: Lower depth <= 30 cm, pH range 4.0 to 9.5, Organic carbon <10%, Greater than lower detection limits, Actual physical samples available in the archive, Samples collected and analyzed from 2001 onwards, Samples having complete analyses for high-priority properties (Sand, Silt, Clay, CEC, Exchangeable Ca, Exchangeable Mg, Exchangeable K, Exchangeable Na, CaCO3, OC, TN), & MIR scanned. All samples were scanned dry 2mm sieved. ~20g of sample was added to a plastic weighing boat where the NeoSpectra scanner would be placed down to make direct contact with the soil surface. The scanner was gently moved across the surface of the sample as 6 replicate scans were taken. These replicates were then averaged so that there is one spectra per sample per scanner in the resulting database. The repository contains: Neospectra_database_column_names.csv: describes the variables (columns) of site and soil data, and the range of NIR and MIR spectra. Both Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_avg and Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_reps share the same columns. The CSV is composed of the file name, column name, type, example, and description with measurement unit. Neospectra_project_summary.txt: the summary of the project with purpose, the origin of soil samples, instrumentation, and brief SOP. Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_avg_MIR.csv: the equivalent MIR spectra of neospectra samples' list that was fetched from the KSSL database and formatted to the OSSL specifications. Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_avg_soil+site+NIR.csv: soil, site, and Neospectra's NIR. Each row contains the averaged spectra for a given scanner and soil sample (1 spectra per scanner per soil sample). Soil and site info is filled within the same soil sample. Neospectra_WoodwellKSSL_reps_soil+site+NIR.csv: soil, site, and Neospectra's NIR. Each row contains one replicated spectra of a given scanner (6 repeats per scanner per soil sample). Soil and site info is filled within the same soil sample. We thank the USDA NRCS National Soil Survey Center for providing access to their soil archives and for continuing to promote the use of soil spectroscopy. This project was funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Award # 2020-67021-32467; USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Award # 2018-67007-28529; Woodwell Fund for Climate Solutions; and Foodshot Global.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2023
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