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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Turkish

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Durgun, Burak;

    Türkiye topraklarında fosfor yarayışlılığının düşük olması tarımsal üretim açısından en önemli problemlerden bir tanesidir. Toprak oluşum sürecinde kurak ve yarı kurak iklim kuşaklarında genç topraklarda yüksek kireç içeriğine bağlı olarak; yaşlı topraklarda ise toprakta biriken demir ve alüminyum oksitlere bağlı olarak topraklarda fosfor yarayışlılığı önemli ölçüde bitki gelişimini sınırlandırmaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak oluşan fosfor eksikliği sürekli yapılan ekim öncesi ve/veya gelişme dönemi öncesi gübreleme ile giderilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Bu da toprakların oluşum sürecine bağlı olarak değişen toprak bileşenleriyle ilişkili olarak fosforun profildeki miktarı ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonlarında değişimlere neden olmaktadır. Bu maksatla farklı iklim koşullarında oluşmuş Denizli, Afyon, Burdur, Isparta ve Antalya illerinde karasal iklim koşullarından Akdeniz iklim koşullarına değişen şartlar altında farklı ana materyallerden meydana gelmiş dört farklı ordoya ait 16 toprak serisinden profil bazlı toprak örnekleri de alınmıştır. Toprak örneklerinde çözünürlükleri ve bitkiye yarayışlılıkları azalan sırayla: yarayışlı, Al ve Fe oksitlere bağlı, kirece bağlı ve bakiye P fraksiyonları kademeli olarak belirlenmiştir. Jeokimyasal fraksiyonlardaki değişim toprakların fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ile konvansiyonel korelasyon ve kemometrik analiz yöntemleriyle ilişkilendirilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda fraksiyonlardaki fosfor miktarı toprakların fiziko-kimyasal özelliklerine, toprağın anamateryaline, toprak ordosuna ve arazinin kullanım şekline göre değişimler gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Genelde organik madde topraklarda fosforun yarayışlı fraksiyonlarını arttırıcı etki gösterirken; kireç, amorf demir oksitler, kil içeriği, pH yarayışlılığı azaltma eğiliminde olduğu gözlenmiştir. Toprakların hacim ağırlığının, tekstürünün, organik madde miktarının fosforun alt katmanlara yıkanmasında etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. Kireç içeriği yüksek topraklarda Ca-P fraksiyonun yüksek olduğu, residual ve toplam fosfor miktarında toprak genesisinin önemli olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Low availability of phosphorus in Turkish soils is one of significant problems of Agricultural production. Byconsidering the soil genesis, low phosphorus availability hinders plant growth in young soils of arid and semi-arid regions depending on the high carbonate content and old soils depending on oxides of iron and aluminium. Thus, phosphorus deficiency is to be eliminated by fertilization practices before plantation or growing season. This practice lead to changes in the amounts and geochemical fractions of phosphorus depending on soil components occurring in the soil genesis processes. For this reason profile based soil samples were taken from16 soil series, locating at Denizli, Afyon, Burdur, and Antalya cities of Turkey, belong to 4 Ordos formed in different climate (Mediterranean to continental climate) and parent materials. Geochemical fractions were sequentially extracted and determined by decreasing plant availability or solubility as: readily available, Al and Fe bound-P, calcium bound P, and residual-P. The relationships between geochemical fractions and sol chemical and physical properties were investigated by means of conventional correlation and chemometric analysis. The results showed that, the partition of phosphorus in different fractions were likely to be related to parent material, soil genesis and classification, current management systems and physico-chemical properties of soils at any horizon. In general, organic matter wasan critical component for increasing the phosphorus availability whereas carbonates, amorphous iron oxides, clay content, and pH were the soil parameters of reducing the available portion of phosphorus in soils. Bulk density, texture and organic matter were key variables for phosphorus leaching through the deeper horizons in the profiles. Ca-P fraction was relatively higher in carbonate rich horizons and it was determined that soil genesis processes were likely to be related to residual and total P forms. 99

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    Authors: Ertaş, Cemal;

    Ahlat, Doğu Anadolu Bölges'inde patates tarımının en fazla yapıldığı yerlerin başında gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; Ahlat'ta üretimi en fazla yapılan Granola patates çeşidinde, toprak ve yaprak analizleriyle verimliliğin ve bitki beslenme durumunun belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla, Ahlat ilçesine bağlı patates üretiminin en fazla yapıldığı 10 farklı köy/mahalleden (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş ve Kültür) ve her köy/mahalleden 4 çiftçi tarlası olmak üzere toplam 40 patates tarlasından toprak ve bitki örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örnekleriyle yapılan analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprak örnekleri genel olarak, tınlı bünyede, organik madde miktarları düşük, (% 0.39-1.90) tuzluluk problemi olmayan, nötr-hafif asidik reaksiyonda (5.46-7.34) ve kireç miktarı bakımından (% 1.18-2.36) kireçli gruba dahildir. Denemeye alınan toprak örneklerinin % 88'inde yarayışlı P miktarı yeterli-fazla, % 98'inde değişebilir K miktarı yeterli, değişebilir Ca miktarı örneklerin % 60'ında yeterli ve % 40'ında düşük ve değişebilir Mg miktarı % 85 örnekte yeterli bulunmuştur. Toprakta DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilir Fe, Zn ve Cu içeriklerinin genel olarak yeterli ve yüksek olduğu belirlenirken, DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilen Mn içeriğinin toprakların % 58'inde yeterli ve % 42'sinde düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; genel olarak yaprak N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu miktarları yeterli bulunurken, K, Mg ve Zn miktarları düşük bulunmuştur. Toprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprağa organik gübre ilavesinin patates yetiştiriciliği için faydalı olacağı kanaatine varılmıştır. Ayrıca, toprakta yeterli olmasına rağmen, bitkide K, Mg ve Zn miktarlarının düşük olması uygulanan azot ve fosforlu gübre düzeylerinin yüksekliğinden kaynaklanan antagonistik bir ilişkilerin varlığını göstermektedir. Ahlat is taken an important place among places which are cultivated potatoes in Eastern Anatolia. The aim of the study is to determine status of the fertility and plant nutrition through soil and leaf analysis of the most produced potatoes `Granola` in Ahlat. For this purpose, soil and plant samples were taken 40 potato fields in total; 10 different villages and neighborhoods (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş, Kültür) and 4 farmer fields from each places. Productivity and various nutrient elements were analyzed by using these soil and plant samples. According to the results of the soil samples are generally determined in the group of loamy texture, low amount of organic matters (0.39-1.90%), no salinity problems, neutral- slightly acidic reaction (5.46-7.34) lime according the lime content (1.18-2.36 %). 88% of the sample soils in the resarch was found sufficient-excess for available P amount; 98 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable K amount. Also 60 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Ca amount and 85 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Mg amount. The amount of DTPA Mn was found sufficient in 58 % and low in 42 % of the soils while the amount of Fe, Zn and Cu extractable with DTPA in the soil was determined sufficient high. According to the results of the leaf analysis; N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu amounts of the leaf were found sufficient; K, Mg and Zn amount of the leaf was fount low. According to the results of the soil analysis, it can be said that the organic fertilizer addition would be benefical. Also, although they are sufficient in the soil, low amount of K, Mg and Zn in the plant shows antagonistic relationship between high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applied. 66

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    Authors: Durgun, Burhan;

    Atabey Ovası toprakları yüksek tepelikler ve sırt araziler, koluviyal etekler, alüviyal yelpazeler, yaşlı dere yatakları, bajadalar, taban araziler ve genç dere yatakları fizyografik üniteleri üzerinde oluşmuşlardır. Bu değişkenlik ovada 20 farklı toprak serisinin oluşmasına, çinkonun yarayışlılığı ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonların da değişime neden olmaktadır. Bunun sonucunda ovada değişen derecelerde çinko noksanlığı ve tarımsak uygulamalardan kaynaklanan çinko toksikliği ortaya çıkmaktadır. Çinko yarayışlığında ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonlardaki değişimin belirlenmesi için her bir serinin 3 farklı noktasından alınan yüzey toprak örnekleri (0-20 cm derinlik) alınarak toplamda 70 ovayı temsil eden 70 örnekleme yapılmıştır. Daha sonra bu topraklarda tanımlayıcı fizikokimyasal analizler ve kademeli Zn fraksiyon analizler yapılmıştır. Ektraksiyon sırası; suda çözünebilir ve değişebilir fraksiyon (WS-EX), karbonatlara bağlı (Car-Zn), Mn oksitlere bağlı (MnOX-Zn), amorf Fe oksitlere bağlı (AFeOx-Zn), kristalin Fe oksitlere (KFeOx-Zn), organik ve sülfitlere bağlı (OS-Zn) ve bakiye fraksiyon (R-Zn) şeklindedir. Çinko fraksiyonlarının toprak toprak özellikleri ile olan ilişkileri varyans analizi, korrelasyon analizi ve kemometrik analizlerle ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ova topraklarında bu fraksiyonların ortalama dağılım sırası küçükten büyüğe doğru WS-EX (%0.304)<MnOx-Zn (%0.555)<Car-Zn (%3.096)<OS-Zn (%3.723)<KFeOx-Zn (%14.97)<AFeOx-Zn (19.61)<R-Zn (%57.74) şeklinde gerçekleşmiştir. Bu fraksiyonlardan WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn ve AFeOx-Zn fraksiyonlarının Zn'nin yarayışlı miktarlarıyla yakından ilişkili olduğu özellikle gübreleme ve ziraai mücadele gibi tarımsal uygulamalarla artan Zn konsantrasyonu bu fraksiyonların oransal değerlerinde artışlar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ovada Zn eksiklik/toksiklik mekanizmasının kullanışlı olacaktır. Elde edilen veriler tarımsal üreünlerin miktarını ve kalitesini arttırabilmek için ekonomik ve çevreye duyarlı gübreleme programlarının geliştirilmesine katkı sağlayabilecektir. Soil of Atabey Plain have formed different physiographic units such as hills and slopes, colluvium, alluvium, old stream beds, bajadas, lowlands, and young stream beds. Such variation resulted in the formation of 20 soil series and this in fact leaded to changes in the availability and geochemical fractions of soil zinc. Thus differing degrees of zinc deficiency and possible toxicity in some location are observed in the Plain. Total of 70 surface soil samples were collected from at least three different locations of each soil series. Descriptive physico-chemical parameters and sequential extraction of Zn were determined in the soils. The extraction sequence of the Zn fractions were: water soluble and exchangeable fraction (WS-EX), carbonate related fraction (Car-Zn), manganese oxide fraction(MnOx-Zn), amorphous Fe oxides fraction (AFeOx-Zn), crystalline Fe oxide fraction (KFeOx-Zn), fraction bound to sulphites and organic compounds (OS-Zn), and residual fraction (R-Zn). Relationships between zinc fraction and soil components and soil properties were revealed by means of Pearson correlation and chemometric analysis. The chemical fractions of soil Zn in acidic soils were found to be in the following descending order of Zn percentages: WS-EX (0.304%) < MnOx-Zn (0.555%) < Car-Zn (3.096%) < OS-Zn (3.723%) < KFeOx-Zn (14.97%) < AFeOx-Zn (19.61%) < R-Zn (57.74%). The occurence of WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn, and AFeOx-Zn fractions which are potentially plant available found to be related to increased Zn input induced by agricultural practices such as fertilization and pest management. The results of this study will be useful data-base for understanding the mechanisms of zinc deficiency/toxicity of Atabey Plain's soils. These information may enable to develop economically feasible and environmentally friendly fertilization strategies towards enhancing the yield and yield quality of agricultural products in the region. 104

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    Authors: Turak, Celal;

    11 BÜTÜNÜYLE KATI-HAL KONTAKT AMONYUM-SEÇİCİ PVC-MEMBRAN KONDÜKTOMETRİK ELEKTROTLAR VE PERFORMANS KARAKTERİSTİKLERİ ÖZET Nonaktin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 ve disüdo-18~crown-6 gibi crown-eter bileşikleri (nötral iyonoforlar olarak) kullanılarak tümüyle katı-hal kontakt PVC-membran NH/- seçici elektrotlar hazırlandı. Elektrotların kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik performansları bilgisayarlı bir ölçüm sisteminde araştırıldı. Hazırlanan elektrotların tamamına yakını ana iyon çözeltisine karşı Nernst davranışı gösterirken (>60 mV/her 10 kat değişim), cevap zamanları kısa (<15 s) ve kullanım ömürleri uzundu (en az 1-2 ay). or -i Tüm elektrotlar 10` -10` mol.L` konsantrasyon aralığında ana iyon çözeltisine karşı doğrusal davranış sergilemekteydi. Elektrotların ana iyon yanında girişim yapan iyonlara karşı seçicilik katsayıları ayrı çözelti metodu ile hesaplandı. A ve D ile ifade edilen membran elektrotlar NHU+ iyonuna karşı Na+ ve K+ iyonları yanında oldukça yüksek kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik seçicilik sergilediği, B ve C membran elektrotların ise çözeltide NH41` iyonuna karşı düşük düzeyde seçicilik sergilediği sonucuna varıldı. Genel olarak, bütünüyle katı-hal kontakt NHU+ seçici membran elektrotların kondüktometrik sistemde NH4+ iyonuna karşı seçiciliği potansiyometrik sistemle kıyaslandığında azaldı. Ayrıca elektrotların düşük hücre hacimli akış hücreleri hazırlanarak hareketli ortamlarda da ölçümler alındı. D membran bileşimi ile hazırlanan elektrot kullanılarak, amonyumun toprak numunelerinde tayini kondüktometrik ve potansyometrik-akış enjeksiyon sistemlerinde başarıyla gerçekleştirildi. Anahtar Kelimeler : PVC-membran Elektrotlar, Bütünüyle Katı-Hal, Seçici kondüktometri, Amonyum, Toprak Analizi. Ill ALL SOLID-STATE CONTACT AMMONIUM-SELECTIVE PVC- MEMBRANE CONDUCTOMETRIC ELECTRODES AND THEIR PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ABSTRACT All solid-state contact PVC-membrane NH4+-selective electrodes were prepared by using crown-ether compounds Nonactin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 and dicyclo-18-crown-6 as neutral ionofores. The conductometric and potentiometric performances of electrodes were examined with a computerized measuring system. All electrodes almost exhibited Nernstian behaviour (>60 mV/per decade), short response times (<15 s) and long life times (at least 1-2 months) with a linear response between 10`2-10`5 mol.L`1 solutions of primary ion. Selectivity cofficients of the electrodes againt potential interferent ions were calculated by separate solution method. Membrane electrodes A and D exhibited a high degree of conductometric and potentiometric selectivity toward NH/ against Na+ and K+ ions. Although membrane electrodes B and C resulted a limeted selectivity toward NH4+ ion in solution. All solid-state NH/ selective membrane electrodes applied in the potentiometric form of the measurement behaved more selective toward NH4+ than applied in the conductometric form of the measurment selectivity of all solid-state NHU+ selective membrane electrodes toward NH/ ion was diminished by applying conductometry. Flow-through cells for the electrodes were designed and used in flowing conditions. Electrodes prepared with D membrane, ammonium ion was determined successfully in soil samples by the use of conductometric and potentiometric-flow injection system. Keywords : PVC-Membrane Electrodes, All Solid-State, Selective Conductometry, Ammonium, Soil Analysis. 70

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    Authors: Özcan, Selçuk;

    Antepfıstığı, Gaziantep ilinde meyve üretimi bakımından ilk sırada yer almaktadır. Ancak, antepfıstığının üretimi sırasında karşılaşılan sorunlardan birisi de yabancı otlardır. Bu çalışma ile; Gaziantep ili ve çevresinde antepfıstığı bahçelerinde sorun olan yabancı ot türlerinin yaygınlık ve yoğunluklarının saptanması ve yabancı ot dağılımı üzerine etki eden ekolojik parametrelerin belirlenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla; araştırma alanını temsil edebilecek şekilde 70 antepfıstığı bahçesinde sürveyler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Gaziantep'te 11 monokotiledon, 37 dikotiledon olmak üzere 21 familyaya ait 48 yabancı ot türü saptanmıştır. Antepfıstığı bahçelerinde yapılan sürveylerde en fazla Poaceae (10 tür), Asteraceae (6 tür) ve Fabaceae (6 tür) familyalarına dahil türlere rastlanmıştır. Sorghum halepense (L.), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Avena fatua L., Heliotropium europaeum L., Lactuca serriola L., Chenopodium album Chorozophora tinctoria ve Tribulus terrestris en sık rastlanan ve yoğunluk oluşturan türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Örnekleme yapılan bahçe topraklarında yapılan analizlerde silt, Na, Ca (P?0,01) ve organik madde içerikleri (P?0,05) istatistiksel olarak önemli düzeyde farklılık göstermiştir. Örnekleme noktaları arasında silt %12, Na %12, Ca %9 ve organik madde ise %7 oranında bir varyasyon ortaya koymuştur. Ancak, yine istatistiksel olarak önemli bulunmayan toprak özelliklerinden kil varyasyonun %6'sını, K2O %5'ini, CaCO3 %5'ini ve pH %4'ünü açıklamaktadır. Buna rağmen, yabancı ot türlerinin dağılımını kesin hatlarla sınırlandıran toprak özellikleri saptanamamıştır. Dolayısıyla toprak özelliklerinin yabancı otların dağılımına olan etkileri sınırlı düzeyde kalmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Antepfıstığı, Yabancı ot, Toprak özellikleri, Konikal Uyum Analizi (CCA) . Pistachio production is ranked the first among fruits grown in Gaziantep Province. Weeds are one of the major problems of pistachio production. The aims of this study were to define the prevalence and intensity of weed species and to determine ecological parameters explains the distribution of weeds in pistachio plantations. The study was carried out in 70 pistachio orchards representing the surveyed fields. In the province of Gaziantep, 48 weed species belonged to 21 families consisted of 11 monocotyledonous and 37 dicotyledonous were identified. The species identified in pistachio plantations were belonged to Poaceae (10 species), Astereceae (6 species) and Fabaceae (6 species) families. The most frequently and intensely encountered weed species in surveys were; Sorghum halepense (L.), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Avena fatua L., Heliotropium europaeum L., Lactuca serriola L., Chenopodium album, Chorozophora tinctoria and Tribulus terrestris. The silt, exchangeable Na, Ca and organic matter content of soils were significantly different among pistachio plantations. The variation of coefficients (CV) for soil attributes were 12% for silt content, 12% for Na, 9% for Ca and 7% for organic matter content, respectively. Although statistically non significant, clay content (CV=6%), K2O (CV=5%), CaCO3 (CV=5%) and pH (CV=4%) had slight variability among pistachio plantations. The results did not indicate a distinctive set of soil properties to identify the certain distribution of weed species in study area. Due to the low variability of soil properties among pistachio plantations, the effects of soil attributes determined on weed distribution were limited.Keywords: Pistachio, Weed, Soil Properties, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) 93

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    Authors: Gülyanar, Şayeste;

    Dipsacaceae üyesi taksonlarından Cephalaria amana Rech. fil. üzerinde 2009-2011 tarihleri arasında gerçekleştirlmiş bu otekolojik çalışma bitkini dağılım gösterdiği habitatların biyoklimatik, edafik, topoğrafik, biyotik gibi bazı özelliklerinin belirlenmesi ve bitki toprak ilişkilerini tespit etmek amacıyla yapılmıştır.Çalışma esnasında çeşitli analizler; Scheibler metodu, yaş yakma metodu, Kjeldahl metodu, Olsen metodu kullanılarak ve kalsimetre, spektrofotometre, Alev fotometresive ICP cihazları ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bulduğumuz sonuçlar mercek altına alınarak irdelenmiş ve yorum yapılmıştır. ayrıca endemik olan bu bitki populasyonunun korunması ve geliştirilmesi için öneriler sunulmuştur.2012, 67 sayfaAnahtar kelimeler:Otekolojik, endemik, bitki, toprak, Hatay This autoecological study was relaized between 2009-2011 on Cephalaria amana Rech. fil. that member the Dipsacaceae family and it aimed to find out bioclimatic, edaphic, topografic, biotic etc. characteristics of the habitats they distrubute. In addition, it aimed to explore the plant-soil relations of them.Various analysis were relaized by follwing the Scheibler method, Wet-Ashing method Kjeidal method, and Olsen method and by using the Calcimeter Spectrophotometer, Flamephotometer and ICP apparatus during study. All of the results obtained were considered and these resuts were commended. In addition some suggestions were brought for protection and development of this population.2012, 67 pagesKey words: Autoecological, endemic, plant, soil, Hatay 77

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    Authors: Çetinkaya, Osman;

    Bu araştırmanın amacı Çanakkale İli, Karamenderes Havzası topraklarının bitkiye yarayışlı mikro element (demir, bakır, mangan, çinko) içeriklerinin ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer) ile belirlenerek coğrafi bilgi sisteminde (CBS) yersel dağılım haritalarının oluşturulmasıdır.Çalışmada GPS (Global Positioning System) ile belirlenen 80 örnekleme noktasından 0?30 cm derinlikten toprak örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örneklerinde pH, elektriksel iletkenlik (EC), % kireç (CaCO3), organik madde, tekstür analizi ve yarayışlı demir (Fe), bakır (Cu), çinko (Zn), mangan (Mn) analizleri yapılmıştır.Yapılan analizler sonucunda Karamenderes Havzası topraklarının yarayışlı demir (Fe) ve mangan (Mn) yönünden yeterli seviyede, yarayışlı bakır (Cu) yönünden %92'lık kısmının yeter, %8' lik kısmının ise yetersiz seviyede, yarayışlı çinko (Zn) bakımından büyük bir kısmında eksiklik olduğu saptanmıştır.Anahtar Sözcükler: Karamenderes Havzası, Yarayışlı Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn The objective of this study was to determine local distribution of soil micro element contents and allocation maps for Karamenderes River Basin in Çanakkale Province, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES) and geographical information system (GIS).Soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm depths from 80 different points by using Global Positioning System (GPS). Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), % of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), organic matter, soil texture and available iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) were analysed.According to the soil analyses, it was determined that soil was sufficient in Karamenderes River Basin in terms of available iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Regarding to available copper (Cu) content, 92 % of soil is sufficient however 8% of soil in this area was not sufficient. It was found that a big proportion of soil had shortage of available zinc (Zn) in Karamenderes River Basin.Keywords : Karamenderes River Basin, available Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn 70

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    Authors: Tunçay, Tülay;

    Bu araştırma, kapalı drenaj sistemi performansı üzerine etkili olan toprak özelliklerininkonumsal değişimlerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla, Aşağı Seyhan Ovası'nda 28-32 yıl öncekurulmuş bir alanda yürütülmüştür. Drenaj sistemlerinin yerlerinin yer radarı (GPR)yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmesiyle, boruların mevcut durumlarının ortaya çıkartılmasıve konumsal değişim gösteren toprak özellikleri ile ilişkilendirilmesi hedeflenmiştir.Araştırma alanını temsil edebilecek 4 farklı bölge seçilmiştir. Seçilen her bir bölgede150 m (bölge 2, 3 ve 4) ve 200 m (bölge 1) uzunluğunda, 5 m aralıklı olarak 7 profiloluşturulmuş ve yer radarı ile veri toplanmış, eş zamanlı toplam 228 adet toprak örneğialınmıştır. Karşılaştırma amacıyla proje alanının 150 m uzağından, çevre arazilerde deprofil çukuru örneklemesi yapılmıştır. Alınan toprak örneklerinde pH, elektrikseliletkenlik, kireç, organik madde, tane büyüklüğü, hidrolik iletkenlik, değişebilir Na,katyon değişim kapasitesi ve hacim ağırlığı analizleri yapılmıştır. Ters mesafe ağırlıkAğırlıklı ters uzaklık interpolasyon yönteminden (ATU) yararlanılarak, analiz sonuçlarıdeğerlendirilmiştir. İnterpolasyondan elde edilen pH, elektriksel iletkenlik, organikmadde, tane büyüklüğü, katyon değişim kapasitesi, değişebilir sodyum yüzdesi vehacim ağırlığı sonuçları ile yapılan toprak analiz sonuçları uyum göstermektedir.Araştırma alanından toplanan yer radarı verilerinden, mevcut olan drenaj hattı tespitedilmeye çalışılmış ise de, ortamdaki yoğun kil ve yüksek kılcal saçak, borularınyerlerinin tam olarak tespit edilmesini engellemiştir. Yer radarı verileriyle, araştırmaalanındaki taban suyu seviyesi belirlenebilmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Kapalı Drenaj Sistemleri, Yer Radarı (YR), Dren Boruları,Konumsal Değişim, Çukurova, Ağırlıklı Ters Uzaklık İnterpolasyon Yöntemi This study was carried out in a field in the Lower Seyhan Basin in order to determinethe spatial changes of soil characteristics effective on the performance of a closeddrainage system which has been established furnished 28-32 years ago. It was aimed tofind the location and situation of drainage systems by ground penetrating radar (GPR)method, and to relate with inconsistent soil characteristics. Four (4) different area wereselected to represent the study area. For each of the selected area, seven (7) profiles of150 m (area 2, 3 and 4) and 200 m (area 1) were designated at 5 m intervals and datawas collected through ground penetrating radar, 228 soil samples from the whole areawere collected at the same time with ground penetrating radar. For the purpose ofcomparison, profile pit sampling was carried out on the surrounding fields 150 m awayfrom the study area. Analysis of pH, electrical conductivity, lime content, organicmatter content, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, exchangeable Nacontent, cation exchange capacity and bulk density were performed on the soil samples.Analysis results were evaluated by inverse distance weighting interpolation method(IDW). Electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter, particle size, cation exchangecapacity, exchangeable sodium rate and bulk density results obtained by interpolationwere compatible with the results of the soil analysis. It was tried to determine theposition of current drainage line from the data collected in the study area by groundpenetrating radar; however, dense clay and high capillary fringe in the environmenthindered the determination of the exact location of the pipes. Ground water level in thestudy area was determined using ground penetrating radar data.Key Words: Drainage Systems, GPR, Drain Pipe, Spatial Variability, 291

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    Authors: GÖKÇEOĞLU, Kağan; ÇİMRİN, Kerim Mesut;

    In order to determine the nutritional status of olive orchards in Hatay-Altınözü district, texture, lime (CaCO3), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and some macro-micro nutrient element analyzes were performed on 30 soil and 15 plant samples taken from selected olive orchards. According to the results obtained from the research, the soils were found to be in clay and clay-loam texture class, with slightly alkaline reaction, unsalted, excessively calcareous and insufficient in organic matter. it was determined that all the soils were insufficient in nitrogen (N), except for one sample, 100.0% zinc (Zn) and boron (B), 6.66% phosphorus (P), 13.33% potassium (K), 10.0% iron (Fe) contents. In the olive leaf samples, 20% N, 6.66% P, 36.66% K, 53.33% calcium (Ca), 73.33% magnesium (Mg), 46.66% both manganese (Mn), It was determined that it was deficient in terms of Zn and B contents. In the study, when soil and leaf analyze are examined, some plant nutrients are sufficient or more (Ca, Mg) in the soil, while they are deficient in the plant. Some plant nutrients are deficient in the soil (Zn, B), but they are found to be sufficient in the plant. This shows that there are nutritional problems and unconscious soil and leaf fertilization is done in the region. As a result, it is suggested that the producers should make fertilization programs by a specialist according to the missing or excess plant nutrient element status by having plant and soil analyzes done.

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    Authors: Reis, Ahmet;

    Araştırma alanı Türkiye' nin Doğu Akdeniz bölgesinde yer almakta olup, Kahramanmaraş'a 15 km uzaklıkta olan Ahırdağı yöresinin tarım, orman ve mera alanları ile kaplı Bertiz Çayı Yağış Havzasında bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada farklı arazi kullanım şekilleri dikkate alınarak toprakların erozyon eğilim değerleri ile bazı kimyasal (pH, organik madde) ve hidrofiziksel (tekstür, dispersiyon oranı, hacim ağırlığı, su tutma kapasitesi, vb.) özellikleri araştırılmıştır. Bununla birlikte havzanın genel olarak fizyografik özellikleri belirlenerek, ileride yapılacak olan erozyon ve sel kontrolü, ağaçlandırma, arazi sınıflaması ve yörede yaşayan halkın sosyal-ekonomik düzeyinin yükseltilmesi gibi uygulamalara ışık tutması amaçlanmıştır. Bertiz Çayı Yağış Havzasının %42.95'i orman, %34,85'i tarım ve %22.20'si mera arazisinden oluştuğu tespit edilmiştir. Erozyon eğilim indeksi olarak dispersiyon oranı her üç arazi kullanım şeklinde de sınır değer olan 15'ten büyük olarak bulunması havza topraklarının genel olarak erozyona duyarlı olduğunu göstermiştir. Araştırma alanı için form katsayısı 0.421, dairesellik oranı, uzunlaşma oranı 0,006 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma alanında 1557 adet dere bulunmakta olup, dere sıklığı değeri 5.01 ve drenaj yoğunluğu değeri 2.37 olarak tespit edilmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Drenaj Yoğunluğu, Fizyografik Özellikler, Toprak Özellikleri, Form Katsayısı Study area is located in Bertiz Stream Watershed covered by agriculture, forest and rangeland of the Agır Mountain region, which is 15 km away from Kahramanmaraş in East Mediterranean Region, Turkey. İn this study, by considering different land use types, the erodibilite indexes and some chemical (pH, organic matter) and hydro-physical properties (texture, dispertion ratio, bulk density, water holding capacity, etc.) of the soils are investigated. By determining physiographical characteristics of the basin, it has been aimed to shed light on erosion and flood control, afforestation, land use classification and improving socio-economic level of the community practices in future as well. İt has been determined that 42.95% of Bertiz Stream Watershed is forest, while 38.85% and 22.20% is agriculture and rangeland, respectively. It has been studied out that dispersion ratio,which is one of the erodibiliyt indexes, is higher than limit value, 15 for each land use type. This result has showed that the soils of the basin is generally sensitive to erosion. It has been determined that form coefficient, circularness ratio and longitudinally ratio for study area are 0.421, 0.41 and 0.006, respectively.Also, it has been determined that there are 1557 stream and stream frequency and drainage density values are 5.01 and 2.37, respectively in the study area.Key words: drainage density, physiographical characteristics, soil properties, form coefficient. 110

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    Authors: Durgun, Burak;

    Türkiye topraklarında fosfor yarayışlılığının düşük olması tarımsal üretim açısından en önemli problemlerden bir tanesidir. Toprak oluşum sürecinde kurak ve yarı kurak iklim kuşaklarında genç topraklarda yüksek kireç içeriğine bağlı olarak; yaşlı topraklarda ise toprakta biriken demir ve alüminyum oksitlere bağlı olarak topraklarda fosfor yarayışlılığı önemli ölçüde bitki gelişimini sınırlandırmaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak oluşan fosfor eksikliği sürekli yapılan ekim öncesi ve/veya gelişme dönemi öncesi gübreleme ile giderilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Bu da toprakların oluşum sürecine bağlı olarak değişen toprak bileşenleriyle ilişkili olarak fosforun profildeki miktarı ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonlarında değişimlere neden olmaktadır. Bu maksatla farklı iklim koşullarında oluşmuş Denizli, Afyon, Burdur, Isparta ve Antalya illerinde karasal iklim koşullarından Akdeniz iklim koşullarına değişen şartlar altında farklı ana materyallerden meydana gelmiş dört farklı ordoya ait 16 toprak serisinden profil bazlı toprak örnekleri de alınmıştır. Toprak örneklerinde çözünürlükleri ve bitkiye yarayışlılıkları azalan sırayla: yarayışlı, Al ve Fe oksitlere bağlı, kirece bağlı ve bakiye P fraksiyonları kademeli olarak belirlenmiştir. Jeokimyasal fraksiyonlardaki değişim toprakların fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ile konvansiyonel korelasyon ve kemometrik analiz yöntemleriyle ilişkilendirilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda fraksiyonlardaki fosfor miktarı toprakların fiziko-kimyasal özelliklerine, toprağın anamateryaline, toprak ordosuna ve arazinin kullanım şekline göre değişimler gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Genelde organik madde topraklarda fosforun yarayışlı fraksiyonlarını arttırıcı etki gösterirken; kireç, amorf demir oksitler, kil içeriği, pH yarayışlılığı azaltma eğiliminde olduğu gözlenmiştir. Toprakların hacim ağırlığının, tekstürünün, organik madde miktarının fosforun alt katmanlara yıkanmasında etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. Kireç içeriği yüksek topraklarda Ca-P fraksiyonun yüksek olduğu, residual ve toplam fosfor miktarında toprak genesisinin önemli olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Low availability of phosphorus in Turkish soils is one of significant problems of Agricultural production. Byconsidering the soil genesis, low phosphorus availability hinders plant growth in young soils of arid and semi-arid regions depending on the high carbonate content and old soils depending on oxides of iron and aluminium. Thus, phosphorus deficiency is to be eliminated by fertilization practices before plantation or growing season. This practice lead to changes in the amounts and geochemical fractions of phosphorus depending on soil components occurring in the soil genesis processes. For this reason profile based soil samples were taken from16 soil series, locating at Denizli, Afyon, Burdur, and Antalya cities of Turkey, belong to 4 Ordos formed in different climate (Mediterranean to continental climate) and parent materials. Geochemical fractions were sequentially extracted and determined by decreasing plant availability or solubility as: readily available, Al and Fe bound-P, calcium bound P, and residual-P. The relationships between geochemical fractions and sol chemical and physical properties were investigated by means of conventional correlation and chemometric analysis. The results showed that, the partition of phosphorus in different fractions were likely to be related to parent material, soil genesis and classification, current management systems and physico-chemical properties of soils at any horizon. In general, organic matter wasan critical component for increasing the phosphorus availability whereas carbonates, amorphous iron oxides, clay content, and pH were the soil parameters of reducing the available portion of phosphorus in soils. Bulk density, texture and organic matter were key variables for phosphorus leaching through the deeper horizons in the profiles. Ca-P fraction was relatively higher in carbonate rich horizons and it was determined that soil genesis processes were likely to be related to residual and total P forms. 99

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    Authors: Ertaş, Cemal;

    Ahlat, Doğu Anadolu Bölges'inde patates tarımının en fazla yapıldığı yerlerin başında gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; Ahlat'ta üretimi en fazla yapılan Granola patates çeşidinde, toprak ve yaprak analizleriyle verimliliğin ve bitki beslenme durumunun belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla, Ahlat ilçesine bağlı patates üretiminin en fazla yapıldığı 10 farklı köy/mahalleden (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş ve Kültür) ve her köy/mahalleden 4 çiftçi tarlası olmak üzere toplam 40 patates tarlasından toprak ve bitki örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örnekleriyle yapılan analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprak örnekleri genel olarak, tınlı bünyede, organik madde miktarları düşük, (% 0.39-1.90) tuzluluk problemi olmayan, nötr-hafif asidik reaksiyonda (5.46-7.34) ve kireç miktarı bakımından (% 1.18-2.36) kireçli gruba dahildir. Denemeye alınan toprak örneklerinin % 88'inde yarayışlı P miktarı yeterli-fazla, % 98'inde değişebilir K miktarı yeterli, değişebilir Ca miktarı örneklerin % 60'ında yeterli ve % 40'ında düşük ve değişebilir Mg miktarı % 85 örnekte yeterli bulunmuştur. Toprakta DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilir Fe, Zn ve Cu içeriklerinin genel olarak yeterli ve yüksek olduğu belirlenirken, DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilen Mn içeriğinin toprakların % 58'inde yeterli ve % 42'sinde düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; genel olarak yaprak N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu miktarları yeterli bulunurken, K, Mg ve Zn miktarları düşük bulunmuştur. Toprak analiz sonuçlarına göre; toprağa organik gübre ilavesinin patates yetiştiriciliği için faydalı olacağı kanaatine varılmıştır. Ayrıca, toprakta yeterli olmasına rağmen, bitkide K, Mg ve Zn miktarlarının düşük olması uygulanan azot ve fosforlu gübre düzeylerinin yüksekliğinden kaynaklanan antagonistik bir ilişkilerin varlığını göstermektedir. Ahlat is taken an important place among places which are cultivated potatoes in Eastern Anatolia. The aim of the study is to determine status of the fertility and plant nutrition through soil and leaf analysis of the most produced potatoes `Granola` in Ahlat. For this purpose, soil and plant samples were taken 40 potato fields in total; 10 different villages and neighborhoods (Güzelsu, Kırklar, İkikubbe, Harabeşehir, Taşharman, Saray, Yıldızlar, Orta, Kurtuluş, Kültür) and 4 farmer fields from each places. Productivity and various nutrient elements were analyzed by using these soil and plant samples. According to the results of the soil samples are generally determined in the group of loamy texture, low amount of organic matters (0.39-1.90%), no salinity problems, neutral- slightly acidic reaction (5.46-7.34) lime according the lime content (1.18-2.36 %). 88% of the sample soils in the resarch was found sufficient-excess for available P amount; 98 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable K amount. Also 60 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Ca amount and 85 % of the sample soils was found sufficient for exchangable Mg amount. The amount of DTPA Mn was found sufficient in 58 % and low in 42 % of the soils while the amount of Fe, Zn and Cu extractable with DTPA in the soil was determined sufficient high. According to the results of the leaf analysis; N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu amounts of the leaf were found sufficient; K, Mg and Zn amount of the leaf was fount low. According to the results of the soil analysis, it can be said that the organic fertilizer addition would be benefical. Also, although they are sufficient in the soil, low amount of K, Mg and Zn in the plant shows antagonistic relationship between high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applied. 66

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    Authors: Durgun, Burhan;

    Atabey Ovası toprakları yüksek tepelikler ve sırt araziler, koluviyal etekler, alüviyal yelpazeler, yaşlı dere yatakları, bajadalar, taban araziler ve genç dere yatakları fizyografik üniteleri üzerinde oluşmuşlardır. Bu değişkenlik ovada 20 farklı toprak serisinin oluşmasına, çinkonun yarayışlılığı ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonların da değişime neden olmaktadır. Bunun sonucunda ovada değişen derecelerde çinko noksanlığı ve tarımsak uygulamalardan kaynaklanan çinko toksikliği ortaya çıkmaktadır. Çinko yarayışlığında ve jeokimyasal fraksiyonlardaki değişimin belirlenmesi için her bir serinin 3 farklı noktasından alınan yüzey toprak örnekleri (0-20 cm derinlik) alınarak toplamda 70 ovayı temsil eden 70 örnekleme yapılmıştır. Daha sonra bu topraklarda tanımlayıcı fizikokimyasal analizler ve kademeli Zn fraksiyon analizler yapılmıştır. Ektraksiyon sırası; suda çözünebilir ve değişebilir fraksiyon (WS-EX), karbonatlara bağlı (Car-Zn), Mn oksitlere bağlı (MnOX-Zn), amorf Fe oksitlere bağlı (AFeOx-Zn), kristalin Fe oksitlere (KFeOx-Zn), organik ve sülfitlere bağlı (OS-Zn) ve bakiye fraksiyon (R-Zn) şeklindedir. Çinko fraksiyonlarının toprak toprak özellikleri ile olan ilişkileri varyans analizi, korrelasyon analizi ve kemometrik analizlerle ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ova topraklarında bu fraksiyonların ortalama dağılım sırası küçükten büyüğe doğru WS-EX (%0.304)<MnOx-Zn (%0.555)<Car-Zn (%3.096)<OS-Zn (%3.723)<KFeOx-Zn (%14.97)<AFeOx-Zn (19.61)<R-Zn (%57.74) şeklinde gerçekleşmiştir. Bu fraksiyonlardan WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn ve AFeOx-Zn fraksiyonlarının Zn'nin yarayışlı miktarlarıyla yakından ilişkili olduğu özellikle gübreleme ve ziraai mücadele gibi tarımsal uygulamalarla artan Zn konsantrasyonu bu fraksiyonların oransal değerlerinde artışlar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ovada Zn eksiklik/toksiklik mekanizmasının kullanışlı olacaktır. Elde edilen veriler tarımsal üreünlerin miktarını ve kalitesini arttırabilmek için ekonomik ve çevreye duyarlı gübreleme programlarının geliştirilmesine katkı sağlayabilecektir. Soil of Atabey Plain have formed different physiographic units such as hills and slopes, colluvium, alluvium, old stream beds, bajadas, lowlands, and young stream beds. Such variation resulted in the formation of 20 soil series and this in fact leaded to changes in the availability and geochemical fractions of soil zinc. Thus differing degrees of zinc deficiency and possible toxicity in some location are observed in the Plain. Total of 70 surface soil samples were collected from at least three different locations of each soil series. Descriptive physico-chemical parameters and sequential extraction of Zn were determined in the soils. The extraction sequence of the Zn fractions were: water soluble and exchangeable fraction (WS-EX), carbonate related fraction (Car-Zn), manganese oxide fraction(MnOx-Zn), amorphous Fe oxides fraction (AFeOx-Zn), crystalline Fe oxide fraction (KFeOx-Zn), fraction bound to sulphites and organic compounds (OS-Zn), and residual fraction (R-Zn). Relationships between zinc fraction and soil components and soil properties were revealed by means of Pearson correlation and chemometric analysis. The chemical fractions of soil Zn in acidic soils were found to be in the following descending order of Zn percentages: WS-EX (0.304%) < MnOx-Zn (0.555%) < Car-Zn (3.096%) < OS-Zn (3.723%) < KFeOx-Zn (14.97%) < AFeOx-Zn (19.61%) < R-Zn (57.74%). The occurence of WS-EX, Car-Zn, OS-Zn MnOx-Zn, and AFeOx-Zn fractions which are potentially plant available found to be related to increased Zn input induced by agricultural practices such as fertilization and pest management. The results of this study will be useful data-base for understanding the mechanisms of zinc deficiency/toxicity of Atabey Plain's soils. These information may enable to develop economically feasible and environmentally friendly fertilization strategies towards enhancing the yield and yield quality of agricultural products in the region. 104

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    Authors: Turak, Celal;

    11 BÜTÜNÜYLE KATI-HAL KONTAKT AMONYUM-SEÇİCİ PVC-MEMBRAN KONDÜKTOMETRİK ELEKTROTLAR VE PERFORMANS KARAKTERİSTİKLERİ ÖZET Nonaktin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 ve disüdo-18~crown-6 gibi crown-eter bileşikleri (nötral iyonoforlar olarak) kullanılarak tümüyle katı-hal kontakt PVC-membran NH/- seçici elektrotlar hazırlandı. Elektrotların kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik performansları bilgisayarlı bir ölçüm sisteminde araştırıldı. Hazırlanan elektrotların tamamına yakını ana iyon çözeltisine karşı Nernst davranışı gösterirken (>60 mV/her 10 kat değişim), cevap zamanları kısa (<15 s) ve kullanım ömürleri uzundu (en az 1-2 ay). or -i Tüm elektrotlar 10` -10` mol.L` konsantrasyon aralığında ana iyon çözeltisine karşı doğrusal davranış sergilemekteydi. Elektrotların ana iyon yanında girişim yapan iyonlara karşı seçicilik katsayıları ayrı çözelti metodu ile hesaplandı. A ve D ile ifade edilen membran elektrotlar NHU+ iyonuna karşı Na+ ve K+ iyonları yanında oldukça yüksek kondüktometrik ve potansiyometrik seçicilik sergilediği, B ve C membran elektrotların ise çözeltide NH41` iyonuna karşı düşük düzeyde seçicilik sergilediği sonucuna varıldı. Genel olarak, bütünüyle katı-hal kontakt NHU+ seçici membran elektrotların kondüktometrik sistemde NH4+ iyonuna karşı seçiciliği potansiyometrik sistemle kıyaslandığında azaldı. Ayrıca elektrotların düşük hücre hacimli akış hücreleri hazırlanarak hareketli ortamlarda da ölçümler alındı. D membran bileşimi ile hazırlanan elektrot kullanılarak, amonyumun toprak numunelerinde tayini kondüktometrik ve potansyometrik-akış enjeksiyon sistemlerinde başarıyla gerçekleştirildi. Anahtar Kelimeler : PVC-membran Elektrotlar, Bütünüyle Katı-Hal, Seçici kondüktometri, Amonyum, Toprak Analizi. Ill ALL SOLID-STATE CONTACT AMMONIUM-SELECTIVE PVC- MEMBRANE CONDUCTOMETRIC ELECTRODES AND THEIR PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ABSTRACT All solid-state contact PVC-membrane NH4+-selective electrodes were prepared by using crown-ether compounds Nonactin, dibenzo-18-crown-6 and dicyclo-18-crown-6 as neutral ionofores. The conductometric and potentiometric performances of electrodes were examined with a computerized measuring system. All electrodes almost exhibited Nernstian behaviour (>60 mV/per decade), short response times (<15 s) and long life times (at least 1-2 months) with a linear response between 10`2-10`5 mol.L`1 solutions of primary ion. Selectivity cofficients of the electrodes againt potential interferent ions were calculated by separate solution method. Membrane electrodes A and D exhibited a high degree of conductometric and potentiometric selectivity toward NH/ against Na+ and K+ ions. Although membrane electrodes B and C resulted a limeted selectivity toward NH4+ ion in solution. All solid-state NH/ selective membrane electrodes applied in the potentiometric form of the measurement behaved more selective toward NH4+ than applied in the conductometric form of the measurment selectivity of all solid-state NHU+ selective membrane electrodes toward NH/ ion was diminished by applying conductometry. Flow-through cells for the electrodes were designed and used in flowing conditions. Electrodes prepared with D membrane, ammonium ion was determined successfully in soil samples by the use of conductometric and potentiometric-flow injection system. Keywords : PVC-Membrane Electrodes, All Solid-State, Selective Conductometry, Ammonium, Soil Analysis. 70

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    Authors: Özcan, Selçuk;

    Antepfıstığı, Gaziantep ilinde meyve üretimi bakımından ilk sırada yer almaktadır. Ancak, antepfıstığının üretimi sırasında karşılaşılan sorunlardan birisi de yabancı otlardır. Bu çalışma ile; Gaziantep ili ve çevresinde antepfıstığı bahçelerinde sorun olan yabancı ot türlerinin yaygınlık ve yoğunluklarının saptanması ve yabancı ot dağılımı üzerine etki eden ekolojik parametrelerin belirlenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla; araştırma alanını temsil edebilecek şekilde 70 antepfıstığı bahçesinde sürveyler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Gaziantep'te 11 monokotiledon, 37 dikotiledon olmak üzere 21 familyaya ait 48 yabancı ot türü saptanmıştır. Antepfıstığı bahçelerinde yapılan sürveylerde en fazla Poaceae (10 tür), Asteraceae (6 tür) ve Fabaceae (6 tür) familyalarına dahil türlere rastlanmıştır. Sorghum halepense (L.), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Avena fatua L., Heliotropium europaeum L., Lactuca serriola L., Chenopodium album Chorozophora tinctoria ve Tribulus terrestris en sık rastlanan ve yoğunluk oluşturan türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Örnekleme yapılan bahçe topraklarında yapılan analizlerde silt, Na, Ca (P?0,01) ve organik madde içerikleri (P?0,05) istatistiksel olarak önemli düzeyde farklılık göstermiştir. Örnekleme noktaları arasında silt %12, Na %12, Ca %9 ve organik madde ise %7 oranında bir varyasyon ortaya koymuştur. Ancak, yine istatistiksel olarak önemli bulunmayan toprak özelliklerinden kil varyasyonun %6'sını, K2O %5'ini, CaCO3 %5'ini ve pH %4'ünü açıklamaktadır. Buna rağmen, yabancı ot türlerinin dağılımını kesin hatlarla sınırlandıran toprak özellikleri saptanamamıştır. Dolayısıyla toprak özelliklerinin yabancı otların dağılımına olan etkileri sınırlı düzeyde kalmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Antepfıstığı, Yabancı ot, Toprak özellikleri, Konikal Uyum Analizi (CCA) . Pistachio production is ranked the first among fruits grown in Gaziantep Province. Weeds are one of the major problems of pistachio production. The aims of this study were to define the prevalence and intensity of weed species and to determine ecological parameters explains the distribution of weeds in pistachio plantations. The study was carried out in 70 pistachio orchards representing the surveyed fields. In the province of Gaziantep, 48 weed species belonged to 21 families consisted of 11 monocotyledonous and 37 dicotyledonous were identified. The species identified in pistachio plantations were belonged to Poaceae (10 species), Astereceae (6 species) and Fabaceae (6 species) families. The most frequently and intensely encountered weed species in surveys were; Sorghum halepense (L.), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Avena fatua L., Heliotropium europaeum L., Lactuca serriola L., Chenopodium album, Chorozophora tinctoria and Tribulus terrestris. The silt, exchangeable Na, Ca and organic matter content of soils were significantly different among pistachio plantations. The variation of coefficients (CV) for soil attributes were 12% for silt content, 12% for Na, 9% for Ca and 7% for organic matter content, respectively. Although statistically non significant, clay content (CV=6%), K2O (CV=5%), CaCO3 (CV=5%) and pH (CV=4%) had slight variability among pistachio plantations. The results did not indicate a distinctive set of soil properties to identify the certain distribution of weed species in study area. Due to the low variability of soil properties among pistachio plantations, the effects of soil attributes determined on weed distribution were limited.Keywords: Pistachio, Weed, Soil Properties, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) 93

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    Authors: Gülyanar, Şayeste;

    Dipsacaceae üyesi taksonlarından Cephalaria amana Rech. fil. üzerinde 2009-2011 tarihleri arasında gerçekleştirlmiş bu otekolojik çalışma bitkini dağılım gösterdiği habitatların biyoklimatik, edafik, topoğrafik, biyotik gibi bazı özelliklerinin belirlenmesi ve bitki toprak ilişkilerini tespit etmek amacıyla yapılmıştır.Çalışma esnasında çeşitli analizler; Scheibler metodu, yaş yakma metodu, Kjeldahl metodu, Olsen metodu kullanılarak ve kalsimetre, spektrofotometre, Alev fotometresive ICP cihazları ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bulduğumuz sonuçlar mercek altına alınarak irdelenmiş ve yorum yapılmıştır. ayrıca endemik olan bu bitki populasyonunun korunması ve geliştirilmesi için öneriler sunulmuştur.2012, 67 sayfaAnahtar kelimeler:Otekolojik, endemik, bitki, toprak, Hatay This autoecological study was relaized between 2009-2011 on Cephalaria amana Rech. fil. that member the Dipsacaceae family and it aimed to find out bioclimatic, edaphic, topografic, biotic etc. characteristics of the habitats they distrubute. In addition, it aimed to explore the plant-soil relations of them.Various analysis were relaized by follwing the Scheibler method, Wet-Ashing method Kjeidal method, and Olsen method and by using the Calcimeter Spectrophotometer, Flamephotometer and ICP apparatus during study. All of the results obtained were considered and these resuts were commended. In addition some suggestions were brought for protection and development of this population.2012, 67 pagesKey words: Autoecological, endemic, plant, soil, Hatay 77

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    Authors: Çetinkaya, Osman;

    Bu araştırmanın amacı Çanakkale İli, Karamenderes Havzası topraklarının bitkiye yarayışlı mikro element (demir, bakır, mangan, çinko) içeriklerinin ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer) ile belirlenerek coğrafi bilgi sisteminde (CBS) yersel dağılım haritalarının oluşturulmasıdır.Çalışmada GPS (Global Positioning System) ile belirlenen 80 örnekleme noktasından 0?30 cm derinlikten toprak örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örneklerinde pH, elektriksel iletkenlik (EC), % kireç (CaCO3), organik madde, tekstür analizi ve yarayışlı demir (Fe), bakır (Cu), çinko (Zn), mangan (Mn) analizleri yapılmıştır.Yapılan analizler sonucunda Karamenderes Havzası topraklarının yarayışlı demir (Fe) ve mangan (Mn) yönünden yeterli seviyede, yarayışlı bakır (Cu) yönünden %92'lık kısmının yeter, %8' lik kısmının ise yetersiz seviyede, yarayışlı çinko (Zn) bakımından büyük bir kısmında eksiklik olduğu saptanmıştır.Anahtar Sözcükler: Karamenderes Havzası, Yarayışlı Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn The objective of this study was to determine local distribution of soil micro element contents and allocation maps for Karamenderes River Basin in Çanakkale Province, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES) and geographical information system (GIS).Soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm depths from 80 different points by using Global Positioning System (GPS). Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), % of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), organic matter, soil texture and available iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) were analysed.According to the soil analyses, it was determined that soil was sufficient in Karamenderes River Basin in terms of available iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Regarding to available copper (Cu) content, 92 % of soil is sufficient however 8% of soil in this area was not sufficient. It was found that a big proportion of soil had shortage of available zinc (Zn) in Karamenderes River Basin.Keywords : Karamenderes River Basin, available Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn 70

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    Authors: Tunçay, Tülay;

    Bu araştırma, kapalı drenaj sistemi performansı üzerine etkili olan toprak özelliklerininkonumsal değişimlerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla, Aşağı Seyhan Ovası'nda 28-32 yıl öncekurulmuş bir alanda yürütülmüştür. Drenaj sistemlerinin yerlerinin yer radarı (GPR)yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmesiyle, boruların mevcut durumlarının ortaya çıkartılmasıve konumsal değişim gösteren toprak özellikleri ile ilişkilendirilmesi hedeflenmiştir.Araştırma alanını temsil edebilecek 4 farklı bölge seçilmiştir. Seçilen her bir bölgede150 m (bölge 2, 3 ve 4) ve 200 m (bölge 1) uzunluğunda, 5 m aralıklı olarak 7 profiloluşturulmuş ve yer radarı ile veri toplanmış, eş zamanlı toplam 228 adet toprak örneğialınmıştır. Karşılaştırma amacıyla proje alanının 150 m uzağından, çevre arazilerde deprofil çukuru örneklemesi yapılmıştır. Alınan toprak örneklerinde pH, elektrikseliletkenlik, kireç, organik madde, tane büyüklüğü, hidrolik iletkenlik, değişebilir Na,katyon değişim kapasitesi ve hacim ağırlığı analizleri yapılmıştır. Ters mesafe ağırlıkAğırlıklı ters uzaklık interpolasyon yönteminden (ATU) yararlanılarak, analiz sonuçlarıdeğerlendirilmiştir. İnterpolasyondan elde edilen pH, elektriksel iletkenlik, organikmadde, tane büyüklüğü, katyon değişim kapasitesi, değişebilir sodyum yüzdesi vehacim ağırlığı sonuçları ile yapılan toprak analiz sonuçları uyum göstermektedir.Araştırma alanından toplanan yer radarı verilerinden, mevcut olan drenaj hattı tespitedilmeye çalışılmış ise de, ortamdaki yoğun kil ve yüksek kılcal saçak, borularınyerlerinin tam olarak tespit edilmesini engellemiştir. Yer radarı verileriyle, araştırmaalanındaki taban suyu seviyesi belirlenebilmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Kapalı Drenaj Sistemleri, Yer Radarı (YR), Dren Boruları,Konumsal Değişim, Çukurova, Ağırlıklı Ters Uzaklık İnterpolasyon Yöntemi This study was carried out in a field in the Lower Seyhan Basin in order to determinethe spatial changes of soil characteristics effective on the performance of a closeddrainage system which has been established furnished 28-32 years ago. It was aimed tofind the location and situation of drainage systems by ground penetrating radar (GPR)method, and to relate with inconsistent soil characteristics. Four (4) different area wereselected to represent the study area. For each of the selected area, seven (7) profiles of150 m (area 2, 3 and 4) and 200 m (area 1) were designated at 5 m intervals and datawas collected through ground penetrating radar, 228 soil samples from the whole areawere collected at the same time with ground penetrating radar. For the purpose ofcomparison, profile pit sampling was carried out on the surrounding fields 150 m awayfrom the study area. Analysis of pH, electrical conductivity, lime content, organicmatter content, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, exchangeable Nacontent, cation exchange capacity and bulk density were performed on the soil samples.Analysis results were evaluated by inverse distance weighting interpolation method(IDW). Electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter, particle size, cation exchangecapacity, exchangeable sodium rate and bulk density results obtained by interpolationwere compatible with the results of the soil analysis. It was tried to determine theposition of current drainage line from the data collected in the study area by groundpenetrating radar; however, dense clay and high capillary fringe in the environmenthindered the determination of the exact location of the pipes. Ground water level in thestudy area was determined using ground penetrating radar data.Key Words: Drainage Systems, GPR, Drain Pipe, Spatial Variability, 291

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    Authors: GÖKÇEOĞLU, Kağan; ÇİMRİN, Kerim Mesut;

    In order to determine the nutritional status of olive orchards in Hatay-Altınözü district, texture, lime (CaCO3), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and some macro-micro nutrient element analyzes were performed on 30 soil and 15 plant samples taken from selected olive orchards. According to the results obtained from the research, the soils were found to be in clay and clay-loam texture class, with slightly alkaline reaction, unsalted, excessively calcareous and insufficient in organic matter. it was determined that all the soils were insufficient in nitrogen (N), except for one sample, 100.0% zinc (Zn) and boron (B), 6.66% phosphorus (P), 13.33% potassium (K), 10.0% iron (Fe) contents. In the olive leaf samples, 20% N, 6.66% P, 36.66% K, 53.33% calcium (Ca), 73.33% magnesium (Mg), 46.66% both manganese (Mn), It was determined that it was deficient in terms of Zn and B contents. In the study, when soil and leaf analyze are examined, some plant nutrients are sufficient or more (Ca, Mg) in the soil, while they are deficient in the plant. Some plant nutrients are deficient in the soil (Zn, B), but they are found to be sufficient in the plant. This shows that there are nutritional problems and unconscious soil and leaf fertilization is done in the region. As a result, it is suggested that the producers should make fertilization programs by a specialist according to the missing or excess plant nutrient element status by having plant and soil analyzes done.

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