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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bataglia, O. C.; Santos, W. R.;

    O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia) foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate soil and plant responses to a continuous supply of NPK fertilizers on rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. The experiment was conducted on a Red-Yellow Podzolic Latosol sand/medium texture at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A fractionated factorial experiment 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) was used, with doses of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. The evaluations consisted of soil, leaf and trunk girth analyses. The nitrogen fertilizer (urea) promoted the greatest changes in soil fertility, significantly increasing soil acidity. Leaf N concentration was enhanced while K and S decreased. Phosphate fertilizer increased soil P availability and leaf P. Potassium fertilizer improved soil and leaf K contents. Leaf N was better correlated with plant growth while soil and leaf P and K were not consistently correlated. Borum concentrations in the leaves were positively correlated with the immaturity period of the crop. The availability of other micronutrients was not affected by the fertilizer treatments. Nitrogen and potassium nutrition showed the best correlations with crop growth. Differences up to twelve months in the immaturity period were observed for the different treatments.

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    Authors: Nascimento, C. W. A.; Fontes, R. L. F.; Neves, J. C. L.;

    A pesquisa sobre a avaliação da disponibilidade de manganês tem apresentado resultados discordantes, em grande parte em decorrência dos teores considerados disponíveis pelos diversos extratores. O conhecimento das formas químicas em que se encontra o elemento e suas relações com os teores disponíveis são importantes para a previsão do seu comportamento no sistema solo-planta. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência da calagem e de doses de manganês sobre a dessorção, extração e fracionamento desse elemento em amostras de seis Latossolos. Essas amostras, submetidas ou não à calagem, receberam o manganês nas doses de 0, 16 e 32 mg dm-3 e permaneceram incubadas por 30 dias. Terminada a incubação, o Mn foi determinado utilizando-se os extratores Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA e EDTA. As amostras foram submetidas a um fracionamento que separou o Mn na fração trocável (Tr), matéria orgânica (MO), óxido de manganês (OxMn), óxido de ferro amorfo (OxFeA), óxido de ferro cristalino (OxFeC) e residual (R), além dos teores totais. A dessorção foi avaliada mediante extrações sucessivas com resina de troca catiônica. Concluiu-se que o elemento foi retido, principalmente, na fração trocável e matéria orgânica. De modo geral, a calagem provocou redução nos teores trocáveis e aumento nas frações óxidos de ferro amorfo e de manganês. Na ausência da calagem, a ordem de dessorção apresentada foi Tr >> MO > OxFeA, com o Mehlich-3 sendo o melhor extrator para o Mn lábil. A calagem provocou acentuado decréscimo nos teores de Mn dessorvidos. O Mehlich-1 mostrou-se inadequado para a determinação dos teores disponíveis de Mn em solos corrigidos, condição na qual o DTPA foi o extrator mais indicado. Conflicting results have been achieved by the evaluation of manganese availability in soil, largely a consequence of varying values denoted as available by different extractants. Knowledge on the element's chemical forms in the soil and on relationships with the available concentrations are important to predict its behavior in the soil-plant system. In this study, six Oxisol soil samples were analyzed to evaluate the influence of liming and different manganese doses on desorption, extraction and fractioning. These soil samples, with and without lime application, were treated with manganese doses (0.0, 16.0 and 32.0 mg dm-3) and then incubated for 30 days. Hereupon, Mn was extracted with Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA and EDTA. and determined by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Additionally, the samples were fractionated for determination of manganese in the fractions: exchangeable (Ex), organic matter (OM), manganese oxides (MnOx), amorphous iron oxides (AFeOx), crystalline iron oxides (CFeOx), and residual (Re), as well as the total concentrations of the micronutrient. Micronutrient desorption was evaluated by successive extractions with cation exchange resin. Results showed that Mn was mainly retained in the exchangeable and organic matter fractions. In general, liming reduced exchangeable contents and increased the oxide fractions of amorphous iron and manganese. Without lime, the desorption order for Mn was Ex >> OM > AFeOx, where Mehlich-3 proved to be the best extractor for the determination of labile Mn concentrations. Liming caused a considerable decrease in Mn desorption. Under the same condition, Mehlich-1 proved to be inefficient to determine available Mn contents, while DTPA was the best extractant.

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    Authors: Schoninger, Evandro Luiz; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Linhares, Daniel;

    No presente trabalho, foram comparados dois métodos de extração de cobre (Cu) e zinco (Zn) em solos com teor de matéria orgânica (MO) maior que 50g kg-1. Os métodos de extração comparados foram: Extração com HCl 0,1mol L-1 (método padrão para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina) e Mehlich 3. Este trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Química e Fertilidade do Solo da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), no ano de 2009. As duas metodologias de extração foram aplicadas em 286 amostras de solo provenientes do Laboratório de Análise do Solo da UDESC, todas com mais de 50g kg-1 de MO. Os teores de cobre e zinco nos extratos foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados mostraram que houve correlação significativa entre os métodos, Cu (r=0,80) e Zn (r=0,93). A solução de Mehlich 3 extraiu mais cobre e menos zinco, quando comparada à solução de HCl 0,1mol L-1. O Mehlich 3 demonstrou ser eficiente na extração de cobre e zinco em solos com alto teor de MO, podendo substituir o método atual. In this study were compared two methods of extraction of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in soils with organic matter (OM) higher than 50g kg-1. The extraction methods compared were: Extraction with HCl 0.1mol L-1 (standard method for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) and Mehlich 3. This work was performed at the Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Santa Catarina State University (UDESC), in 2009. The two extraction methods were applied to 286 soil samples from the Soil Analysis Public Laboratory of UDESC, all with more than 50g kg-1 OM. The copper and zinc in extracts were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed significant correlation between the methods, Cu (r=0.80) and Zn (r=0.93). The solution Mehlich 3 extracted more copper and less zinc when compared to the solution of HCl 0.1mol L-1. The Mehlich 3 proved to be efficient in the extraction of copper and zinc in soils with high OM content, which may replace the current method.

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    Authors: Soares, Ricardo; Escaleira, Viviane; Campos, David Vilas Boas de; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; +3 Authors

    Foram comparadas as concentrações de Na, K e P em extratos de solos, obtidas por um método de extração convencional, no qual é utilizada uma razão solo:extrator (Mehlich-1) de 1:10, com aquelas encontradas utilizando uma razão solo:extrator (Mehlich-1) de 1:5. Também, foram comparados os resultados obtidos por técnicas de quantificação convencionais, nas quais Na e K são quantificados por fotometria de chama e P por espectrofotometria de absorção molecular, com aqueles encontrados por espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP OES). Foram analisadas 15 amostras de solo brasileiro. No estudo de repetibilidade aplicado a todos os resultados, os maiores CVs foram encontrados para P e Na, principalmente quando as concentrações dos analitos foram menores (< 9 mg dm-3 para P e < 10 mg dm-3 para Na). Esse fato foi devido provavelmente à heterogeneidade dos extratos, que continham partículas coloidais. Filtração ou centrifugação em vez de decantação dos extratos provavelmente resultaria em menores CVs. No estudo de reprodutibilidade, realizado para três amostras, foram obtidos resultados não reprodutíveis somente para K em uma amostra. Todos os resultados obtidos por ICP OES foram semelhantes aos obtidos por espectrofotometria de absorção molecular UV-Vis. e fotometria de chama, indicando que a primeira técnica foi adequada para determinação de Na, K e P nos extratos de solos tropicais obtidos com solução de Mehlich-1. Os resultados de Na, K e P obtidos com razão solo:extrator de 1:5 foram estatisticamente diferentes daqueles em que se utilizou razão solo:extrator de 1:10. A maioria dos resultados obtidos com razão solo:extrator de 1:5 foi menor que os obtidos com razão solo:extrator 1:10, sobretudo nas amostras com concentrações de analitos mais elevadas. Portanto, para estudos comparativos envolvendo macronutrientes, deve-se utilizar o método convencional com razão solo:extrator de 1:10. The Na, K and P concentrations in soil extracts obtained by a conventional extraction method, at a soil:extractant (Mehlich-1) ratio of 1:10, were compared with those found at a soil:extractant (Mehlich-1) ratio of 1:5. Also, the data obtained by conventional quantification techniques, in which Na and K are quantified by flame photometry and P by UV-Vis molecular absorption spectrophotometry, were compared with those found by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Fifteen Brazilian soil samples were analyzed. In the repeatability study applied to all results, the coefficient of variation (CV) was highest for P and Na, mainly when the analyte concentrations were lower (< 9 mg dm-3 for P and < 10 mg dm-3 for Na). This fact was probably due to the heterogeneity of the extracts, which contained colloidal particles. Filtration or centrifugation instead of decantation of the extracts would probably result in lower CV. In the reproducibility study for three samples, non-reproducible results were only obtained for K in a single sample. All ICP OES results were similar to those found by UV-Vis molecular absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry, indicating that the first technique was adequate for Na, K and P determination in the tropical soil extracts obtained with Mehlich-1 solution. The results for Na, K and P at a soil:extractant ratio of 1:5 were statistically different from those obtained at a ratio of 1:10. Most results obtained at a soil:extractant ratio of 1:5 were lower than at 1:10, mainly in samples with higher analyte concentrations. Therefore, for comparative studies involving macronutrients, the conventional method should be used at a soil:extractant (Mehlich-1) ratio of 1:10.

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    Authors: Mano*,Raquel; Rebelo,Fernanda;

    The main objective of this work was to obtain updated data from soil fertility laboratories located in Portugal. A survey was sent to the Heads of 32 laboratories and a reply was received from 25 of them. 14 of these labs belong to the Ministry of Education, 7 are private and 4 to the Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to soil they also analyse plant material and, the majority, organic soil improver and irrigation water. In the minimum package of analyses they offer (Summary Analysis) pH, organic matter, extractable phosphorus and potassium are always included and 72 % of them also include field texture. But this package differs greatly between labs with regard to the inclusion of other parameters. 76 % of the labs issue fertilisation recommendations, but only 20 % do so automatically. There is a relative homogeneity of methods for the parameters of the summary analysis, except for organic matter. Only two laboratories have accredited tests. The existence of a national interlaboratory test is felt to be important for internal quality control and harmonisation of methodologies. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Vol. 45 N.º 4 (2022)

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    Authors: Yagi, Renato;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Produção Vegetal) - FCAV Foram avaliados 16 índices químicos de disponibilidade de N para a cultura do milho em 22 solos do Estado de São Paulo. Os índices químicos de disponibilidade de N foram matéria orgânica, N total, N inorgânico e N extraído com KMnO4/NaOH, H2O2/MnO, tampão fosfato-borato, K2Cr2O7/H2SO4, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4 e KCl a quente/MgO ou NaOH. Métodos biológicos de incubação de solo em condições aeróbias (35ºC por 30 semanas) e anaeróbias (40ºC por 7 dias), e experimento em casa de vegetação tendo o milho como planta-teste foram utilizados como padrões de referência para os índices químicos. Os métodos de extração do N disponível com KCl a quente/MgO e Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4 apresentaram as melhores correlações com índices biológicos de mineralização ou disponibilidade de N. Na calibração destes métodos a partir de dois experimentos em vasos e em casa de vegetação, foram obtidos valores de nível crítico (NC) de N disponível que variaram de 33,0 a 35,0 mg dm-3 e de 430 a 525 mg dm-3, respectivamente. A partir destes valores de NC foram calculadas doses de N recomendadas (DR), com base em análise de N disponível em amostras de solo iniciais de três experimentos a campo e em experimento de incubação de solo em laboratório. A calibração dos métodos de análise para Nd do solo permitiu a obtenção do nível crítico de 35,0 mg dm-3 para o método do KCl a quente, como limite das classes de resposta e não resposta à adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do milho. Não foi possível calibrar o método de determinação de Nd com solução sulfocrômica. Were evaluated 15 chemical indices for N availability for corn crop in 22 Sao Paulo State soils. The chemical indices of N availability were soil organic matter, total N, inorganic N and N extracted with KMnO4/NaOH, H2O2/MnO, phosphate-borate buffer, K2Cr2O7/H2SO4, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4, hot KCl/MgO or NaOH. Biological methods of soil incubation under aerobic conditions (35ºC for 30 weeks) and anaerobic (40ºC for 7 days), and experiment in a greenhouse taking the corn as test-plant were used as benchmarks for the chemical indices. The methods of extracting the N available with hot KCl/MgO and Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4 showed the best correlation with N biological mineralization or availability. In the calibration of these methods from two experiments in pots and in greenhouse, were obtained critical level (CL) values of N available that ranged from 33.0 to 35.0 mg dm-3 and 430 to 525 mg dm-3, respectively. From these CL values were recommended N rates (NR), based on N available analysis in initial soil samples from three experiments in the field and in soil incubation in laboratory. In just one of the field experiments was possible to calculate NR of maximum economic efficiency, which were compared with NR. The calibration of the methods of analysis for N available soil allowed the achievement of CL of 35.0 mg dm-3 for the hot KCl method, as the limit of the classes of response and no response to nitrogen fertilization to corn cultivation. It was not possible to calibrate the method of determining of N available with sulfocromic solution.

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    Authors: Santos, Lenio da Silva; Silva, Leandro Souza da; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Griebeler, Gustavo;

    A extração de fósforo do solo pode ser comprometida pelas condições em que a análise é realizada e isso pode explicar a variabilidade nos resultados encontrados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de desvios na velocidade de agitação, no tempo de contato e na temperatura sobre a extração do P pelos extratores Mehlich-1 (M-1) e Mehlich-3 (M-3) em amostras de solo. O estudo foi conduzido por meio de três experimentos executados com 11 amostras de solo provenientes da camada arável de Latossolo, Neossolo, Argissolo, Cambissolo, Planossolo, que são representativas das regiões geomorfológicas do Planalto e da Depressão Central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para todos os experimentos, adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 × 5 × 11, sendo dois extratores, cinco velocidades, temperaturas ou tempos de contato solo/solução e 11 tipos de solo, com quatro repetições. No primeiro experimento, a mistura solo:solução foi agitada em 80, 100, 120, 140 e 160 oscilações por min (opm). No segundo, após a agitação por 5 min, a mistura solo:solução foi deixada em repouso por períodos de tempo de oito, 12, 16, 20 e 24 h para retirada dos extratos. No terceiro, a temperatura de execução de todo o protocolo de análises foi mantida constante em 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 °C. O aumento na velocidade de agitação de 120 até 160 opm aumentou a quantidade de P extraído pelos extratores. O aumento no tempo de contato antes da extração da alíquota elevou as quantidades de P extraído pelo M-1 e diminuiu para o M-3. Variações na temperatura não influenciaram significativamente o extrator M-1, mas o M-3 foi mais sensível a variações. Uma padronização na velocidade de agitação, no tempo de repouso e uma climatização dos laboratórios tornam-se necessárias para diminuir a interferência causada sobre as quantidades de P extraído pelos métodos M-1 e M-3 em amostras de solo. To produce reliable analytical data in a laboratory, all the stages of the analysis protocol must be properly understood and controlled. Extraction of soil P may thus be compromised by the conditions of analysis, and this may explain variability in results. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the effect of deviations in agitation speed, time of soil/ solution contact, and environmental temperature on extraction of soil P by Mehlich-1 (M-1) and Mehlich-3 (M-3). The study was conducted through three experiments performed simultaneously with 11 soil samples from the tilled layer of the following soils: Latossolo, Neossolo, Argissolo, Cambissolo, and Planossolo (Oxisol, Entisol, Ultisol, Inceptisol, and Alfisol) which are representative of the geomorphological regions of the Plateau and the Central Depression of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For all experiments, a completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 2 × 5 × 11 factorial arrangement, consisting of two extractors, five speeds, temperatures, or times of soil/solution contact, and 11 soil types, with four replications. In the first experiment, the soil/solution mixture was shaken at 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 oscillations per minute (opm). In the second, after shaking for 5 min., the soil/solution mixture was left at rest for periods of eight, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h before extract removal. In the third, the temperature for performing the entire analysis protocol was kept constant at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. The increase in soil/solution contact time increased the amounts of P extracted by M1, but the amount extracted by M3 decreased. Variations in temperature did not significantly affect the M1 extractor; however, M3 was more sensitive to variations. Agitation speed greater than 120 opm increases the amounts of P extracted by the M1 and M3 extractors. There was no consistence between resting periods and the amounts of P extracted by the M1 and M3 extractors. Standardizing the agitation speed and the resting periods would minimize differences in the amount of P extracted by M1 and M3 from soil samples.

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    Authors: da Veiga, Milton; Pandolfo, Carla Maria; Netto, José Maximiliano Müller; Andreola, Faustino; +4 Authors

    The soil fertility in four regions of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil, which were established bytheir similarity in parent material and climate conditions, was surveyed using 35,163 soil samples, analyzed in 2004 by five official laboratories in the State. The clay content increased from east to the west of the State, following the pattern of changes in parent material. In the same way increased the amount of samples with higher organic matter content. Very low and low pH predominated in all regions, although most of the sampleswere classified as medium or high in exchangeable Ca and Mg. A significant number of soil samples were very low and low in bases saturation, or medium and high in Al saturation, mainly in the seashore and sedimentary rocks regions. Most of the soil samples were classified as medium or higher in extractable K, except for seashore region, and more than 50% of the soil samples were classified as medium or lower in extractable P. Avaliou-se a fertilidade do solo em lavouras de quatro regiões de Santa Catarina, definidas pela similaridade de formação geológica e de clima, a partir de resultados de 35.163 amostras enviadas em 2004 aoslaboratórios oficiais do Estado. O conteúdo de argila aumenta do leste para o oeste do Estado, seguindo o padrão de mudanças no material de origem. Nesse mesmo sentido, ocorre um aumento do número de amostras nas classes de maior teor de matéria orgânica. As classes de interpretação muito baixa e baixa de pH em água predominam em todas as regiões, mas grande parte das amostras apresenta teores de Ca e Mg trocáveis nas classes média ou alta. É significativo o número de amostras com saturação por bases muito baixa ou baixa e saturação por Al alta ou média, principalmente nas regiões litorâneas e com solos originados de rochas sedimentares. A maioria das amostras apresenta teores médios ou maiores de K extraível, exceto na região litorânea, e mais de50% das amostras de solo apresentam teores médios ou inferiores de P extraível.

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    Authors: Marconato, Evandro Sérgio;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) Pós-graduação em Engenharia Elétrica - FEB O agronegócio possui participação fundamental no cenário econômico brasileiro, com reflexos importantes sobre o produto interno bruto, as exportações e a geração de empregos. A viabilidade econômica do setor agropecuário a partir da redução dos custos de produção, do aumento da produtividade e da redução ambiental causado pelo excesso de insumos, depende da Agricultura de Precisão. As informações referentes à variabilidade de diferentes propriedades do solo dentro da lavoura são fundamentais no processo de tomada de decisão. Uma das limitações da Agricultura de Precisão, a incapacidade de se obter as propriedades do solo de maneira rápida e com baixo custo, tem levado pesquisadores a desenvolver sensores para análise de solo em tempo real, sendo a espectroscopia uma das técnicas utilizadas. Neste trabalho, redes neurais artificiais (RNA) foram utilizadas como ferramenta inteligente para, a partir de uma massa de dados fornecidas por um sensor de solo em tempo real que utiliza a técnica de espectroscopia, estimar os teores de nitrogênio total e umidade do solo. O trabalho apresenta também uma comparação entre o resultado das redes neurais artificiais e o resultado da estimação de um software de análise quimiométrica utilizando a mesa massa de dados. o desempenho apresentado pelas redes neurais artificiais mostra ser possível sua utilização como ferramenta alternativa aos softwares de análise quimiométrica, além de permitir embarcar a inteligência de estimação, o que pode ser um passo preliminar para o desenvolvimento de equipamentos de baixo custo para análise de solo em tempo real Agribusiness has a fundaental role in the Brazilian economy, with important consequences on the gross domestic produtt, exports and job generation. The economic viability of the agricultural sector by reducing production costs, increasing productivity and reducing the environmental impact caused by excessive inputs, depends on Precision Agriculture. Information concerning the variability of different soil properties whitin the crop is essential in the process of decision making. One of the limitations of precision agriculture, the inability to obtain the soil characteristics quickly and cost effectively, has led researchers to develop sensors for soil analysis in real time, using the technique of spectroscopy. This work used artificial neural networks (ANN) as a smart tool for estimating the total nitrogen content and soil moisture from data provided by a real time soil sensor using the technique of spectroscopy. This work also presents a comparison between the estimation results of the artificial neural networks and the estimation results of a chemometric analysis software using the same database The performance of the neural networks shows its possible use as can alternative tool to chemometric analysis software and allows the estimative intelligence to be embedded, which may be a preliminary step for the development of low-cost equipment for real-time soil analysis

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    Authors: ROCHA, MARLON GOMES DA; BASSOI, LUÍS HENRIQUE; SILVA, DAVI JOSÉ;

    RESUMOA adubação pode influenciar a produção e a composição química do mosto da videira. Assim,o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar osefeitos da aplicação de adubo orgânico e nitrogenado nos atributos do solo e na produção da videira ‘Syrah’ irrigada por gotejamento, durante 3 ciclos de produção (abril a agosto de 2010; novembro de 2010 afevereiro de 2011; maio a setembro de 2011), bem como a composição química do mosto produzido, emPetrolina-PE. Os tratamentos consistiram em 2 doses de adubo orgânico (0 e 30 m3 ha-1 de esterco caprino) e 5 doses de N (0; 10; 20; 40 e 80 kg ha-1), dispostos em blocos casualizados, com 5 repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A adubação orgânica aumentou os teores de fósforo disponível, CTC e matériaorgânica do solo, diminuindo a acidez total titulável do mosto no primeiro ciclo e proporcionou aumento na produção de frutos e na massa de 100 bagas no terceiro ciclo de produção. As doses de N não influenciaramo número de cachos por planta, a produtividade de frutos, nem as características enológicas. ABSTRACTFertilization can influence the production and must composition of vine. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic and nitrogen fertilizer on the yield of drip irrigated wine grape ‘Syrah’ and on the must composition, in three growing seasons (April to August 2010; November 2010 to February 2011; May to September2011) in Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The treatments consisted of 2 organic fertilizer levels (0 and 30 m3 ha-1 of goat manure) and 5 N levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 kg ha-1), in 5 randomized blocks in split-plot design. The organic fertilization increased the soil organic matter content, the available P, and CEC, as well as decreased the total tritatable acidity in the must in the 1st growing season and increased the yield and the hundred berries weight in the 3rd growing season. The N rates did not influence the number of cluster per plant, neither the fruit yield and enological characteristics.

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    Authors: Bataglia, O. C.; Santos, W. R.;

    O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia) foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate soil and plant responses to a continuous supply of NPK fertilizers on rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. The experiment was conducted on a Red-Yellow Podzolic Latosol sand/medium texture at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A fractionated factorial experiment 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) was used, with doses of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. The evaluations consisted of soil, leaf and trunk girth analyses. The nitrogen fertilizer (urea) promoted the greatest changes in soil fertility, significantly increasing soil acidity. Leaf N concentration was enhanced while K and S decreased. Phosphate fertilizer increased soil P availability and leaf P. Potassium fertilizer improved soil and leaf K contents. Leaf N was better correlated with plant growth while soil and leaf P and K were not consistently correlated. Borum concentrations in the leaves were positively correlated with the immaturity period of the crop. The availability of other micronutrients was not affected by the fertilizer treatments. Nitrogen and potassium nutrition showed the best correlations with crop growth. Differences up to twelve months in the immaturity period were observed for the different treatments.

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    Authors: Nascimento, C. W. A.; Fontes, R. L. F.; Neves, J. C. L.;

    A pesquisa sobre a avaliação da disponibilidade de manganês tem apresentado resultados discordantes, em grande parte em decorrência dos teores considerados disponíveis pelos diversos extratores. O conhecimento das formas químicas em que se encontra o elemento e suas relações com os teores disponíveis são importantes para a previsão do seu comportamento no sistema solo-planta. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência da calagem e de doses de manganês sobre a dessorção, extração e fracionamento desse elemento em amostras de seis Latossolos. Essas amostras, submetidas ou não à calagem, receberam o manganês nas doses de 0, 16 e 32 mg dm-3 e permaneceram incubadas por 30 dias. Terminada a incubação, o Mn foi determinado utilizando-se os extratores Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA e EDTA. As amostras foram submetidas a um fracionamento que separou o Mn na fração trocável (Tr), matéria orgânica (MO), óxido de manganês (OxMn), óxido de ferro amorfo (OxFeA), óxido de ferro cristalino (OxFeC) e residual (R), além dos teores totais. A dessorção foi avaliada mediante extrações sucessivas com resina de troca catiônica. Concluiu-se que o elemento foi retido, principalmente, na fração trocável e matéria orgânica. De modo geral, a calagem provocou redução nos teores trocáveis e aumento nas frações óxidos de ferro amorfo e de manganês. Na ausência da calagem, a ordem de dessorção apresentada foi Tr >> MO > OxFeA, com o Mehlich-3 sendo o melhor extrator para o Mn lábil. A calagem provocou acentuado decréscimo nos teores de Mn dessorvidos. O Mehlich-1 mostrou-se inadequado para a determinação dos teores disponíveis de Mn em solos corrigidos, condição na qual o DTPA foi o extrator mais indicado. Conflicting results have been achieved by the evaluation of manganese availability in soil, largely a consequence of varying values denoted as available by different extractants. Knowledge on the element's chemical forms in the soil and on relationships with the available concentrations are important to predict its behavior in the soil-plant system. In this study, six Oxisol soil samples were analyzed to evaluate the influence of liming and different manganese doses on desorption, extraction and fractioning. These soil samples, with and without lime application, were treated with manganese doses (0.0, 16.0 and 32.0 mg dm-3) and then incubated for 30 days. Hereupon, Mn was extracted with Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA and EDTA. and determined by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Additionally, the samples were fractionated for determination of manganese in the fractions: exchangeable (Ex), organic matter (OM), manganese oxides (MnOx), amorphous iron oxides (AFeOx), crystalline iron oxides (CFeOx), and residual (Re), as well as the total concentrations of the micronutrient. Micronutrient desorption was evaluated by successive extractions with cation exchange resin. Results showed that Mn was mainly retained in the exchangeable and organic matter fractions. In general, liming reduced exchangeable contents and increased the oxide fractions of amorphous iron and manganese. Without lime, the desorption order for Mn was Ex >> OM > AFeOx, where Mehlich-3 proved to be the best extractor for the determination of labile Mn concentrations. Liming caused a considerable decrease in Mn desorption. Under the same condition, Mehlich-1 proved to be inefficient to determine available Mn contents, while DTPA was the best extractant.

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    Authors: Schoninger, Evandro Luiz; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Linhares, Daniel;

    No presente trabalho, foram comparados dois métodos de extração de cobre (Cu) e zinco (Zn) em solos com teor de matéria orgânica (MO) maior que 50g kg-1. Os métodos de extração comparados foram: Extração com HCl 0,1mol L-1 (método padrão para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina) e Mehlich 3. Este trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Química e Fertilidade do Solo da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), no ano de 2009. As duas metodologias de extração foram aplicadas em 286 amostras de solo provenientes do Laboratório de Análise do Solo da UDESC, todas com mais de 50g kg-1 de MO. Os teores de cobre e zinco nos extratos foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados mostraram que houve correlação significativa entre os métodos, Cu (r=0,80) e Zn (r=0,93). A solução de Mehlich 3 extraiu mais cobre e menos zinco, quando comparada à solução de HCl 0,1mol L-1. O Mehlich 3 demonstrou ser eficiente na extração de cobre e zinco em solos com alto teor de MO, podendo substituir o método atual. In this study were compared two methods of extraction of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in soils with organic matter (OM) higher than 50g kg-1. The extraction methods compared were: Extraction with HCl 0.1mol L-1 (standard method for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) and Mehlich 3. This work was performed at the Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Santa Catarina State University (UDESC), in 2009. The two extraction methods were applied to 286 soil samples from the Soil Analysis Public Laboratory of UDESC, all with more than 50g kg-1 OM. The copper and zinc in extracts were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed significant correlation between the methods, Cu (r=0.80) and Zn (r=0.93). The solution Mehlich 3 extracted more copper and less zinc when compared to the solution of HCl 0.1mol L-1. The Mehlich 3 proved to be efficient in the extraction of copper and zinc in soils with high OM content, which may replace the current method.

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    Authors: Soares, Ricardo; Escaleira, Viviane; Campos, David Vilas Boas de; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; +3 Authors

    Foram comparadas as concentrações de Na, K e P em extratos de solos, obtidas por um método de extração convencional, no qual é utilizada uma razão solo:extrator (Mehlich-1) de 1:10, com aquelas encontradas utilizando uma razão solo:extrator (Mehlich-1) de 1:5. Também, foram comparados os resultados obtidos por técnicas de quantificação convencionais, nas quais Na e K são quantificados por fotometria de chama e P por espectrofotometria de absorção molecular, com aqueles encontrados por espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP OES). Foram analisadas 15 amostras de solo brasileiro. No estudo de repetibilidade aplicado a todos os resultados, os maiores CVs foram encontrados para P e Na, principalmente quando as concentrações dos analitos foram menores (< 9 mg dm-3 para P e < 10 mg dm-3 para Na). Esse fato foi devido provavelmente à heterogeneidade dos extratos, que continham partículas coloidais. Filtração ou centrifugação em vez de decantação dos extratos provavelmente resultaria em menores CVs. No estudo de reprodutibilidade, realizado para três amostras, foram obtidos resultados não reprodutíveis somente para K em uma amostra. Todos os resultados obtidos por ICP OES foram semelhantes aos obtidos por espectrofotometria de absorção molecular UV-Vis. e fotometria de chama, indicando que a primeira técnica foi adequada para determinação de Na, K e P nos extratos de solos tropicais obtidos com solução de Mehlich-1. Os resultados de Na, K e P obtidos com razão solo:extrator de 1:5 foram estatisticamente diferentes daqueles em que se utilizou razão solo:extrator de 1:10. A maioria dos resultados obtidos com razão solo:extrator de 1:5 foi menor que os obtidos com razão solo:extrator 1:10, sobretudo nas amostras com concentrações de analitos mais elevadas. Portanto, para estudos comparativos envolvendo macronutrientes, deve-se utilizar o método convencional com razão solo:extrator de 1:10. The Na, K and P concentrations in soil extracts obtained by a conventional extraction method, at a soil:extractant (Mehlich-1) ratio of 1:10, were compared with those found at a soil:extractant (Mehlich-1) ratio of 1:5. Also, the data obtained by conventional quantification techniques, in which Na and K are quantified by flame photometry and P by UV-Vis molecular absorption spectrophotometry, were compared with those found by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Fifteen Brazilian soil samples were analyzed. In the repeatability study applied to all results, the coefficient of variation (CV) was highest for P and Na, mainly when the analyte concentrations were lower (< 9 mg dm-3 for P and < 10 mg dm-3 for Na). This fact was probably due to the heterogeneity of the extracts, which contained colloidal particles. Filtration or centrifugation instead of decantation of the extracts would probably result in lower CV. In the reproducibility study for three samples, non-reproducible results were only obtained for K in a single sample. All ICP OES results were similar to those found by UV-Vis molecular absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry, indicating that the first technique was adequate for Na, K and P determination in the tropical soil extracts obtained with Mehlich-1 solution. The results for Na, K and P at a soil:extractant ratio of 1:5 were statistically different from those obtained at a ratio of 1:10. Most results obtained at a soil:extractant ratio of 1:5 were lower than at 1:10, mainly in samples with higher analyte concentrations. Therefore, for comparative studies involving macronutrients, the conventional method should be used at a soil:extractant (Mehlich-1) ratio of 1:10.

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    Authors: Mano*,Raquel; Rebelo,Fernanda;

    The main objective of this work was to obtain updated data from soil fertility laboratories located in Portugal. A survey was sent to the Heads of 32 laboratories and a reply was received from 25 of them. 14 of these labs belong to the Ministry of Education, 7 are private and 4 to the Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to soil they also analyse plant material and, the majority, organic soil improver and irrigation water. In the minimum package of analyses they offer (Summary Analysis) pH, organic matter, extractable phosphorus and potassium are always included and 72 % of them also include field texture. But this package differs greatly between labs with regard to the inclusion of other parameters. 76 % of the labs issue fertilisation recommendations, but only 20 % do so automatically. There is a relative homogeneity of methods for the parameters of the summary analysis, except for organic matter. Only two laboratories have accredited tests. The existence of a national interlaboratory test is felt to be important for internal quality control and harmonisation of methodologies. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Vol. 45 N.º 4 (2022)

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    Authors: Yagi, Renato;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Produção Vegetal) - FCAV Foram avaliados 16 índices químicos de disponibilidade de N para a cultura do milho em 22 solos do Estado de São Paulo. Os índices químicos de disponibilidade de N foram matéria orgânica, N total, N inorgânico e N extraído com KMnO4/NaOH, H2O2/MnO, tampão fosfato-borato, K2Cr2O7/H2SO4, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4 e KCl a quente/MgO ou NaOH. Métodos biológicos de incubação de solo em condições aeróbias (35ºC por 30 semanas) e anaeróbias (40ºC por 7 dias), e experimento em casa de vegetação tendo o milho como planta-teste foram utilizados como padrões de referência para os índices químicos. Os métodos de extração do N disponível com KCl a quente/MgO e Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4 apresentaram as melhores correlações com índices biológicos de mineralização ou disponibilidade de N. Na calibração destes métodos a partir de dois experimentos em vasos e em casa de vegetação, foram obtidos valores de nível crítico (NC) de N disponível que variaram de 33,0 a 35,0 mg dm-3 e de 430 a 525 mg dm-3, respectivamente. A partir destes valores de NC foram calculadas doses de N recomendadas (DR), com base em análise de N disponível em amostras de solo iniciais de três experimentos a campo e em experimento de incubação de solo em laboratório. A calibração dos métodos de análise para Nd do solo permitiu a obtenção do nível crítico de 35,0 mg dm-3 para o método do KCl a quente, como limite das classes de resposta e não resposta à adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do milho. Não foi possível calibrar o método de determinação de Nd com solução sulfocrômica. Were evaluated 15 chemical indices for N availability for corn crop in 22 Sao Paulo State soils. The chemical indices of N availability were soil organic matter, total N, inorganic N and N extracted with KMnO4/NaOH, H2O2/MnO, phosphate-borate buffer, K2Cr2O7/H2SO4, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4, hot KCl/MgO or NaOH. Biological methods of soil incubation under aerobic conditions (35ºC for 30 weeks) and anaerobic (40ºC for 7 days), and experiment in a greenhouse taking the corn as test-plant were used as benchmarks for the chemical indices. The methods of extracting the N available with hot KCl/MgO and Na2Cr2O7.2H2O/H2SO4 showed the best correlation with N biological mineralization or availability. In the calibration of these methods from two experiments in pots and in greenhouse, were obtained critical level (CL) values of N available that ranged from 33.0 to 35.0 mg dm-3 and 430 to 525 mg dm-3, respectively. From these CL values were recommended N rates (NR), based on N available analysis in initial soil samples from three experiments in the field and in soil incubation in laboratory. In just one of the field experiments was possible to calculate NR of maximum economic efficiency, which were compared with NR. The calibration of the methods of analysis for N available soil allowed the achievement of CL of 35.0 mg dm-3 for the hot KCl method, as the limit of the classes of response and no response to nitrogen fertilization to corn cultivation. It was not possible to calibrate the method of determining of N available with sulfocromic solution.

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    Authors: Santos, Lenio da Silva; Silva, Leandro Souza da; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Griebeler, Gustavo;

    A extração de fósforo do solo pode ser comprometida pelas condições em que a análise é realizada e isso pode explicar a variabilidade nos resultados encontrados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de desvios na velocidade de agitação, no tempo de contato e na temperatura sobre a extração do P pelos extratores Mehlich-1 (M-1) e Mehlich-3 (M-3) em amostras de solo. O estudo foi conduzido por meio de três experimentos executados com 11 amostras de solo provenientes da camada arável de Latossolo, Neossolo, Argissolo, Cambissolo, Planossolo, que são representativas das regiões geomorfológicas do Planalto e da Depressão Central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para todos os experimentos, adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 × 5 × 11, sendo dois extratores, cinco velocidades, temperaturas ou tempos de contato solo/solução e 11 tipos de solo, com quatro repetições. No primeiro experimento, a mistura solo:solução foi agitada em 80, 100, 120, 140 e 160 oscilações por min (opm). No segundo, após a agitação por 5 min, a mistura solo:solução foi deixada em repouso por períodos de tempo de oito, 12, 16, 20 e 24 h para retirada dos extratos. No terceiro, a temperatura de execução de todo o protocolo de análises foi mantida constante em 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 °C. O aumento na velocidade de agitação de 120 até 160 opm aumentou a quantidade de P extraído pelos extratores. O aumento no tempo de contato antes da extração da alíquota elevou as quantidades de P extraído pelo M-1 e diminuiu para o M-3. Variações na temperatura não influenciaram significativamente o extrator M-1, mas o M-3 foi mais sensível a variações. Uma padronização na velocidade de agitação, no tempo de repouso e uma climatização dos laboratórios tornam-se necessárias para diminuir a interferência causada sobre as quantidades de P extraído pelos métodos M-1 e M-3 em amostras de solo. To produce reliable analytical data in a laboratory, all the stages of the analysis protocol must be properly understood and controlled. Extraction of soil P may thus be compromised by the conditions of analysis, and this may explain variability in results. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the effect of deviations in agitation speed, time of soil/ solution contact, and environmental temperature on extraction of soil P by Mehlich-1 (M-1) and Mehlich-3 (M-3). The study was conducted through three experiments performed simultaneously with 11 soil samples from the tilled layer of the following soils: Latossolo, Neossolo, Argissolo, Cambissolo, and Planossolo (Oxisol, Entisol, Ultisol, Inceptisol, and Alfisol) which are representative of the geomorphological regions of the Plateau and the Central Depression of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For all experiments, a completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 2 × 5 × 11 factorial arrangement, consisting of two extractors, five speeds, temperatures, or times of soil/solution contact, and 11 soil types, with four replications. In the first experiment, the soil/solution mixture was shaken at 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 oscillations per minute (opm). In the second, after shaking for 5 min., the soil/solution mixture was left at rest for periods of eight, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h before extract removal. In the third, the temperature for performing the entire analysis protocol was kept constant at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. The increase in soil/solution contact time increased the amounts of P extracted by M1, but the amount extracted by M3 decreased. Variations in temperature did not significantly affect the M1 extractor; however, M3 was more sensitive to variations. Agitation speed greater than 120 opm increases the amounts of P extracted by the M1 and M3 extractors. There was no consistence between resting periods and the amounts of P extracted by the M1 and M3 extractors. Standardizing the agitation speed and the resting periods would minimize differences in the amount of P extracted by M1 and M3 from soil samples.

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    Authors: da Veiga, Milton; Pandolfo, Carla Maria; Netto, José Maximiliano Müller; Andreola, Faustino; +4 Authors

    The soil fertility in four regions of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil, which were established bytheir similarity in parent material and climate conditions, was surveyed using 35,163 soil samples, analyzed in 2004 by five official laboratories in the State. The clay content increased from east to the west of the State, following the pattern of changes in parent material. In the same way increased the amount of samples with higher organic matter content. Very low and low pH predominated in all regions, although most of the sampleswere classified as medium or high in exchangeable Ca and Mg. A significant number of soil samples were very low and low in bases saturation, or medium and high in Al saturation, mainly in the seashore and sedimentary rocks regions. Most of the soil samples were classified as medium or higher in extractable K, except for seashore region, and more than 50% of the soil samples were classified as medium or lower in extractable P. Avaliou-se a fertilidade do solo em lavouras de quatro regiões de Santa Catarina, definidas pela similaridade de formação geológica e de clima, a partir de resultados de 35.163 amostras enviadas em 2004 aoslaboratórios oficiais do Estado. O conteúdo de argila aumenta do leste para o oeste do Estado, seguindo o padrão de mudanças no material de origem. Nesse mesmo sentido, ocorre um aumento do número de amostras nas classes de maior teor de matéria orgânica. As classes de interpretação muito baixa e baixa de pH em água predominam em todas as regiões, mas grande parte das amostras apresenta teores de Ca e Mg trocáveis nas classes média ou alta. É significativo o número de amostras com saturação por bases muito baixa ou baixa e saturação por Al alta ou média, principalmente nas regiões litorâneas e com solos originados de rochas sedimentares. A maioria das amostras apresenta teores médios ou maiores de K extraível, exceto na região litorânea, e mais de50% das amostras de solo apresentam teores médios ou inferiores de P extraível.

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