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  • NEANIAS Atmospheric Research Commun...

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  • ���� ������������ �������� �������� ������ �������������� �������� ���������� ������������ ���������������� ������������������������������ ��������������. �� ���������� �������������� �������� �������������������� ������ ������������ ���� �������������������� �������������������� ���������� ������ �������� ���������������� �������������������� �������������� ����������. �� ���������� ���������� (Pinus nigra Arn.) ������������������������������ ���� �������������������� �������� ������������������������ ��������������. �������� �������������� ���������������������� ���������������� �������������������� �� ���������������� ������ ���������������� ���� ������������������ ��������������������, ������ ���������������� ������ �������� ���������������������� �������������������� �������������� ������������������ ������ Pinus nigra Arn. ������ �� �������������������� ������ �������������� ���������������� ������ ������������������������ ������������������. ������������������������������ ���� ���������������������� �������������������������� �������������� �������������������������� ������������������ TAPM ������ ������������������ ���������������� ������ ������������������������ �������������� ��� ���������������������� ������ ���������������������� ���� ���������������� ���������������� ������ ������������������ ����������������������, ���������������� ������ �������� �������������� ��������������������. �������������������������������� �������������������� ���������������������� �������������� ������ ������ ���������������� ������ �������������������� ���� pH, ���� �������������������������� CaCO3, �� ���������������������� ���������������� ����������, ���� ���������������������� ���������������� Ca, Mg, K, Na, ���� �������������������������� ������ ���������������������� ���������������� Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe ������ ���� �������������������������� ������ �������������������������� Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn. �� �������������������� ���������������������� �������������� ������������������ ������ ���� ���������������������������� �������������������� �������������������������� ������������ ���������� �������� ������ ������������ ����������������, ������ �������������������� ������ �������������������������� ������ �������������� �������������������� ������ ������������. ���������� �������������������� �������������� ������ ���������������� ������������ ������������������, ������ ������������ 1000 ������������������ ������ ������ �������������� ������ ���������������� (���� �������������� ���������������������������� ��������������������), ������������ ������ ���������������� ���������������� ������ ������������������ ����������������������. �� ���������������� ������ ������������������������ �������������������� ������������ ������ �� �������������������������� ������������������ ������ �� ���������������������� ������ ������������������������ ������������������ ������ ����������������������. ������������������������ ������������ �� ���������� ������ ������������������ ������ ������������������ ������ ������������������������ ������������������������ �������� �������������������� ������ ����������. �������������������������������� 4 �������������������� f-AFLP ������������������ ������ ������������������ 283 �������������������� ������������. �� ���������� �������������� ������������������������ �������������������� ������������ �������� 210. ������������������������ ���������� ������������ ������ ���������������� �������������������������� ������ ������ �������������������������� ������ ���������������� ����������������, �� ���������� ������������ ���� ���������������� ������������������ �������� �������������������� ���������� ������ ���������������� �������� ������ ������������ ���������� ������ ����������������. �� �������������� �������� �������������� ������ ������ ���������������� ���������������� 606 ���������������� ������ ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ ������ �� ���������� �������������� ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ �������� 380. �� ���������������������� ���������������������������� ������������ ������ ���������������� �������������������� ������������������ ���������������� ������ �������������� �������������������� ������ ���������������� �������� �������������� ���� ���� �������������� ������ ������������������ ������ ������ ��������������. �� ���������������� ������������������ ������ ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ ������ ���� �������������� ������ ������������������������ �������������������� ������������ �������� ������������������ �������� �� 73,5% ������ �������� �������� �������������� 74,91%. ���� �������������� ������ ������������������������ ������������������������ �������������������� ������������ �������� 77,1% ������ 68,15% ������ ������ ���������������� ���������������� ������ ������������������ ���������������������� ��������������������. �� �������������� MSAP ������ ���� ������������ ������ ������ ���������������� ���������������� 478 ���������������� ������ ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ ������ �� ���������� �������������� ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ �������� 318. ���� ������������ ������ ������������������ ������������������������ ���� ������������������ ������������������. �� �������������������� ������������������ ������ �������������������� ������������ ������ ���������� �������� �������������� ������ ������������������������ ������ �������������� ���� �������������������������� �������� �������������������� ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������, ���� ������������ ���������������������� ���� ������������������ ���� ������������ �� ���������������������� ���������������� ���� ���������� ������ ���������������� ���������������������������������� ������ ���������� �������� ���������������������������� ������������������������������ ����������������. ��������������������������, �� ������������������ �������� ���������������������� �������������� �������� ������������������ �������� �������� �������������� ������ ������ ������ ������������. ������������ �������������������� �� ������������������ ���� �������������������������� ������������ ���������� �������� ������ �������������� ������ ���������� �������� ������ ���������� ����������. ���� �������������������� �������������� ������ ������������������ �������������������� ������������������������ ������ ������������ �������������������� ���� ���� �������������������� �������������� �������� �������������� ������ ���� ���������������������� ���������������� �������� ���������������������� ������ ���������������� ������������ �������� ���������������������������� ������������������������������ ����������������. The forest species during their evolution have experienced varying environmental changes. Air pollution has been shown that it can be a selective pressure on natural populations of forest tree species. Pinus nigra is used as a biomarker to air pollution. In this thesis, the effect of pollution on morphological, genetic and epigenetic parameters on natural populations of Pinus nigra was studied. TAPM, a prognostic meteorological atmospheric and dispersion model was used in the complex topography of the basin Kozani - Ptolemais, in order to identify areas of the natural distribution of Pinus nigra in the region with contrasting levels of atmospheric pollution. Mpourika was selected as the pollutant area and Agia Kiriaki as control. A comparative soil analysis of the two areas was conducted. Chemical characteristics were measured pH, the concentrations of CaCO3 and the percentage of organic matter content. Exchangeable cations Ca, Mg, K, Na soil concentrations of extractable metals Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and the concentrations of the water-soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn were calculated. The comparative soil analysis of the two locations showed the concentrations of the basic components of soils weren���t affected. The statistically significant differences that were recorded in the concentrations of the elements seem to result from the bedrock of each region. The comparison of morphological parameters showed that the concentrations of air pollutants in the prefecture of Kozani seems not to affect reproductive traits and sustainability of the most affected population. The role of the influence of genetic and epigenetic variation in the development of plants was also investigated. 4 combinations of f-AFLP primers were used and produced 283 loci. The average number of polymorphic gene loci was 210. There was a small reduction in the rate of polymorphism and heterozygosity of Mpourika, which can be a reaction in the selective pressure due to the air pollution of the region. The analysis on the needles of the two populations produced 606 reproducible and stable epiloci and the average number of polymorphic epiloci was 380. The fixation index estimated showed that methylation significant different between Agia Kiriaki and Mpourika populations, concerning needles. Comparing the genetic and epigenetic diversity of population Mpourika and Agia Kiriaki for needle tissue, showed that the percentage of polymorphic gene loci of Mpourika was 73.5% for Agia Kiriaki was 74,91%. The percentage of polymorphic epigenetic gene loci was 77.1% and 68,15% respectively. MSAP analysis for embryos produced 478 stable and repeatable epiloci and the average number of polymorphic epiloci was epigenetic 318. Embryos from Mpourika population exhibited higher methylation compared to embryos from Agia Kiriaki population. The higher methylation in the early stages of the plants may indicate the need for embryos to absorb the effect of air pollution adding more methylated positions, which may lead to silencing or overexpression of genes with a view to increasing adaptability of plants to changing environmental conditions. Moreover, methylation in Mpourika population was higher for both the needles and embryos tissues. The largest percentage of methylation observed in embryos when compared to the corresponding figure for needles maybe is a way for the next generation to adjust to changing environmental conditions.

    https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
    https://doi.org/10.26262/heal....
    Other literature type . 2016
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      Other literature type . 2016
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  • Two fundamentally different sources of randomness exist on which design and inference in spatial sampling can be based: (a) variation that would occur on resampling the same spatial population with other sampling configurations generated by the same design, and (b) variation occurring on sampling other populations, hypothetically generated by the same spatial model, using the same sampling configuration. The former leads to the design-based approach, which uses classical sampling theory; the latter leads to the model-based approach and uses geostatistical theory. Failure to recognize these two sources of randomness causes misunderstanding about dependence of variables and the role of randomization in sampling, unwarranted narrowing down the choice of sampling strategies to those that are model-based, and abuse in simulation experiments. This is exemplified in Barnes' publication on the required sample size for geologic site characterization by nonparametric tolerance intervals. A basic design-based strategy like Simple Random Sampling is shown to require smaller sample sizes than the model-based strategy advocated by Barnes. In addition, Simple Random Sampling is completely robust against model errors and less complicated.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ryan J.; Kapur S.; Akça E.;

    Tell El-Ghassil in Lebanon's Beka 'a Valley is typical of mounds, in Syria, Turkey, and Iraq. Wliile stratigraphy and human artefacts are used in archaeological investigations of such sites, soil analysis is a less frequently used. This study involved sampling to a depth of about 6 to 7 meters on exposed surfaces of a vertical transect, as well as away from the mound. The data show that parameters such as organic matter, total and available phosphorus, and the proportion of iron oxides are potentially useful indicators of soil weathering and the intensity of human occupation of the site, as well as periods of abandonment, and thus in charting the human evolution of the mound. The diffuse archaeological layers, i.e., the stratigraphy of the mound, which is difficult to distinguish, may also be elucidated with soil analysis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Çukurova University ...arrow_drop_down
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    Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Çukurova University ...arrow_drop_down
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      Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wit, K.E.;
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Report . Other literature type . 1962
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    Soil Science
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    Soil Science
    Article . 1962 . Peer-reviewed
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      Report . Other literature type . 1962
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      Soil Science
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      Soil Science
      Article . 1962 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kari M. Pitts; Richard M. Clarke;

    Soil is a valuable resource in many criminal cases. Used to link crime scenes, suspects, vehicles and tools, it has undergone a resurgence in recent years with multiple groups focusing on methods to allow for better differentiation. Many times the methods are focused on soil fractions, such as the clay or organic fractions. However, very sandy soils, such as the quartz sands of the Swan Coastal Plain, present a challenge to these methods. Clays and organic materials are very limited in these soils and hence, another characteristic needs to be added to the examination process. The authors here present a potential technique useful for the differentiation of soils where the soil texture is dominated by quartz sand. The quartz sand grains are used as a sampling medium, where the fine coatings (particles <20 μm in size) are recovered and analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The peak intensities for a total of 7 commonly occurring minerals, converted to relative percentages, were used to compare 52 sub-surface soils from known locations, and a further 339 soils from various stratigraphies, based on an algorithm for examining similarity. Results indicate this technique allows a degree of discrimination sufficient for inclusion in a standard soil comparison protocol, specifically for cases where the traditional fractionated analyses are not appropriate.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forensic Science Int...arrow_drop_down
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    Forensic Science International: Reports
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forensic Science International: Reports
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: van Grinsven, J.J.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Dirksen, C.; van Breemen, N.; +2 Authors

    AbstractA device is presented which, based on new operation principles, intercepts unsaturated soil water fluxes within an error of 10% and can yield samples for subsequent chemical analysis and calculation of convective solute fluxes. Operation is controlled by a microprocessor which automatically adjusts the vacuum imposed on a porous filter cloth such that identical matric potentials are maintained just above the cloth and at the same depth in the neighboring soil. Contact resistances and internal resistance of the device are implicitly corrected by adjustment of suction. Laboratory and field tests in a loamy sand under steady and transient flow conditions showed that cumulative water fluxes could be measured within 10% of those calculated from storage changes, and from numerical and analytical flow models.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Soil Science Society...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Soil Science Society of America Journal
    Article . 1988 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 1988
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Soil Science Society...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Soil Science Society of America Journal
      Article . 1988 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 1988
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    Authors: Oosterhaven, I.;
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    Report . Other literature type . 1972
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Report . Other literature type . 1972
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: de Gruijter, J.J.; ter Braak, C.J.F.;

    Two fundamentally different sources of randomness exist on which design and inference in spatial sampling can be based: (a) variation that would occur on resampling the same spatial population with other sampling configurations generated by the same design, and (b) variation occurring on sampling other populations, hypothetically generated by the same spatial model, using the same sampling configuration. The former leads to the design-based approach, which uses classical sampling theory; the latter leads to the model-based approach and uses geostatistical theory. Failure to recognize these two sources of randomness causes misunderstanding about dependence of variables and the role of randomization in sampling, unwarranted narrowing down the choice of sampling strategies to those that are model-based, and abuse in simulation experiments. This is exemplified in Barnes' publication on the required sample size for geologic site characterization by nonparametric tolerance intervals. A basic design-based strategy like Simple Random Sampling is shown to require smaller sample sizes than the model-based strategy advocated by Barnes. In addition, Simple Random Sampling is completely robust against model errors and less complicated.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 1992
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of the International Association for Mathematical Geology
    Article . 1992 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 1992
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of the International Association for Mathematical Geology
      Article . 1992 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Komnitsas, K; Modis, K;
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������ ������ ���������������� ���������������� 478 ���������������� ������ ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ ������ �� ���������� �������������� ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������ �������� 318. ���� ������������ ������ ������������������ ������������������������ ���� ������������������ ������������������. �� �������������������� ������������������ ������ �������������������� ������������ ������ ���������� �������� �������������� ������ ������������������������ ������ �������������� ���� �������������������������� �������� �������������������� ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������������������ ������������, ���� ������������ ���������������������� ���� ������������������ ���� ������������ �� ���������������������� ���������������� ���� ���������� ������ ���������������� ���������������������������������� ������ ���������� �������� ���������������������������� ������������������������������ ����������������. ��������������������������, �� ������������������ �������� ���������������������� �������������� �������� ������������������ �������� �������� �������������� ������ ������ ������ ������������. ������������ �������������������� �� ������������������ ���� �������������������������� ������������ ���������� �������� ������ �������������� ������ ���������� �������� ������ ���������� ����������. ���� �������������������� �������������� ������ ������������������ �������������������� ������������������������ ������ ������������ �������������������� ���� ���� �������������������� �������������� �������� �������������� ������ ���� ���������������������� ���������������� �������� ���������������������� ������ ���������������� ������������ �������� ���������������������������� ������������������������������ ����������������. The forest species during their evolution have experienced varying environmental changes. Air pollution has been shown that it can be a selective pressure on natural populations of forest tree species. Pinus nigra is used as a biomarker to air pollution. In this thesis, the effect of pollution on morphological, genetic and epigenetic parameters on natural populations of Pinus nigra was studied. TAPM, a prognostic meteorological atmospheric and dispersion model was used in the complex topography of the basin Kozani - Ptolemais, in order to identify areas of the natural distribution of Pinus nigra in the region with contrasting levels of atmospheric pollution. Mpourika was selected as the pollutant area and Agia Kiriaki as control. A comparative soil analysis of the two areas was conducted. Chemical characteristics were measured pH, the concentrations of CaCO3 and the percentage of organic matter content. Exchangeable cations Ca, Mg, K, Na soil concentrations of extractable metals Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and the concentrations of the water-soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn were calculated. The comparative soil analysis of the two locations showed the concentrations of the basic components of soils weren���t affected. The statistically significant differences that were recorded in the concentrations of the elements seem to result from the bedrock of each region. The comparison of morphological parameters showed that the concentrations of air pollutants in the prefecture of Kozani seems not to affect reproductive traits and sustainability of the most affected population. The role of the influence of genetic and epigenetic variation in the development of plants was also investigated. 4 combinations of f-AFLP primers were used and produced 283 loci. The average number of polymorphic gene loci was 210. There was a small reduction in the rate of polymorphism and heterozygosity of Mpourika, which can be a reaction in the selective pressure due to the air pollution of the region. The analysis on the needles of the two populations produced 606 reproducible and stable epiloci and the average number of polymorphic epiloci was 380. The fixation index estimated showed that methylation significant different between Agia Kiriaki and Mpourika populations, concerning needles. Comparing the genetic and epigenetic diversity of population Mpourika and Agia Kiriaki for needle tissue, showed that the percentage of polymorphic gene loci of Mpourika was 73.5% for Agia Kiriaki was 74,91%. The percentage of polymorphic epigenetic gene loci was 77.1% and 68,15% respectively. MSAP analysis for embryos produced 478 stable and repeatable epiloci and the average number of polymorphic epiloci was epigenetic 318. Embryos from Mpourika population exhibited higher methylation compared to embryos from Agia Kiriaki population. The higher methylation in the early stages of the plants may indicate the need for embryos to absorb the effect of air pollution adding more methylated positions, which may lead to silencing or overexpression of genes with a view to increasing adaptability of plants to changing environmental conditions. Moreover, methylation in Mpourika population was higher for both the needles and embryos tissues. The largest percentage of methylation observed in embryos when compared to the corresponding figure for needles maybe is a way for the next generation to adjust to changing environmental conditions.

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    https://doi.org/10.26262/heal....
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  • Two fundamentally different sources of randomness exist on which design and inference in spatial sampling can be based: (a) variation that would occur on resampling the same spatial population with other sampling configurations generated by the same design, and (b) variation occurring on sampling other populations, hypothetically generated by the same spatial model, using the same sampling configuration. The former leads to the design-based approach, which uses classical sampling theory; the latter leads to the model-based approach and uses geostatistical theory. Failure to recognize these two sources of randomness causes misunderstanding about dependence of variables and the role of randomization in sampling, unwarranted narrowing down the choice of sampling strategies to those that are model-based, and abuse in simulation experiments. This is exemplified in Barnes' publication on the required sample size for geologic site characterization by nonparametric tolerance intervals. A basic design-based strategy like Simple Random Sampling is shown to require smaller sample sizes than the model-based strategy advocated by Barnes. In addition, Simple Random Sampling is completely robust against model errors and less complicated.

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    Authors: Ryan J.; Kapur S.; Akça E.;

    Tell El-Ghassil in Lebanon's Beka 'a Valley is typical of mounds, in Syria, Turkey, and Iraq. Wliile stratigraphy and human artefacts are used in archaeological investigations of such sites, soil analysis is a less frequently used. This study involved sampling to a depth of about 6 to 7 meters on exposed surfaces of a vertical transect, as well as away from the mound. The data show that parameters such as organic matter, total and available phosphorus, and the proportion of iron oxides are potentially useful indicators of soil weathering and the intensity of human occupation of the site, as well as periods of abandonment, and thus in charting the human evolution of the mound. The diffuse archaeological layers, i.e., the stratigraphy of the mound, which is difficult to distinguish, may also be elucidated with soil analysis.

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    Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wit, K.E.;
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    Report . Other literature type . 1962
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    Soil Science
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    Soil Science
    Article . 1962 . Peer-reviewed
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      Report . Other literature type . 1962
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      Soil Science
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      Soil Science
      Article . 1962 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kari M. Pitts; Richard M. Clarke;

    Soil is a valuable resource in many criminal cases. Used to link crime scenes, suspects, vehicles and tools, it has undergone a resurgence in recent years with multiple groups focusing on methods to allow for better differentiation. Many times the methods are focused on soil fractions, such as the clay or organic fractions. However, very sandy soils, such as the quartz sands of the Swan Coastal Plain, present a challenge to these methods. Clays and organic materials are very limited in these soils and hence, another characteristic needs to be added to the examination process. The authors here present a potential technique useful for the differentiation of soils where the soil texture is dominated by quartz sand. The quartz sand grains are used as a sampling medium, where the fine coatings (particles <20 μm in size) are recovered and analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The peak intensities for a total of 7 commonly occurring minerals, converted to relative percentages, were used to compare 52 sub-surface soils from known locations, and a further 339 soils from various stratigraphies, based on an algorithm for examining similarity. Results indicate this technique allows a degree of discrimination sufficient for inclusion in a standard soil comparison protocol, specifically for cases where the traditional fractionated analyses are not appropriate.

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    Forensic Science International: Reports
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forensic Science International: Reports
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: van Grinsven, J.J.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Dirksen, C.; van Breemen, N.; +2 Authors

    AbstractA device is presented which, based on new operation principles, intercepts unsaturated soil water fluxes within an error of 10% and can yield samples for subsequent chemical analysis and calculation of convective solute fluxes. Operation is controlled by a microprocessor which automatically adjusts the vacuum imposed on a porous filter cloth such that identical matric potentials are maintained just above the cloth and at the same depth in the neighboring soil. Contact resistances and internal resistance of the device are implicitly corrected by adjustment of suction. Laboratory and field tests in a loamy sand under steady and transient flow conditions showed that cumulative water fluxes could be measured within 10% of those calculated from storage changes, and from numerical and analytical flow models.

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    Soil Science Society of America Journal
    Article . 1988 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 1988
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      Soil Science Society of America Journal
      Article . 1988 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 1988