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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Olle, Margit;

    Saabunud / Received 05.08.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 23.12.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 25.12.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Margit Olle e-mail: margit.olle@gmail.com Vermicomposting is described as "bioxidation and stabili zation of organic material involving the joint action of earthworms and mesophilic micro-organisms". Under appropriate conditions, worms eat agricultural waste and reduce the volume by 40 to 60%. Vermicompost produced by the activity of earthworms is rich in macro and micro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones, enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulase and chitinase and immobilized microflora. The enzymes continue to disintegrate organic matter even after they have been ejected from the worms. Reduced use of water for irrigation, reduced pest attack, reduced termite attack, reduced weed growth; faster rate of seed germination and rapid seedlings growth and development; greater numbers of fruits per plant (in vegetable crops) and greater numbers of seeds per year (in cereal crops) are only some of the beneficial effects of the vermicompost usage in agricultural production. Earthworms and vermicompost can boost horticultural production without agrochemicals. In spite of the benefits associated with vermicompost, its use is not widespread yet. This review attempts as increasing awareness of this local soil amendment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2019
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      Agraarteadus
      Article . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Agita Gancone; Jelena Pubule; Marika Rosa; Dagnija Blumberga;

    Abstract Agriculture is the second most significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with approximately 24 % of Latvia’s total GHG emissions in 2014. Emissions from agricultural soils contributed major share of the total emissions – 59.6 %, enteric fermentation emissions was second largest source – 32 %. The share of manure management emissions was evaluated as 7.5 % of total emissions in the sector, remaining 0.9 % of emissions refer to liming and urea application. GHG emissions increased in 2014 by 3.3 % comparing to 2013 due to increase of cattle, sheep and fur animal numbers. Statistics also showed increase of synthetic N fertilizer consumption approximately by 4.6 %, sown area by 0.3 % and lime application to soils 42.9 % [1]. Bearing in mind significant share of agricultural emissions in total GHG emissions in Latvia and the growing emission trend the additional attention is necessary for evaluation of impacts of agriculture on the environment. The purpose of this study is to explore indicators for assessing eco-efficiency in the Latvian agriculture sector. First the paper describes methods which can be used for measuring eco-efficiency, second availability of activity data and third, presents calculations of selected indicators for eco-efficiencies.

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    Energy Procedia
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Energy Procedia
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Kaupo Kokamägi; Natalja Liba; Kristo Must; Martin Sirk;

    Due to the overall development of technology, laser scanning has reached a new level. During the last decade, all the different technologies necessary for mobile laser scanning, have been developed. Due to the fact that mobile laser scanning brings the need to process very large amounts of data, development of computers and software is also very important. The aim of current research was to assess the accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data in different vegetation areas and to explore if mobile laser scanning could be used as an alternative to aerial laser scanning. This article only covers the data collecting, processing and accuracy assessment aspects of the research. Data used in current study was collected in summer of 2015, during mobile laser scanning of Põltsamaa-Kärevere section of E263 route (Tallinn-Tartu-Võru-Luhamaa). Three smaller, differently vegetated, sections were picked from the large project to study the accuracy of elevation data. For accuracy assessment, the mobile laser scanning elevation data was compared to the checkpoints measured with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) device. Ground profiles were drawn based on mobile laser scanning data. For objective assessment, accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data was compared to accuracy of ground profile elevation data and aerial laser scanning elevation data. The study found that the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) in the I section, which was a field vegetated with 1 metre high crop, was 0,98 metres. RMSE in the II section, which was a pasture with low and sparse vegetation, was 0,23 metres. RMSE in the III section, which contained a bushy ditch and a field behind it, was 0,61 metres. Results show that the accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data depends substantially on the density of vegetation in scanned areas and that drawing ground profiles reduced the RMSE of mobile laser scanning elevation data. Results show that the accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data depends substantially on the density of vegetation in scanned areas. On this basis it can be concluded, that the most reasonable time to conduct mobile laser scanning would be during a season, when vegetation is the sparsest. It can also be concluded that drawing ground profiles makes mobile laser scanning data more accurate.

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    Authors: Laarmann, Diana;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry Doktoritöö käsitleb metsaökosüsteemide taastamist Eestis, hõlmates nii kaevandamisega rikutud alade taasmetsastamist kui ka loodusmetsade struktuurikomponentide tekitamist madala loodusväärtusega aladele ning aladele, kus loodusliku taastumise protsess on aeglane. Intensiivne metsade majandamine on põhjustanud metsade struktuuri ja liigilise koosseisu lihtsustumist ning muutnud looduslike häiringute dünaamikat. Metsi oskuslikult majandades saab vähendada majandamisvõtete negatiivset mõju elurikkusele ja säilitada metsaökosüsteemide looduslikke funktsioone. Samuti tuleks eelkõige kaitsealustes metsades jälgida ja taastada metsade looduslikku funktsionaalsust. Ökoloogilise taastamise eesmärk on kiirendada muudetud, rikutud või hävitatud ökosüsteemides loodusliku taastumise protsesse. Doktoritöös käsitletakse ja analüüsitakse metsade taastamise erinevaid aspekte ja komponente ning otsesteks eesmärkideks on: a) uurida puistute looduslikkuse indikaatoreid ning hinnata puistute looduslikkust, b) määrata puistus üksikpuu suremist mõjutavad faktorid, c) analüüsida looduslikkuse taastamise võtete mõju puistu dünaamikale ja elurikkusele, d) analüüsida kaevandamisjärgsel taasmetsastamisel tekkinud ökosüsteemi. Püstitatud eesmärkide täitmiseks viidi läbi välitööd kokku 640 püsiproovitükil. Doktoritöös leiti, et surnud puidu kogus, surnud puude ruumiline paiknemine puistus, samuti suremise kiirus ja põhjused on tihedas seoses puistu looduslikkusega. Surnud puidu maht looduslikus seisundis ja majandatud metsas erinevad üksteisest oluliselt. Puude suremise hindamine võimaldab paremini aru saada metsaökosüsteemi struktuurist ja seal toimivatest protsessidest. Puu ellujäämine sõltub puu suhtelisest suurusest puistus ning puude suremise põhjused erinevat tüüpi puistutes on erinevad. Suremise põhjuste mitmekesisus on suurem looduslikus seisundis puistutes ning samuti on surnud puude paiknemine sellises puistus rohkem hajutatud. Töös väljatöötatud indeksid pakuvad võimalusi paremini hinnata puistu looduslikkust ja seejuures eristada puistus toimunud hiljutisi häiringuid. Looduslikkuse taastamise võtted olid läbi viidud ühetaolistes keskealistes okaspuupuistutes, kus peale taastamisvõtete tegemist puistustruktuur mitmekesistus, näiteks surnud puidu maht suurenes lagupuidu tekitamise võtte korral kuni 67 m3 ha-1. Loodusliku uuenduse arvukus oli kõrgeim pindalalt suuremas häilus ning ülepõletatud häilu korral. Taastamisvõtted avaldasid erinevatele liigirühmadele erinevat mõju: rohttaimede mitmekesisus suurenes enim ülepõletatud häilu korral, sammalde mitmekesisus lagupuidu tekitamise korral, samblike mitmekesisus suurenes enim häilu tekitamisel, ülepõletatud häilu korral mitmekesisus aga vähenes. Kontrollaladest eristus kõige rohkem rohttaimede, sammalde ja samblike puhul häilu ülepõletamise võte. Mardikaliste suurenenud arvukus ja liigiline mitmekesisus on puistu valgustingimuste muutuse ning elupaikade lisandumise otsene tulemus. Võrreldes ühe taastamisvõtte rakendamisega suurendab erinevate taastamisvõtete üheaegne kasutamine puistu heterogeensust ja tänu sellele suureneb ka elurikkus. Kaevandamisjärgse taasmetsastamise eesmärk on taastada ökosüsteemide kaevandamiseelne olukord. Üldjuhul on võimatu taastada minevikus olnud seisundit, sest kaevandamisega on kasvupinnast täielikult muudetud ning tihtipeale areneb seal välja hoopis uudne ökosüsteem. Taastamisedukuse hindamine põhineb mullanäitajate dünaamika, liigilise mitmekesisuse, taimkatte struktuuri ja ökoloogiliste protsesside uurimisel. Endise kaevandamisala mullad erinesid tüüpilistest metsamuldadest ja seetõttu on seal taimestiku arenguks tekkinud teistsugused tingimused. Samuti erinesid sealsed taimekooslused tüüpilistest metsas esinevatest kooslustest. Puistu takseernäitajad olid sarnaseimad sinilille kasvukohatüübi puistute takseernäitajatega. Ala looduslikule arengule jätmine võib taastamisel olla oluline alternatiiv metsaistutamisele, eriti juhul, kui rikutud ala on väike ja ümbritsetud loodusliku taimkattega ning kui alale pole määratud soovitavat eesmärki ning taastumise tähtaega. This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables managers to reduce the negative impacts of timber harvest on biodiversity and thereafter maintain ecological functions. Restoration is activity which can improve conservation efforts in protected areas in order to enhance quality and quantity, to improve connectivity between fragmented areas and create buffer zones between protected and managed forest areas. The objective of ecological restoration is to re-create a self-supporting ecosystem which existed previously and is resilient to contingent damage and to maintain the system in a desirable state or moving away from an undesirable state. The aims of the thesis are: a) to develop naturalness and structural indicators in forest ecosystems; b) to analyze the effects of restoration treatments for biodiversity and stand development in managed forest ecosystems; c) to analyze the success of reclamation on post-mining restoration site; d) to determine factors influencing tree survival/mortality in forest stands. This thesis based on 640 permanent sample plots all over Estonia. Based on the results of this thesis, deadwood quantity and spatial distribution as well as tree mortality rate and causes are reliable indicators of forest naturalness. Deadwood mingling index and diversity index of mortality reasons as new proposed variables improve the assessment of forest naturalness and clarify the effects of recent disturbances. Tree mortality in a stand is caused by specific agents or by the complex effect of several mortality agents and it is different in semi-natural and managed forest. Determining the cause for a tree death is often difficult; therefore it is sensible to use a process-based multiple-reason method for determining the factors of mortality for a single tree. Survival probability of a tree is dependent on the specific mortality agent and relative size of the tree in a stand. Restoration pre-treatment stands are often homogeneous even-aged monocultures on fertile sites; rehabilitation treatments (gap cuttings, overburning and addition of deadwood) increase their structural heterogeneity and promote differentiation of microclimatic conditions and therefore species richness and abundance increase after treatments. In a gap treatment, the ratio between the gap diameter and the surrounding stand height determines the light availability inside the gap; the larger this ratio is, the greater likelihood of seedling recruitment and successful establishment of light demanding species. Species groups respond differently to treatments: understory vegetation diversity increases in gaps with burning, lichen diversity in gaps without burning, and bryophyte diversity with the addition of dead wood. Increased beetle abundance and greater species diversity is a direct effect of changed light conditions inside the canopy. Gaps with overburning have the greatest recruitment of tree seedlings. Multiple treatments create stand heterogeneity and can increase biodiversity more than one homogenous application of a single treatment. It is not possible to restore historical or natural ecosystems on reclaimed mined areas by simple afforestation. Soil formation and properties and the vegetation on reclaimed sites is different from soils and vegetation on common forest sites, hence this leads to development of novel ecosystems. Spontaneous succession should be considered in forest restoration as an alternative to afforestation practice, especially if reclamation sites are small, surrounded by natural vegetation, and there is no specific production goal or time limit for restoration.

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    Thesis . 2014
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
    Doctoral thesis . 2014
    License: CC BY
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      Thesis . 2014
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      Doctoral thesis . 2014
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  • Authors: Leslie R. Adrian; Donato Repole; Leonids Ribickis;

    The purpose of this paper is to address current issues in industrial robotics applications and to address also the current trends occurring in the industry regarding smaller mobile units in factory and external manufacturing processes relating to the battery powering of robotics devices. Specifically, we shall concentrate the efforts herein on “Mobile Industrial Robotics”. The paper touches briefly on problems associated with both definitions of industrial robots and problems associated with power supply sources of mobile industrial robotics and provides an outline of future work with appropriate solution for smaller mobile industrial mobile units operating in the variable input range of 24V to 48v and outputs in the range of 3.3V to 12V @ 20A in three stages. The project required a fast, turn-key solution which did not allow for a “design from scratch” solution and so detailed herein is suitable design produced in other sectors and relating the details, design process, modelling and examination of a successful and efficient high current DC to DC switch mode power supply. Parameters have been adjusted to our own preferences in the design considerations regarding “Industrial Service Hybrids” [1] (ISH)1. Other design issues are under assessment and shall be included as the project moves forward.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maris Klavins; Vaira Obuka;

    A major driving force to promote the idea of sustainable bioeconomy could be local experiences, skills and knowledge in respect to the use of local and natural materials (at first, biomaterials). Sustainable bioeconomy is a concept under development, and as such it requires argumentation and demonstration of efficiency. The aim of this chapter is to study the local knowledge of the Baltic region in terms of the applicability of local biomaterials in production. In the context of bioeconomy, there is an evident need to identify the possibilities for the use of natural and local materials as well as the knowledge to manage these resources. Natural materials of the Baltic region, such as hemp, straw, timber, grain processing products (husk), reeds, moss and flax, will be studied in the historical context and in the use for innovations in modern bioeconomy. In addition, such resources as clay, organic lake sediments (sapropel), peat, sludge, ash, coal and biochar will be evaluated as potential source materials for the manufacture of innovative products. Regarding the use of natural resources, different sectors will be analysed, for example, agriculture and construction. The obtained results will give an insight into the knowledge and traditions of the Baltic region concerning the use of natural materials as a key for sustainability.

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Aldea, Jorge; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo; del Río, Miren; Pretzsch, Hans; +11 Authors

    Mixed forests are suggested as a strategic adaptation of forest management to climate change. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) are tree species of high economic and ecological value for European forestry. Both species coexist naturally in a large part of their distributions but there is a lack of knowledge on the ecological functioning of mixtures of these species and how to manage such stands. This paper analyses these species’ intra- and inter-specific competition, including size-symmetric vs. size-asymmetric competition, and explore the effect of weather conditions on tree growth and competition. We studied basal area growth at tree level for Scots pine and Norway spruce in mixed versus pure stands in 22 triplets of fully-stocked plots along a broad range of ecological conditions across Europe. Stand inventory and increment cores provided insights into how species mixing modifies tree growth compared with neighbouring pure stands. Five different competition indices, weather variables and their interactions were included and checked in basal area growth models using a linear mixed model approach. Interspecific size-asymmetric competition strongly influenced growth for both tree species, and was modulated by weather conditions. However, species height stratification in mixed stands resulted in a greater tree basal area growth of Scots pine (10.5 cm2 year−1) than in pure stands (9.3 cm2 year−1), as this species occupies the upper canopy layer. Scots pine growth depended on temperature and drought, whereas Norway spruce growth was influenced only by drought. Interspecific site-asymmetric competition increased in cold winters for Scots pine, and decreased after a drought year for Norway spruce. Although mixtures of these species may reduce tree size for Norway spruce, our results suggest that this could be offset by faster growth in Scots pine. How inter-specific competition and weather conditions alter tree growth may have strong implications for the management of Scots pine-Norway spruce mixtures along the rotation period into the ongoing climate change scenario. The networking of this study was supported by the REFORM project (number FR-2017/0001, Resilience of forest mixtures: Mixed Species forest management. Lowering risk, increasing resilience) from the ERA-Net Sumforest. We thank national funders of REFORM project (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation: PCIN2017-026, Research Council of Lithuania (LMTLT) S-SUMFOREST-17-1, Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) FR-2017/0001) and those funders for the support to non-participants in the REFORM project (Denmark: Contract between Danish Ministry of Environment and Food and Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management of UCPH; Estonia: Estonian University of Life Sciences projects number P180024MIME and P200029MIME; Poland: EU CARE4C project (GA 778322) supported by the Polish Government MNiSW2018-2021 matching fund (W117/H2020/2018); Slovakia: APVV-15-0265). We also thank to all national project partners and forest owners who allowed us to establish and measure the triplets in this study. Peer reviewed 12 Pág.

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    NIBIO Brage
    Article . 2020
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    MediaTUM
    Article . 2020
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    Forest Ecology and Management
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      NIBIO Brage
      Article . 2020
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      MediaTUM
      Article . 2020
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      Forest Ecology and Management
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Foroogh Abasian; Mikael Rönnqvist; Mustapha Ouhimmou;

    The Canadian forest industry is facing several challenges including high fibre cost, decline in commodity profitability, and low investment levels at relatively old manufacturing plants. To enable ...

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    Canadian Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Canadian Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ruņģis Dainis; Korica Anna; Gailīte Agnese; Pušpure Ilze; +1 Authors

    Abstract Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) has a widespread distribution throughout Europe, and Latvia is almost at the north eastern edge of the distribution range. In Europe, ash is threatened by ash dieback, a disease caused by the introduced ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers have been used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of ash both in a broader pan-European context as well as in more restricted regions. Some of the markers analysed in these previously published reports were also utilised in this study, enabling comparisons of the genetic parameters calculated from the nuclear SSR marker data and of the haplotypes identified with the chloroplast markers. Analysis of chloroplast markers revealed one dominant haplotype in Latvian stands, which corresponds to the haplotype previously found in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. A second haplotype, corresponding to a previously reported central European haplotype was found in all individuals from the Ķemeri stand, indicating that this stand was naturally established from introduced germplasm, which was planted in a neighbouring park. The nuclear SSR markers revealed low levels of differentiation of Latvian F. excelsior stands, probably due efficient pollen flow between stands. The analysis of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers has revealed different aspects of the structure and provenance of Latvian F. excelsior populations.

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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2016
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    Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B, Natural Sciences
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B, Natural Sciences
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    Authors: Arvo Tullus; Katrin Rosenvald; Reimo Lutter; Ants Kaasik; +2 Authors

    Abstract Aspens are fast-growing clonal trees with a wide circumboreal distribution range, suitable for the production of pulp and bioenergy. The adaptability of aspen short-rotation coppice systems to climate change has rarely been investigated. For a large part of aspens’ northern range, climate models predict an increase in precipitation and, consequently, in atmospheric humidity. Our aim was to clarify the long-term effect of elevated air humidity on vegetative reproduction capacity and dynamics of above-ground growth and size structure in aspen stands. We analysed tree growth data from two consecutive 6-year rotations (a planted and a coppice generation) in experimental short-rotation hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) stands in the Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) experiment in Estonia. In three plots, mean relative air humidity was elevated by 7% and three plots were controls. Across two rotation periods, the humidification effect on tree height and/or stem basal area increment was year-dependent (p

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    Forest Ecology and Management
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forest Ecology and Management
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Olle, Margit;

    Saabunud / Received 05.08.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 23.12.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 25.12.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Margit Olle e-mail: margit.olle@gmail.com Vermicomposting is described as "bioxidation and stabili zation of organic material involving the joint action of earthworms and mesophilic micro-organisms". Under appropriate conditions, worms eat agricultural waste and reduce the volume by 40 to 60%. Vermicompost produced by the activity of earthworms is rich in macro and micro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones, enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulase and chitinase and immobilized microflora. The enzymes continue to disintegrate organic matter even after they have been ejected from the worms. Reduced use of water for irrigation, reduced pest attack, reduced termite attack, reduced weed growth; faster rate of seed germination and rapid seedlings growth and development; greater numbers of fruits per plant (in vegetable crops) and greater numbers of seeds per year (in cereal crops) are only some of the beneficial effects of the vermicompost usage in agricultural production. Earthworms and vermicompost can boost horticultural production without agrochemicals. In spite of the benefits associated with vermicompost, its use is not widespread yet. This review attempts as increasing awareness of this local soil amendment.

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    Article . 2019
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    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
    Article . 2019
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      Agraarteadus
      Article . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
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    Authors: Agita Gancone; Jelena Pubule; Marika Rosa; Dagnija Blumberga;

    Abstract Agriculture is the second most significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with approximately 24 % of Latvia’s total GHG emissions in 2014. Emissions from agricultural soils contributed major share of the total emissions – 59.6 %, enteric fermentation emissions was second largest source – 32 %. The share of manure management emissions was evaluated as 7.5 % of total emissions in the sector, remaining 0.9 % of emissions refer to liming and urea application. GHG emissions increased in 2014 by 3.3 % comparing to 2013 due to increase of cattle, sheep and fur animal numbers. Statistics also showed increase of synthetic N fertilizer consumption approximately by 4.6 %, sown area by 0.3 % and lime application to soils 42.9 % [1]. Bearing in mind significant share of agricultural emissions in total GHG emissions in Latvia and the growing emission trend the additional attention is necessary for evaluation of impacts of agriculture on the environment. The purpose of this study is to explore indicators for assessing eco-efficiency in the Latvian agriculture sector. First the paper describes methods which can be used for measuring eco-efficiency, second availability of activity data and third, presents calculations of selected indicators for eco-efficiencies.

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    Energy Procedia
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Energy Procedia
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Kaupo Kokamägi; Natalja Liba; Kristo Must; Martin Sirk;

    Due to the overall development of technology, laser scanning has reached a new level. During the last decade, all the different technologies necessary for mobile laser scanning, have been developed. Due to the fact that mobile laser scanning brings the need to process very large amounts of data, development of computers and software is also very important. The aim of current research was to assess the accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data in different vegetation areas and to explore if mobile laser scanning could be used as an alternative to aerial laser scanning. This article only covers the data collecting, processing and accuracy assessment aspects of the research. Data used in current study was collected in summer of 2015, during mobile laser scanning of Põltsamaa-Kärevere section of E263 route (Tallinn-Tartu-Võru-Luhamaa). Three smaller, differently vegetated, sections were picked from the large project to study the accuracy of elevation data. For accuracy assessment, the mobile laser scanning elevation data was compared to the checkpoints measured with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) device. Ground profiles were drawn based on mobile laser scanning data. For objective assessment, accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data was compared to accuracy of ground profile elevation data and aerial laser scanning elevation data. The study found that the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) in the I section, which was a field vegetated with 1 metre high crop, was 0,98 metres. RMSE in the II section, which was a pasture with low and sparse vegetation, was 0,23 metres. RMSE in the III section, which contained a bushy ditch and a field behind it, was 0,61 metres. Results show that the accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data depends substantially on the density of vegetation in scanned areas and that drawing ground profiles reduced the RMSE of mobile laser scanning elevation data. Results show that the accuracy of mobile laser scanning elevation data depends substantially on the density of vegetation in scanned areas. On this basis it can be concluded, that the most reasonable time to conduct mobile laser scanning would be during a season, when vegetation is the sparsest. It can also be concluded that drawing ground profiles makes mobile laser scanning data more accurate.

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    Authors: Laarmann, Diana;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry Doktoritöö käsitleb metsaökosüsteemide taastamist Eestis, hõlmates nii kaevandamisega rikutud alade taasmetsastamist kui ka loodusmetsade struktuurikomponentide tekitamist madala loodusväärtusega aladele ning aladele, kus loodusliku taastumise protsess on aeglane. Intensiivne metsade majandamine on põhjustanud metsade struktuuri ja liigilise koosseisu lihtsustumist ning muutnud looduslike häiringute dünaamikat. Metsi oskuslikult majandades saab vähendada majandamisvõtete negatiivset mõju elurikkusele ja säilitada metsaökosüsteemide looduslikke funktsioone. Samuti tuleks eelkõige kaitsealustes metsades jälgida ja taastada metsade looduslikku funktsionaalsust. Ökoloogilise taastamise eesmärk on kiirendada muudetud, rikutud või hävitatud ökosüsteemides loodusliku taastumise protsesse. Doktoritöös käsitletakse ja analüüsitakse metsade taastamise erinevaid aspekte ja komponente ning otsesteks eesmärkideks on: a) uurida puistute looduslikkuse indikaatoreid ning hinnata puistute looduslikkust, b) määrata puistus üksikpuu suremist mõjutavad faktorid, c) analüüsida looduslikkuse taastamise võtete mõju puistu dünaamikale ja elurikkusele, d) analüüsida kaevandamisjärgsel taasmetsastamisel tekkinud ökosüsteemi. Püstitatud eesmärkide täitmiseks viidi läbi välitööd kokku 640 püsiproovitükil. Doktoritöös leiti, et surnud puidu kogus, surnud puude ruumiline paiknemine puistus, samuti suremise kiirus ja põhjused on tihedas seoses puistu looduslikkusega. Surnud puidu maht looduslikus seisundis ja majandatud metsas erinevad üksteisest oluliselt. Puude suremise hindamine võimaldab paremini aru saada metsaökosüsteemi struktuurist ja seal toimivatest protsessidest. Puu ellujäämine sõltub puu suhtelisest suurusest puistus ning puude suremise põhjused erinevat tüüpi puistutes on erinevad. Suremise põhjuste mitmekesisus on suurem looduslikus seisundis puistutes ning samuti on surnud puude paiknemine sellises puistus rohkem hajutatud. Töös väljatöötatud indeksid pakuvad võimalusi paremini hinnata puistu looduslikkust ja seejuures eristada puistus toimunud hiljutisi häiringuid. Looduslikkuse taastamise võtted olid läbi viidud ühetaolistes keskealistes okaspuupuistutes, kus peale taastamisvõtete tegemist puistustruktuur mitmekesistus, näiteks surnud puidu maht suurenes lagupuidu tekitamise võtte korral kuni 67 m3 ha-1. Loodusliku uuenduse arvukus oli kõrgeim pindalalt suuremas häilus ning ülepõletatud häilu korral. Taastamisvõtted avaldasid erinevatele liigirühmadele erinevat mõju: rohttaimede mitmekesisus suurenes enim ülepõletatud häilu korral, sammalde mitmekesisus lagupuidu tekitamise korral, samblike mitmekesisus suurenes enim häilu tekitamisel, ülepõletatud häilu korral mitmekesisus aga vähenes. Kontrollaladest eristus kõige rohkem rohttaimede, sammalde ja samblike puhul häilu ülepõletamise võte. Mardikaliste suurenenud arvukus ja liigiline mitmekesisus on puistu valgustingimuste muutuse ning elupaikade lisandumise otsene tulemus. Võrreldes ühe taastamisvõtte rakendamisega suurendab erinevate taastamisvõtete üheaegne kasutamine puistu heterogeensust ja tänu sellele suureneb ka elurikkus. Kaevandamisjärgse taasmetsastamise eesmärk on taastada ökosüsteemide kaevandamiseelne olukord. Üldjuhul on võimatu taastada minevikus olnud seisundit, sest kaevandamisega on kasvupinnast täielikult muudetud ning tihtipeale areneb seal välja hoopis uudne ökosüsteem. Taastamisedukuse hindamine põhineb mullanäitajate dünaamika, liigilise mitmekesisuse, taimkatte struktuuri ja ökoloogiliste protsesside uurimisel. Endise kaevandamisala mullad erinesid tüüpilistest metsamuldadest ja seetõttu on seal taimestiku arenguks tekkinud teistsugused tingimused. Samuti erinesid sealsed taimekooslused tüüpilistest metsas esinevatest kooslustest. Puistu takseernäitajad olid sarnaseimad sinilille kasvukohatüübi puistute takseernäitajatega. Ala looduslikule arengule jätmine võib taastamisel olla oluline alternatiiv metsaistutamisele, eriti juhul, kui rikutud ala on väike ja ümbritsetud loodusliku taimkattega ning kui alale pole määratud soovitavat eesmärki ning taastumise tähtaega. This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables managers to reduce the negative impacts of timber harvest on biodiversity and thereafter maintain ecological functions. Restoration is activity which can improve conservation efforts in protected areas in order to enhance quality and quantity, to improve connectivity between fragmented areas and create buffer zones between protected and managed forest areas. The objective of ecological restoration is to re-create a self-supporting ecosystem which existed previously and is resilient to contingent damage and to maintain the system in a desirable state or moving away from an undesirable state. The aims of the thesis are: a) to develop naturalness and structural indicators in forest ecosystems; b) to analyze the effects of restoration treatments for biodiversity and stand development in managed forest ecosystems; c) to analyze the success of reclamation on post-mining restoration site; d) to determine factors influencing tree survival/mortality in forest stands. This thesis based on 640 permanent sample plots all over Estonia. Based on the results of this thesis, deadwood quantity and spatial distribution as well as tree mortality rate and causes are reliable indicators of forest naturalness. Deadwood mingling index and diversity index of mortality reasons as new proposed variables improve the assessment of forest naturalness and clarify the effects of recent disturbances. Tree mortality in a stand is caused by specific agents or by the complex effect of several mortality agents and it is different in semi-natural and managed forest. Determining the cause for a tree death is often difficult; therefore it is sensible to use a process-based multiple-reason method for determining the factors of mortality for a single tree. Survival probability of a tree is dependent on the specific mortality agent and relative size of the tree in a stand. Restoration pre-treatment stands are often homogeneous even-aged monocultures on fertile sites; rehabilitation treatments (gap cuttings, overburning and addition of deadwood) increase their structural heterogeneity and promote differentiation of microclimatic conditions and therefore species richness and abundance increase after treatments. In a gap treatment, the ratio between the gap diameter and the surrounding stand height determines the light availability inside the gap; the larger this ratio is, the greater likelihood of seedling recruitment and successful establishment of light demanding species. Species groups respond differently to treatments: understory vegetation diversity increases in gaps with burning, lichen diversity in gaps without burning, and bryophyte diversity with the addition of dead wood. Increased beetle abundance and greater species diversity is a direct effect of changed light conditions inside the canopy. Gaps with overburning have the greatest recruitment of tree seedlings. Multiple treatments create stand heterogeneity and can increase biodiversity more than one homogenous application of a single treatment. It is not possible to restore historical or natural ecosystems on reclaimed mined areas by simple afforestation. Soil formation and properties and the vegetation on reclaimed sites is different from soils and vegetation on common forest sites, hence this leads to development of novel ecosystems. Spontaneous succession should be considered in forest restoration as an alternative to afforestation practice, especially if reclamation sites are small, surrounded by natural vegetation, and there is no specific production goal or time limit for restoration.

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    EMU DSpace
    Thesis . 2014
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
    Doctoral thesis . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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