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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2013-2022
  • LV
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Šņepste, Ilze; Krivmane, Baiba; Šķipars, Vilnis; Zaluma, Astra; +1 Authors

    Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by the Latvian Council of Science, grant number 284/2012, Investigation of molecular defense mechanisms in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The induction of defense responses in Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was investigated in three experiments. Two different MeJA application methods were tested, and induction of defense responses was assayed by seedling inoculation with Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. and Lophodermium seditiosum Minter, Staley and Millar. In the first experiment, five-year-old P. sylvestris ramets of one clone were directly treated with MeJA, followed by inoculation with H. annosum. In the second experiment, open-pollinated Scots pine seedlings were treated with MeJA by direct spraying and vaporization, and inoculation with H. annosum was done using a slightly modified protocol. In the third experiment, open-pollinated Scots pine seedlings were treated with MeJA by vaporization and inoculated with L. seditiosum. Direct application of MeJA induced seedling mortality, and in some cases, decreased resistance to inoculation with H. annosum. Application of MeJA by vaporization was less stressful for seedlings, and resulted in increased resistance to both H. annosum and L. seditiosum. In addition, an unforeseen Neodiprion sertifer (Geof-froy) and Hylobius abietis L. infestation provided anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of MeJA in inducing resistance to insect pests as well. Further studies are required on the induction of resistance to additional diseases and pests. Induced resistance could be used as a possible protective mecha-nism for Scots pine seedlings prior to planting during reforestation of stands to increase vitality and survival. Peer reviewed

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Riga Stradiņš Univer...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Fargnoli, Mario; Lombardi, Mara; Puri, Daniele; Casorri, Laura; +3 Authors

    The attention paid to the use of pesticides has increased notably in recent years as demonstrated by the issue of laws and regulations requiring their safe and environmentally-conscious use (e.g. Directive 2009/128/EC and Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008). Despite the benefits that can be achieved by pursuing the targets of stricter legislative framework, the difficulties for farmers in complying with it are remarkable, especially for small-sized companies. In fact, in contrast to other occupational health and safety (OHS) contexts, in the case of pesticides even a preliminary analysis on the relationship between pesticide use and the consequent exposure risks for the workers is a complex task. In order to reduce the above-mentioned gap, the present study is focused on the development of an easy-to-use tool for carrying out occupational risk assessment of agricultural activities related to the use of pesticides. The procedure was developed by starting from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) approach and its improvements, and continuing to the thorough development of a tool for preliminary risk assessment, providing a simplified model for its practical application by farmers. A case study concerning olive cultivation was used for its first verification. The results achieved should be considered as an initial step for the promotion of safer practices when using pesticides, providing a consistent base for their further validation.

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    Authors: Duquesne, Véronique; Delcont, Aurélie; Cougoule, Nicolas; Dán, Ádám; +20 Authors

    To evaluate the performance of the molecular methods used by national reference laboratories (NRLs) for the identification of Nosema species in bee samples, an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) was organised in 2015. A total of 20 EU NRLs and 1 non-European NRL participated in this ILC. The specificity of the methods was tested on various Nosema species: Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae and Nosema bombi. The test panel of samples provided to the laboratories contained 17 suspensions of crushed abdomens from naturally and artificially infected honeybees and bumblebees. In addition, data on the routine methods used by the participating laboratories were collected in an online survey, covering all the steps involved in DNA extraction and PCR. Our analysis showed that the 21 NRLs use 21 different protocols, each presenting variations from the DNA extraction step to the PCR step. The results of this ILC indicate that 48% of the participating laboratories returned the expected results. Considering the 21 different methods used, 57% of participating laboratories provided satisfactory results with regard to sensitivity, and 72% with regard to specificity. The results of this ILC clearly highlight the need for improved harmonisation of molecular Nosema identification methods. http://euroreference.mag.anses.fr/en

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adas Marčiulynas; Vaida Sirgedaitė-Šėžienė; Povilas Žemaitis; Āris Jansons; +1 Authors

    Five Scots pine ( L.) progeny field trials, each established in different Lithuanian regions of provenance in 1983, were studied. Each progeny field trial consists of 140 half-sib families from seven populations (20 families from each population). The evaluation was carried out in 2012 and 2018 to assess the families resistance to (Fr.) Bref. An index of resistance in the infected plots was calculated. To verify the accuracy of the method, total phenolic compounds (TPC) was chosen as key parameter to compare with the plant resistance index. During the six years between the two assessments, the percentage of living Scots pine trees in the progeny field trials decreased up to 20 percentage points (range: 4 p.p. to 20 p.p.). In 2018 the area of damaged plots (in percentage from total field trial area) varied from 17 to 27%. Tree mortality in the trial correlates with site soil fertility â more fertile soils were distinguished by higher tree percentage loss and . Using analysis from combined data of all progeny trials, the family variance component reached 13.3â±â2.2% and family heritability was 0.81. Family heritability estimates for root rot resistance show possibilities of high breeding effectiveness. The correlations between the trials in family resistance estimates were negligible (ranging from 0 to 0.28). The significant high correlation coefficient was determined between the resistance index and TPC concentration (â=â0.77, â=â0.0003). This allows us to assume that plant resistance is directly linked on TPC synthesis. The results indicate that the chosen methods of chemical resistance for identification of root rot-resistant genotypes are applicable for the selection of Scots pine half-sib families in the field trials with higher resistance to pathogens.Pinus sylvestrisHeterobasidion annosumH. annosumvice versarp

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    Silva Fennica
    Article . 2020
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      Silva Fennica
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Kodors, S.; Lacis, G.; Sokolova, O.; Zhukovs, V.; +2 Authors

    Received: January 11th, 2021 ; Accepted: April 10th, 2021 ; Published: April 22nd, 2021 ; Correspondence: sergejs.kodors@rta.lv The goal of smart and precise horticulture is to increase yield and product quality by simultaneous reduction of pesticide application, thereby promoting the improvement of food security. The scope of this research is apple scab detection in the early stage of development using mobile phones and artificial intelligence based on convolutional neural network (CNN) applications. The research considers data acquisition and CNN training. Two datasets were collected - with images of scab infected fruits and leaves of an apple tree. However, data acquisition is a time-consuming process and scab appearance has a probability factor. Therefore, transfer learning is an appropriate training methodology. The goal of this research was to select the most suitable dataset for transfer learning for the apple scab detection domain and to evaluate the transfer learning impact comparing it with learning from scratch. The statistical analysis confirmed the positive effect of transfer learning on CNN performance with significance level 0.05.

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    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.21...
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Dundure, Evija; Sloka, Biruta;

    Due to the implementation of new technologies and orientation on digital solutions the communication and sales channels have changed dramatically. Information and client service on-line availability presents strong advantages for business, state agencies as well as customers. However, lack of personal interaction during the communication and sales process can make it difficult for people to understand and even frustrate their desire for a product or service. The purpose of the research is to analyse the digitalization impact on voluntary savings for retirement in Latvia and make comparisons with other countries. The voluntary pension schemes are the part of pension system and its third pillar created to strengthen and foster sustainability and adequacy of people income level after retirement. Main stakeholders in voluntary savings for retirement are pension funds as well as government agencies carrying out the national pension system policy. Among other motivation factors the people knowledge level about the necessity to participate in third pension level causes their willingness to create voluntary savings. Service providers chosen marketing and governments realized legislation policy impact the level of people engagement in private pensions and make a basis for people retirement period living standards. Research methods used are analysis of scientific publications and previous conducted research, analysis of statistical data and sales and communication channels in Latvia. The results of analyses show the challenges that service providers are facing and steps that should be taken to promote the voluntary savings in a digital era. The research was supported by the NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME “LATVIAN HERITAGE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE STATE” project “CHALLENGES FOR THE LATVIAN STATE AND SOCIETY AND THE SOLUTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT" (INTERFRAME-LV, Project No.VPP-IZM-2018/1-0005)

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    Authors: Ruņgis, Dainis; Luguza, Solveiga; Baders, Endijs; Šķipars, Vilnis; +1 Authors

    Funding Information: Funding: Endijs Baders acknowledges the project “Support for the Implementation of Post-Doctoral Research, agreement No.1.1.1.2/16/I/001” funded by the European Regional Development Fund, contract No. 1.1.1.2/VIAA/1/16/120. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 by the authors. Forest ecosystems in Europe are expected to experience changes in temperature and water regimes associated with increased risks of extreme environmental events and disasters. Genetic diversity and relatedness has been linked to resilience of forest stands and landscapes. Genetic diversity indicators were compared between a Norway spruce population naturally regenerated after extensive windthrow and Norway spruce progeny populations derived from two seed orchards. In addition, genetic diversity in an undisturbed stand in a long established national park and a spruce genetic resource stand were analyzed. Populations were genotyped at 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Average genetic diversity indicators were similar across populations. However, the total number of alleles, average number of alleles over all loci, effective number of alleles, average gene diversity, and average allelic richness were highest in the naturally regenerated population and lowest in one of the seed orchard progeny populations. The genetic diversity in progeny from seed orchards used for stand renewal is comparable to the genetic diversity in naturally regenerated stands. However, fluctuations in seed production between years can have a large impact on genetic diversity in seed orchard progeny. The use of improved Norway spruce germplasm deployed via clonal seed orchards for forest renewal can maintain similar levels of genetic diversity compared to naturally regenerated stands, while also increasing production and timber quality. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Aubin, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Alaux, Michael; Ba, Mouhamadou; +28 Authors

    Agronomy/agriculture and biodiversity (ag & biodiv) communities face several major societal, economic, and environmental challenges that data science approaches will help address. To achieve their goals, researchers of these communities must be able to rapidly discover, aggregate, integrate, and analyse different types of data and information sources. Semantic technologies, combined to open, FAIR data and services, is one of the answers to fully knowledge-driven, and transparent science and innovation. The D2KAB project (www.d2kab.org) aims to create a framework to turn agronomy and biodiversity data into knowledge – semantically described, interoperable, actionable, open – and investigate the scientific methods and tools to exploit this knowledge for applications in agriculture and biodiversity sciences. This project, funded by French ANR (2019-2023), will provide the means –ontologies and linked open data– for ag & biodiv to embrace semantic Web technologies in order to produce and exploit FAIR data and services. To do so, D2KAB will develop new original methods and algorithms in the following areas: data integration, text mining, semantic annotation, ontology alignment and linked data exploitation and visualization. D2KAB project brings together a unique multidisciplinary consortium of 12 partners to achieve this objective: 2 informatics research units (LIRMM, I3S); 6 INRA/IRSTEA/IRD research units at the interface of computer science and ag & biodiv (URGI, MaIAGE, IATE, DIST, TSCF, DIADE) specialized in agronomy or agriculture; 2 labs in biodiversity and ecosystem research (CEFE, URFM); 1 association of agriculture stakeholders (ACTA); and 1 partnership with Stanford BMIR department. Three main goals drive D2KAB’s roadmap: To develop state-of-the-art methods and technologies for ontology lifecycle and alignment. To build the agronomy, agriculture and biodiversity Linked Open Data cloud. To enable new semantically driven agronomy and biodiversity science. The work is starting from the recommendations of several RDA WG and IG already published or in progress (e.g. Agrisemantic WG, Vocabulary Services IG, Wheat and Rice Data Interoperability WGs, Agricultural Data IG, SHARC IG). Some of the key technological building blocks of D2KAB are AgroPortal, a reference repository for ontologies and vocabularies in agronomy; AgroLD, a semantic Web knowledge base that integrates agronomic data from public databases including GO associations, Gramene, UniprotKB, and OryGenesDB ; Corese, a semantic Web factory that implements the W3C standards RDF, RDFS, OWL-RL and SPARQL, and LDScript, a Linked Data Script Language, and STTL, the SPARQL Template Transformation Language for RDF; and Alvis, a text mining for semantic normalisation of free text by ontologies. D2KAB will allow the valorization of ag & biodiv data into real world applications leading to economic impact, smart agriculture and ecological preservation. Five driving scenarios are planned: development of an ontology-based expert system to select food packaging solutions; creation of an augmented semantic reader for Plant Health Bulletins; advanced integration of textual and experimental data on wheat phenotypes; development of new ontologies on plant root traits and extension of the Thesaurus Of Plant Characteristics; integration of plant functional biogeography data related to the Mediterranean Basin. Each of the project scenarios will have a significant impact and produce concrete outcomes for ag & biodiv scientific communities and socio-economic stakeholders in agriculture.

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    Authors: Kozlova, Lasma; Lakiša, Svetlana;

    Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Lasma Kozlova et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2016. The hypothesis of the study was that psychosocial risk factors are more common in industries involving intellectual work, such as education and public administration (Group 1), rather than in industries like construction, agriculture, and forestry where physical work is more common (Group 2). This hypothesis was confirmed and the important findings were that the most common psychosocial risk factors in Group 1 were staff conflicts, conflicts with managers and clients, also lack of time and having to communicate with clients during the working day. Violence, especially physical and psychological violence was a common risk factor in Group 1; mostly the client caused the violence. In Group 2 the most common psychosocial risk factors were overtime work, conflicts with managers, lack of time and having to communicate with clients during the working day. Overtime work was the most common risk factor in construction, agriculture, and forestry industries. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Charvát, Karel; Berzins, Raitis; Bergheim, Runar; Zadražil, František; +6 Authors

    Precision agriculture, a branch of smart farming, holds great promise for modernization of European agriculture both in terms of environmental sustainability and economic outlook. The vast data archives made available through Copernicus and related infrastructures, combined with a low entry threshold into the domain of AI-technologies has made it possible, if not outright easy, to make meaningful predictions that divides individual agricultural fields into zones where variable rates of fertilizer, irrigation and/or pesticide are required for optimal soil productivity and minimized environmental impact. However, present solutions that control variable rate application hardware such as irrigation, fertilizer application etc. are ‘black box technologies’ to farmers, making predictions that may well be good but that necessarily are not trusted. This limits the uptake of precision agriculture technology and thus also the realization of its promised benefits. The Map Whiteboard concept at the centre of this submission is intended to plug into the “traditional” workflow of variable rate applications and enables agricultural advisors/extension services and farmers to interact, adjust and share an understanding of the estimations made by the ‘black box’, thus increasing the trust in and improving the quality of the prediction models. The vision of the Map Whiteboard innovation was conceived out of a sequence of large-scale collaborative writing efforts using Google Docs. As opposed to traditional offline word processing tools, Google Docs allows multiple people to edit the same document]—at the same time—allowing all connected clients to see changes made to the document in real-time by synchronising all changes between all connected clients via the server. The ability to work on a shared body of text, avoiding the necessity to integrate fragments from multiple source documents and with multiple styles removed many obstacles associated with traditional document editing. The Map Whiteboard technology seeks to do the same for the traditional use of GIS tools. The overall vision for the technology is that a Map Whiteboard will be to GIS what Google Docs is to word processing. We are now introducing this technology as a tool for collaborative work farmers and advisory services offering them analysis of EO data.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Šņepste, Ilze; Krivmane, Baiba; Šķipars, Vilnis; Zaluma, Astra; +1 Authors

    Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by the Latvian Council of Science, grant number 284/2012, Investigation of molecular defense mechanisms in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The induction of defense responses in Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was investigated in three experiments. Two different MeJA application methods were tested, and induction of defense responses was assayed by seedling inoculation with Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. and Lophodermium seditiosum Minter, Staley and Millar. In the first experiment, five-year-old P. sylvestris ramets of one clone were directly treated with MeJA, followed by inoculation with H. annosum. In the second experiment, open-pollinated Scots pine seedlings were treated with MeJA by direct spraying and vaporization, and inoculation with H. annosum was done using a slightly modified protocol. In the third experiment, open-pollinated Scots pine seedlings were treated with MeJA by vaporization and inoculated with L. seditiosum. Direct application of MeJA induced seedling mortality, and in some cases, decreased resistance to inoculation with H. annosum. Application of MeJA by vaporization was less stressful for seedlings, and resulted in increased resistance to both H. annosum and L. seditiosum. In addition, an unforeseen Neodiprion sertifer (Geof-froy) and Hylobius abietis L. infestation provided anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of MeJA in inducing resistance to insect pests as well. Further studies are required on the induction of resistance to additional diseases and pests. Induced resistance could be used as a possible protective mecha-nism for Scots pine seedlings prior to planting during reforestation of stands to increase vitality and survival. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Fargnoli, Mario; Lombardi, Mara; Puri, Daniele; Casorri, Laura; +3 Authors

    The attention paid to the use of pesticides has increased notably in recent years as demonstrated by the issue of laws and regulations requiring their safe and environmentally-conscious use (e.g. Directive 2009/128/EC and Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008). Despite the benefits that can be achieved by pursuing the targets of stricter legislative framework, the difficulties for farmers in complying with it are remarkable, especially for small-sized companies. In fact, in contrast to other occupational health and safety (OHS) contexts, in the case of pesticides even a preliminary analysis on the relationship between pesticide use and the consequent exposure risks for the workers is a complex task. In order to reduce the above-mentioned gap, the present study is focused on the development of an easy-to-use tool for carrying out occupational risk assessment of agricultural activities related to the use of pesticides. The procedure was developed by starting from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) approach and its improvements, and continuing to the thorough development of a tool for preliminary risk assessment, providing a simplified model for its practical application by farmers. A case study concerning olive cultivation was used for its first verification. The results achieved should be considered as an initial step for the promotion of safer practices when using pesticides, providing a consistent base for their further validation.

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    Authors: Duquesne, Véronique; Delcont, Aurélie; Cougoule, Nicolas; Dán, Ádám; +20 Authors

    To evaluate the performance of the molecular methods used by national reference laboratories (NRLs) for the identification of Nosema species in bee samples, an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) was organised in 2015. A total of 20 EU NRLs and 1 non-European NRL participated in this ILC. The specificity of the methods was tested on various Nosema species: Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae and Nosema bombi. The test panel of samples provided to the laboratories contained 17 suspensions of crushed abdomens from naturally and artificially infected honeybees and bumblebees. In addition, data on the routine methods used by the participating laboratories were collected in an online survey, covering all the steps involved in DNA extraction and PCR. Our analysis showed that the 21 NRLs use 21 different protocols, each presenting variations from the DNA extraction step to the PCR step. The results of this ILC indicate that 48% of the participating laboratories returned the expected results. Considering the 21 different methods used, 57% of participating laboratories provided satisfactory results with regard to sensitivity, and 72% with regard to specificity. The results of this ILC clearly highlight the need for improved harmonisation of molecular Nosema identification methods. http://euroreference.mag.anses.fr/en

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2017
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2017
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      ZENODO
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: Adas Marčiulynas; Vaida Sirgedaitė-Šėžienė; Povilas Žemaitis; Āris Jansons; +1 Authors

    Five Scots pine ( L.) progeny field trials, each established in different Lithuanian regions of provenance in 1983, were studied. Each progeny field trial consists of 140 half-sib families from seven populations (20 families from each population). The evaluation was carried out in 2012 and 2018 to assess the families resistance to (Fr.) Bref. An index of resistance in the infected plots was calculated. To verify the accuracy of the method, total phenolic compounds (TPC) was chosen as key parameter to compare with the plant resistance index. During the six years between the two assessments, the percentage of living Scots pine trees in the progeny field trials decreased up to 20 percentage points (range: 4 p.p. to 20 p.p.). In 2018 the area of damaged plots (in percentage from total field trial area) varied from 17 to 27%. Tree mortality in the trial correlates with site soil fertility â more fertile soils were distinguished by higher tree percentage loss and . Using analysis from combined data of all progeny trials, the family variance component reached 13.3â±â2.2% and family heritability was 0.81. Family heritability estimates for root rot resistance show possibilities of high breeding effectiveness. The correlations between the trials in family resistance estimates were negligible (ranging from 0 to 0.28). The significant high correlation coefficient was determined between the resistance index and TPC concentration (â=â0.77, â=â0.0003). This allows us to assume that plant resistance is directly linked on TPC synthesis. The results indicate that the chosen methods of chemical resistance for identification of root rot-resistant genotypes are applicable for the selection of Scots pine half-sib families in the field trials with higher resistance to pathogens.Pinus sylvestrisHeterobasidion annosumH. annosumvice versarp

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    Silva Fennica
    Article . 2020
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      Silva Fennica
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Kodors, S.; Lacis, G.; Sokolova, O.; Zhukovs, V.; +2 Authors

    Received: January 11th, 2021 ; Accepted: April 10th, 2021 ; Published: April 22nd, 2021 ; Correspondence: sergejs.kodors@rta.lv The goal of smart and precise horticulture is to increase yield and product quality by simultaneous reduction of pesticide application, thereby promoting the improvement of food security. The scope of this research is apple scab detection in the early stage of development using mobile phones and artificial intelligence based on convolutional neural network (CNN) applications. The research considers data acquisition and CNN training. Two datasets were collected - with images of scab infected fruits and leaves of an apple tree. However, data acquisition is a time-consuming process and scab appearance has a probability factor. Therefore, transfer learning is an appropriate training methodology. The goal of this research was to select the most suitable dataset for transfer learning for the apple scab detection domain and to evaluate the transfer learning impact comparing it with learning from scratch. The statistical analysis confirmed the positive effect of transfer learning on CNN performance with significance level 0.05.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.21...
    Article . 2021
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Dundure, Evija; Sloka, Biruta;

    Due to the implementation of new technologies and orientation on digital solutions the communication and sales channels have changed dramatically. Information and client service on-line availability presents strong advantages for business, state agencies as well as customers. However, lack of personal interaction during the communication and sales process can make it difficult for people to understand and even frustrate their desire for a product or service. The purpose of the research is to analyse the digitalization impact on voluntary savings for retirement in Latvia and make comparisons with other countries. The voluntary pension schemes are the part of pension system and its third pillar created to strengthen and foster sustainability and adequacy of people income level after retirement. Main stakeholders in voluntary savings for retirement are pension funds as well as government agencies carrying out the national pension system policy. Among other motivation factors the people knowledge level about the necessity to participate in third pension level causes their willingness to create voluntary savings. Service providers chosen marketing and governments realized legislation policy impact the level of people engagement in private pensions and make a basis for people retirement period living standards. Research methods used are analysis of scientific publications and previous conducted research, analysis of statistical data and sales and communication channels in Latvia. The results of analyses show the challenges that service providers are facing and steps that should be taken to promote the voluntary savings in a digital era. The research was supported by the NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME “LATVIAN HERITAGE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE STATE” project “CHALLENGES FOR THE LATVIAN STATE AND SOCIETY AND THE SOLUTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT" (INTERFRAME-LV, Project No.VPP-IZM-2018/1-0005)

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