Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan histozoic parasite that infects the intestine of several teleost fish species. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), it provokes a chronic disease, entailing anorexia, delayed growth, reduced marketability and mortality. Direct fish‐to‐fish transmission, relevant in aquaculture conditions, has been demonstrated for E. leei via effluent, cohabitation, and oral and anal routes. However, the minimum time of exposure for infection has not been established, nor the possible effect on the fish immune response. Two effluent trials were performed at different temperatures (high: average of 25.6°C; and low: constant at 18°C), different times of exposure to the effluent (1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks) and different population densities. The results showed that 1 week was enough to infect 100% of fish at high temperature and 58.3% at low temperature. High temperature not only increased the prevalence of infection in posterior intestine, but also induced a higher production of specific antibodies, limiting the progression of the infection along the intestine. Longer time of exposure to the parasite and higher fish densities facilitated E. leei infection. These results show that effective diagnosis, lowering animal density and removal of infected fish are key aspects to manage this disease in aquaculture facilities. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Commission, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020, Societal Challenges under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). This publication reflects only the authors' view, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. IE was contracted under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana,” and MCP, under Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. Peer reviewed
By connecting devices, people, vehicles, and infrastructures everywhere in a city, governments and their partners can improve community well-being and other economic and financial aspects (e.g., cost and energy savings). Nonetheless, smart cities are complex ecosystems that comprise many different stakeholders (network operators, managed service providers, logistic centers, and so on), who must work together to provide the best services and unlock the commercial potential of the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). This is one of the major challenges that faces today's smart city movement, and the emerging “API economy.” Indeed, while new smart connected objects hit the market every day, they mostly feed “vertical silos” (e.g., vertical apps, siloed apps, and so on) that are closed to the rest of the IoT, thus hampering developers to produce new added value across multiple platforms and/or application domains. Within this context, the contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) present the strategic vision and ambition of the EU to overcome this critical vertical silos' issue and (2) introduce the first building blocks underlying an open IoT ecosystem developed as part of an EU (Horizon 2020) Project and a joint project initiative (IoT-EPI). The practicability of this ecosystem, along with a performance analysis, is carried out considering a proof-of-concept for enhanced sporting event management in the context of the forthcoming FIFA World Cup 2022 in Qatar.
We investigated how the legacy of warming and summer drought affected microbial communities in five different replicated long-term (>10 years) field experiments across Europe (EU-FP7 INCREASE infrastructure). To focus explicitly on legacy effects (i.e., indirect rather than direct effects of the environmental factors), we measured microbial variables under the same moisture and temperature in a brief screening, and following a pre-incubation at stable conditions. Specifically, we investigated the size and composition of the soil microbial community (PLFA) alongside measurements of bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate in ergosterol incorporation) growth rates, previously shown to be highly responsive to changes in environmental factors, and microbial respiration. We found no legacy effects on the microbial community size, composition, growth rates, or basal respiration rates at the effect sizes used in our experimental setup (0.6 °C, about 30% precipitation reduction). Our findings support previous reports from single short-term ecosystem studies thereby providing a clear evidence base to allow long-term, broad-scale generalizations to be made. The implication of our study is that warming and summer drought will not result in legacy effects on the microbial community and their processes within the effect sizes here studied. While legacy effects on microbial processes during perturbation cycles, such as drying-rewetting, and on tolerance to drought and warming remain to be studied, our results suggest that any effects on overall ecosystem processes will be rather limited. Thus, the legacies of warming and drought should not be prioritized factors to consider when modeling contemporary rates of biogeochemical processes in soil.
Valentin Bellassen; Marion Drut; Federico Antonioli; Ružica Brečić; Michele Donati; Hugo Ferrer-Pérez; Lisa Gauvrit; Viet Hoang; Kamilla Knutsen Steinnes; Apichaya Lilavanichakul; +11 more
Valentin Bellassen; Marion Drut; Federico Antonioli; Ružica Brečić; Michele Donati; Hugo Ferrer-Pérez; Lisa Gauvrit; Viet Hoang; Kamilla Knutsen Steinnes; Apichaya Lilavanichakul; Edward Majewski; Agata Malak-Rawlikowska; Konstadinos Mattas; An Nguyen; Ioannis Papadopoulos; Jack Peerlings; Bojan Ristic; Marina Tomić Maksan; Áron Török; Gunnar Vittersø; Abdoul Diallo;
Abstract The carbon and land footprint of 26 certified food products – geographical indications and organic products and their conventional references are assessed. This assessment goes beyond existing literature by (1) designing a calculation method fit for the comparison between certified food and conventional production, (2) using the same calculation method and parameters for 52 products – 26 Food Quality Schemes and their reference products – to allow for a meaningful comparison, (3) transparently documenting this calculation method and opening access to the detailed results and the underlying data, and (4) providing the first assessment of the carbon and land footprint of geographical indications. The method used is Life Cycle Assessment, largely relying on the Cool Farm Tool for the impact assessment. The most common indicator of climate impact, the carbon footprint expressed per ton of product, is not significantly different between certified foods and their reference products. The only exception to this pattern are vegetal organic products, whose carbon footprint is 16% lower. This is because the decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from the absence of mineral fertilizers is never fully offset by the associated lower yield. The climate impact of certified food per hectare is however 26% than their reference and their land footprint is logically 24% higher. Technical specifications directly or indirectly inducing a lower use of mineral fertilizers are a key driver of this pattern. So is yield, which depends both on terroir and farming practices. Overall, this assessment reinforces the quality policy of the European Union: promoting certified food is not inconsistent with mitigating climate change.
The current COVID-19 global pandemic has amplified the pressure on the agriculture sector, inciting the need for sustainable agriculture more than ever. Thus, in this review, a sustainable perspective of the use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) or drone technology in the agriculture sector is discussed. Similarly, the types of cameras (multispectral, thermal, and visible), sensors, software, and platforms frequently deployed for ensuring precision agriculture for crop monitoring, disease detection, or even yield estimation are briefly discoursed. In this regard, vegetation indices (VIs) embrace an imperative prominence as they provide vital information for crop monitoring and decision-making, thus a summary of most commonly used VIs is also furnished and serves as a guide while planning to collect specific crop data. Furthermore, the establishment of significant applications of RPAs in livestock, forestry, crop monitoring, disease surveillance, irrigation, soil analysis, fertilization, crop harvest, weed management, mechanical pollination, crop insurance and tree plantation are cited in the light of currently available literature in this domain. RPA technology efficiency, cost and limitations are also considered based on the previous studies that may help to devise policies, technology adoption, investment, and research activities in this sphere.
Boreal lake sediments are carbon sources by producing CO2. CO2 flux from sediments is partly controlled by turbulence in the water column, which is not given the same attention as CO2 production rates in current estimates of CO2 fluxes from sediments. We quantified the in-situ CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface in a small (0.07 km2) lake in Sweden by measuring the in-situ O2 flux with the Eddy Correlation (EC) method and using the apparent respiratory quotient (CO2 production : O2 consumption) derived from sediment incubations. We demonstrate that median CO2 flux estimated by EC was ~70% smaller than estimated by sediment incubations with artificial water mixing (1.0 × 10−2 and 3.6 × 10−2 µmol C m−2 s−1, respectively). Additionally we show that inducing artificial mixing of supernatant water in the incubation experiment has a positive effect on observed fluxes, enhancing CO2 flux by ~30% compared to not mixing supernatant water. We suggest that the difference between methods is due to the strong artificial water mixing in sediment incubations compared to the turbulent mixing in this small lake. Additionally, low O2 supply to sediment aerobic heterotrophic microbes during extended periods of low water currents can inhibit respiration and thus CO2 production. These findings suggest that the sediment contribution to total lake CO2 emission might currently be overestimated for small boreal lakes. Care should be taken when upscaling sediment-CO2 flux derived from incubation experiments to entire basins of small lakes, as incubation experiments are unlikely to accurately mimic in-situ bottom water currents and gas exchange.
The standard deviation of the Horizontal Wind Speed as a proxy of wind turbulence is used to compare the apparent wind turbulence measured by an off-shore floating Doppler lidar to the one measured by a fixed lidar on a metmast. We use statistical analysis based on clustering the horizontal wind speed measured by the floating lidar as well as buoy angular amplitude and period under the approximation of harmonic motion. Three scenarios with different wave and wind conditions are discussed from the IJmuiden's test campaign (North Sea.). This work was supported via Spanish Government–European Regional Development Funds project PGC2018-094132-B-I00 and EU H2020 ACTRIS-2 (GA 654109). The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), KIC InnoEnergy project NEPTUNE (Offshore Metocean Data Measuring Equipment and Wind, Wave and Current Analysis and Forecasting Software, call FP7) supported measurements campaigns. CommSensLab is a María-de-Maeztu Unit of Excellence funded by the Agencia Estatal de Investigacion (Spanish National Science Foundation). Peer Reviewed
You have been invited to join Assessing the socio-economic impact of digitalisation in rural areas Research Community Dashboard as a manager. Fill in the verification code, sent to your email, to accept the invitation request.
We are unable to process the request because the link is invalid, or it has expired.